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The Emigrant aid journal of Minnesota. [volume] (Nininger City, Minn. Terr. [i.e. Minn.]) 1856-1858, August 15, 1857, Image 1

Image and text provided by Minnesota Historical Society; Saint Paul, MN

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84024825/1857-08-15/ed-1/seq-1/

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dljp (Emigrant M Journal,
4.W.M.4f D O 1 A L D ,
CITY OF M.M\r;i lt. Dakota Co.. IM. T.
Eight lines, one time, SI 00
“ “ three times, 200
J®f*Speeial contracts will he made with those desiring to
advertise by the year
Til E lft DAT\TED.
MRS. b. n. SUM iURNEV.
The English steamship E irk *u la-ad, bound to Africa,
with a regiment of troops on board, struck on a hidden
reef at noonday, and went down in half an hour. Sum
moned to the upper deck by the roll of the drum they
saw the leafs filled with the passengers, women, and
children, under the charge of sailors, but that none re
mained ior them. So perfect was their discipline, and
i heir heroic willingness that the helpless should he saved,
ihat without a murmur, and calmly us they would
raced an enemy in the field, they met the last foe—
standing shoulder to shoulder and firing one farewell
volley as they sunk into their ocean grave.
The good ship toward a tropic shore
Pursued her prosperous course,
Rut hidden rocks in ambush lie,
She strikes with fatal force—
She strikes! She groans ! With wounded heart
U’er the dark flood she reels.
And ruin, like the bolt of heaven,
11 1 r doom foruver seals.
“ Down with the boats !” The master’s voice
Assumes resistless power,
For manhood hath a godlike might
To rule in peril’s hour—
They meet the wave, they take their freight
W omen and helpless child—
With hard sailors at the helm
They dare the breakers wild.
The deep drum rolls, and on the dec k
Come forth a martial baud,
Who hoped their country’s cause* to serve
Upon a foreign strand ;
They hear the loud reveille beat,
But uot for battle fray,
And come the last dread foe to meet
In resolute arrav.
No boats for them ! The raging sea
The swimmer’s power defies,
Shoulder to shoulder, on the wreck,
In iiinrshaH’d ranks they rise.
Xo boat s for them ! A silent prayer
Is iu their lifted eye,
They ne’er had blanch’d when duty call’d
And now it calls to die.
Firm pbakuix of auswering men,
Your work on earth is o’er,
The trumpet and the clarion-cry
Shall thrill your breasts no more :
Ye thought Old England's flag to bear
In triumph o’er her foes,
But the banner of the crested deep
>1 ust wrap your last repose.
Oh, gallant band ’ from far-off hornet
l hear a wailing strain,
Bother and wife and child await
Your comiug—but in vain :
One brief adieu! then turn to Him
Who trod the raging sea,
Whose power can save the parting soul
And give it victory.
A flash amid the summer air,
An echo on the wave,
And loud that booming valley spoke
The farewell of the brave,
While from the ready, trusting soul—
As husk from ripen’d sheaf-
Pass’d off the dreams and care's of earth,
Pass’d off the love and grief.
Down, down—each moment lower still,
Hand knit in hand, they bore—
Their black plumes mid the tossing foam
Loom'd up—and all was o’er ;
All o’er ! save that one mountain surge
Like tyrant cleft the tide,
Uplifting with a thunder-voice
Its boast of wrath and pride;
While deeper sigh’d the solemn sea.
As iiVr the reef she bleaks,
1 teploring with a grief profound
The manv wrecks she makes—
And though o’er many an argosy
Her whelming billows swept,
Naught nobler than those J’ritish hearts
In la r i oid bosom slept
S.VNtnnalic Emigration.
Home time ago we spoke in’referenco to the advantage
of systematized emigration, and advocated it as a public
work, by which the West would be the gainer. There
have bean efforts made, heretofore, to carry out various
plans, by which emigration would be promoted from the
old country ; there have also been colonies transplanted
from the old to the new world, where agents have gone
out and prepared everything for their direct transporta
tion. Sometimes these communities have been religions,
sometimes political, and in two or three instances a pure
ly social experiment. So far as we have ever learned,
all, with the exception of the latter, have reaped great
benefit from having combined arrangements. But the
great body of emigration lias never, until lately, received
any attention, to lessen their difficulties and expenses,
The following account of the efforts of individual phi-
lanthropy shows how much can he done for that class,
and how easily it may he extended and improved if once
made a matter of public consideration. It is from the
X. Y.- Tribune :
Mr. Verc Foster, an English gentleman who has de
voted his time and money to the establishment and pro
motion of Systematic Emigration from the Old World to
the New, came out some weeks since in advance of a
party of 14(1 picked emigrants, who had been shipped
from Liverpool under his direction, in the ‘City of Mo
bile/ which sailed on the 26th of May, and arrived on
the Ist of July. Some of these emigrants were prompt
ly forwarded to their friends in different sections ; a num
ber, contrary to Mr. Foster’s advice, stopped in this city
while the remainder, 94 in all, started directly from the
Castle Garden depot for the West, under Mr. Foster’s
persoual oversight. The experiment was more than sa
tisfactory. The Railroads passed the party in first class
cars, though they paid but emigrant fare; they were met
at Syracuse, at Detroit and at Chicago, by eminent and
trusty persons interested in their welfare—the Catholic
priests in each locality having made provision in advance
for those of their communion, and standing ready to take
them l>v the hand on their arrival ; and those who con
tinued so far reached their ultimate destination—Janes
ville, Wis., 1,060 miles distant—in 44i hours from
this city, every cue being in the enjoyniont of good
health. Each was hired at fair wages, without an hour’s
delay, and was welcomed to the house of some country
man' to rest and refresh for a few days prior to going to
work. Mr. Foster, having seen each of his emigrants
* thus satisfactorily provided for, returned to this city, aud
loft for Europe in the Arabia on Wednesday. He ex
pects to come out. with (or in advance of) another party
of emigrants in September.
The very great superiority of Systematic Emigration
over the No-System hitherto prevailing is manifest.—
The entire expense of removing those people from their
old homes in the interior of Ireland to Wisconsin falls
short of $25 each ; and they were hardly six weeks
from work to work. The average expense of a strag
vtt»i”rtnit fi»»iu Irrlatitl t»» Wist!HII? , !ll JS HOT IBPS
than 850, and a whole season is consumed in the pro
cess The moral safeguards of Mr. Foster’s system are
eveu more valuable than its pecuniary advantages. The
usual temptations to intemperance, lowdness aud vagran
cy and the expnsuie to imposition, fraud and robbery, are
completely precluded by this plan. We trust it may
' be widely ext* ndcu and perpetuated.
We do not coincide with the views commonly advan
ced upon the subject of western migration; in many
respects our opinions are antagonistic to those which the
journals of the seabord States have held. Recently, it
is true, a change has commenced in various leading pa
pers- —an unusually fruitful harvest, the continued influx
of orold and the fact that the money market is easier and
a financial crisis less probable each day, have encouraged
desponding hearts and stolen the thunder of interested
grumblers. But- a month ago, from the Washington
I'uion down to the duodecimo sheets, a chorus of cave
co item, rang forth, beseeching in piteous accents, eastern
capitalists and eastern men not to hazard their future
and their capital in a fool-lutrdy speculation.
In everv key the song of warning has been sung to
those adventurous spirits who seemed disposed to do that
which their grand-mothers declared foolish and wicked—
because novel.
In every variety of accent, the young spirits of the
ai>e, who have a true conception of the meaning of the
word progress, have been informedtbattbc Weltis im
bued with a mania of speculation which must be disas
trous as the South ISea bubble or the fatal inflation of
Every Bank, feeling that the blood was being drained
from its veins by each successive remittance to the for
West, has raised the cry of horror, as the precious fluid
jeft their bloated carcasses to invigorate the daring youth
of western enterprise. The dread of diminished profits
and jealousy of't hose who are accumulating property
more rapidly than they, have caused the institutions of
the East to feel this patriotic agony and east a bilious
tinge upon all the views enunciated through a sympathi
sing press. Because they witnessed many revulsions—
they feel authorized to declare, without resort to argu
ment, that this period of prosperity must be followed
bv such a collapse as those which succeeded the expan
sions of former years. As the inconsiderate increase of
Bank paper, which was not founded upon a proper pro
portion of true metalie money, produced an enhance
ment of prices which was followed by its natural eonse
tiuence, a destructive depreciation—they have decided
with true senile reasoning, that the present period of
unexampled prosperity nmst be followed with similar
crushing misfortunes.
This outcry Ims been productive of good. It has ar
rested the community when fast becoming audacious
in its conceptions and fool hardy in enterprise. Specu
lation checked, —we have had him to reflect and compare.
We have examined our accounts and know exactly how
we stand. We have posted the books, struck the bal
ance between the Debit and Credit and found that the
country was never so wealthy and trade never conduct
ed upon so sound a ba.-is.
This panic, therefore, has continued sufficiently long.
We have had sufficient time to understand the condi
tion of the country, whether in the East or in the West.
It is now clear to every candid mind that causes deeper
and more potent than that wielded by monied institu
tions, have produced and will support this unprecedented
state of things.
For six years the world has annually received more
than one hundred millious of the precious metals. This
annual yield forms in itself a large proportion of the
original aggregate. We have undoubtedly received
since 1850 one-third or one-balf as much gold as the
world employed previous to that year. The effect of
this increase must have been to cheapen money and in
crease the value of property.
Money is a symbol; and as the symbol multiplies,
that for which it stands must be multiplied in a similar
ratio, aud thus we account for a rise in the value of pro
perty which is universal in this country and throughout
the civilized world. So long as the gold fields of Aus
tralia, California and the Ural Mountains continue to
pour their golden trqpsurcs into the lap of commerce,
money nmst diminish and property mast advance in
representative value.
This is au universal law; aud we propose to discuss,
in a few brief words, its necessary effect, upon the un
settled portions of our Territory.
From the earliest days of which history takes note,
men have moved westward from the supposed cradle of
the human race in Central Asia, building cities aud
| Life Illustrated. |
Western Migration.
populating deserts in obedience to some inexplicable
In addition to this mysterious impulse, men turn, in
our own country, from the densely populated states of
the East in obedience to interests which are explicable
and apparent.
Boundless fields are open to them ; virgin soils invite;
a country, beautiful as any upon which the sun shines,
displays its uncorrupted beauties and limitless resources
to all who can appreciate.
Hither flock the men of small means but daring souls,
who have determined to carve for themselves an honor
able fortune. A benign government offers to them a
property at much less than its value, when we consider
the uatural enhancement consequent upon the quadru
pling of the quantity of gold. Although ignorant of
the cause, they all feel and know that that which five
years ago cost one dollar and twenty-five cents, is now
worth three dollars an acre.
This single consideration enables us to understand
much of the rapid rise in the value of western proper
ty. It starts from below its value and must make a
rapid stride toward its real value. These same eonsi
rations also affect the prices of city property.
Men, who forget the inc rease of gold and the aston
ishing influx of population into our western States, can
not comprehend the amazing enhancement in value of
western property. They judge all things by the standard
of the past, and measure all things by the standard of
eastern progress. No doubt there is much unjustifiable
speculation in the West, and no doubt these vaticina
i tions are correct in reference to many town sites of spe
culators; yet the bursting of many such air bubbles
proves nothing as to those seats of trade which geogra
phical position and natural causes point out as future
centres of commerce.
We will instance St. Paul. It is the head of navi
gation on the Mississippi and thus connected with rivers
which afford in the aggregate twenty thousand miles of
navigable water. To the north of this navigation there
! lie six hundred miles of arable land, which, even to the
; Selkirk settlement, in tlie Tti-jf-jsili nnaagaainna.
I Indian corn To the westward extends a fertile country
| which for more than a thousand miles is capable bf sup
porting u dense population.
I Wisconsin and Minnesota contain the great body of
' timber, and almost the only timber in the West, and so
to say, are the timber granary of the Mississippi States;
all this must redound to the advantage of St. Paul and
assist in its growth. All produce going into this im
mense territory from the South, or taken away from
the North or West for a southern market must pass
through St. Paul, the head of navigation. The early
period at which Lake Pepin is frozen over and the late
period at which the ice is broken may divert a large
! trade in certain seasons to some point below the Lake,
! possibly Teepeotab, which is opposite a formidable bar
in the river. However this may be, the tendency of
our argument is simply to show that in this immediate
! neighborhood a great city must arise.
Water communication is notoriously cheaper than
land. This fact is the secret of the unexampled growth
of a Cincinnati, a Louisville, a St. Louis and a Chicago,
i Hitherto Chicago has been tha westernmost point from
which a great trade could depart and reach. The
sluggish Chicago river and the navigation ot the lakes,
assisted by a necessary consequence or llailways, have
been the cause that this city has afforded an unexampled ,
career of growth and prosperity. Hence has been dis
tributed the merchandise of the East; it has been a cen
ter from which eastern goods,coming over the inland seas,
have radiated to the varions points already settled in
i tne giaut West. We repeat, Chicago has been the ul
j timato limit to which eastern and European trade could
| reach by water communication. From these causes its
i rapid rise.
But since the completion of the canal around the I
Sault Ste. Marie, a navigation is extended many hun
dreds of miles farther into the heart of the American
l continent, and the westernmost extremity of Lake Su
j perior is nearly the same distance from Erie, Oswego,
. Montreal, Quebec and the Ocean, as is Chicago. Since
i the completion of the canals and the opening of an un
interrupted navigation to the Ocean, the minds of men
have been turned in a different direetion which we can
; understand by the following item of news :
“Chicago and Liverpool. — A barque of 300 tuns
bur-leu, capable of taking 10,000 bushels of grain, and
intended as the first of a liuu to run from Chicago *o
Liverpool, was launched at Chicago on the 4th. She
was expected to be ready to sail by the 10th iust., and
will take a cargo of pipe-staves, and return with a cargo
of iron and crockery for Western merchants. This
vessel is named the C. .J. Kershaw and is built for a
fast sailer. —Sit
The necessities of inter-European and American trade
have called up a direct communication between the cen
tre of our continent and the great marts of European
commerce ; Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Bal
timore have developed by reason of their position as
intermediaries between the old world and the far-west
of the new
It is the trade of the West that lias made them what
they are. Their net-works of Railroads and their efforts
to absorb western trade have been directed in accordance
with these ideas. They have levied a tax upon the
agricultural products and the merchandise which has
passed through these toll houses of commerce. The
taxes which they have levied and the commissions
they have abstracted have been the basis of their
metropolitan growth.
But as water seeks its level, trade has now found
its natural channel, and Chicago is the first to feel
this result of the unalterable laws of commerce. To
avoid the onerous exactions of New York tranship
ments and the commissions of New York merchants
and because of the ruinous cost, of transportation by
land, ships must ply between the centre of the conti
nent and Kuropc . But Chicago is not the western
most limit of water-navigation and can be the dis
tributing point of only a small area. Goods intended
for cistricts west of this, will seek the heart of the
western hemisphere and avail themselves, to the ut
most limit, of this easy mode of transportation. The
sails which swelled to the breeze which blew over Al
bion’s shores or the luxuriant plains of Italy must
carry undi a turbed cargoes to Superior City or Fond
Here then it would seem the great city of the Ame
rican contineut should be located and the great centre
of commercial interchange find its site. But the winds
from the lake are hyperborean; the soil is sterile; the
country is unfruitful; ai d the near back ground is a
marsh. The great heart metropolis cannot be founded
anywhere around the extremity of Lake Superior.
The proper position must be sought inland and upon
the Mississippi. It may be St. Paul, or St. Anthony,
or Stillwater, or Teepeotah. St. Paul, perhaps possesses
more of the necessary qualifications than the others.
It is seated in the centre of a rich agricultural region;
it commands the navigation of many great rivers; it
is in the reach of the only great forests of the western
country; is the centre of numerous Railways and would
seem destined to become a home of commerce, the me
tropolis to which Fond-du-Lac and Superior must be
the Ostim, the port, the warehouse and docks. At Su
perior city will be located the depots which must be sub
sidiary to the commercial London which has its seat
at the head of twenty thousand miles of river naviga
We propose, in a future article, to give our reasons
for believing that the only practicable route, north of
Texas, for a Pacific Railroad, is the so-called Northern
route. We believe it susceptible of proof that this is
the shortest and most natural; less obstructed by snows
and better provided with the necessary building ma
terials ; that in fine it presents the only surmountable
grades. We shall attempt to show that therefore an
early effort must be made to connect the Lakes with
the Pacific Ocean—that merchandise must flow thither
where is less transportation by rail and where broad
waters extend into a heart of a continent in a manner
which presents a channel for the trade of hemispheres.
Our argument will tend to prove that the great distri
buting point of the continent will be near the extremity
of Lake Superior and that here, upon the westernmost
limit of water-navigation, the (exchange will be made
between the products of golden India and the manu
factures of combined Europe.
Education at tbe West.
In responding to a toast at the dinner of the Alumni
of Harvard University, Hon. Edward Everett spoke as
follows on the progress of .education at the West :
I must express -the satisfaction which I have lately had
occasion to feel during my somewhat extended journey
to the west and nortb-west of the country. It was .one
of thajr-jfiateat nleasnr** * <vuuu me sons or llar
varcTe very where I went—beyond the Ohio, beyond the
Mississippi, I could not go where I was nqk Surrounded
by those who came to me as the studentPof Harvard
College (applause); and it is to me one of the most de
lightful considerations that the influence of our benevo
lent Alma Mater is not bounded to the little geographi
cal district in which it is situated, not confined to Mas
sachusetts, but in the remotest parts of our continent
her name is held in veneration, her influence is acknowl
edged, and there too, better yet, her example is closely
Let me tell you that more is doing for education, pop
ular,'academical and professional, in the West than you
are perhaps aware of. In that noble queen city ofthewest
Cincinnati, accompanied by a nephew of President King,
a child himself of Harvard, I visited schools that I must
tell my friend Dr. Shutleff, will compare very well with
those of Boston in which he takes so deep an interest.—
And if Boston intends to maintain that reputation of
taking the lead in school instruction which she has here
tofore enjoyed, she must look carefully and diligently to
the superintendence of her institutions of learning.
It was the same thing in Chicago. I saw beautiful
school houses there—equal to any in Boston. In St.
Louis I saw the noblest arrangements for education, and
I trusted that I should have the gratification of the at
tendance of a worthy gentlemen of St. Louis, Judge
Treat, who has taken a great interest in promoting the
educational interests of St. Louis, and a warm and af
fectionate son of Harvard, and he is only prevented from
being here to-day by a railroad accident, which confines
him to his home at the present time. Nothing else
would have deterred him from coming. But lam happy
to say that another most excellent friend from that re
gion, who has done as much for education as any living
man, east or west, who has been one of the most active
individuals in building up the hopeful institution that is
now rising on the banks of the Mississippi, under the
name of the Washington Institution, in the State of
Missouri, is here with us to day. We cannot boast of
him as an Alumnus of the academical branch of our in
stitution, but he has been a student in one of our pro
fessional schools, and I am sure if you knew as much of
the interest he has felt and taken in the cause of educa
tion in the West as I do, you would say with me, cum
talissis utinum noster esses. I beg to offer as a toast—
The prosperity of the Washington University of Mis
souri, and the health of the Rev. Dr. Elliot.
Health and Climate.
Sir James Clark, of England, has assailed with con
siderable force the doctrine that a change of climate is
beneficial to persons suffering from consumption ; and a
French physician, M. Carriere, has written forcibly
against it. Dr. Burgess, an eminent Scotch physician,
also contends that climate has little or nothing to do
with the cure of consumption, and that if it had, the
curative effects would be produced through the skin and
not the lungs. That a warm climate is not in itself
beneficial, he shows from the fact that the disease is
common to all latitudes. In India and Africa, tropical
climates, it is as frequent as in Europe and North
America. At Malta,right in the heart of the genial Me
diterranean, the army reports of England show that one
third of the deaths among the soldiers are bv consump
tion. At Nice, a favorite resort of English invalids,
especially those afflicted with lung complaints, there are
more native-born persons die of consumption than in
any English town of equal population. In Geneva the
disease is almost equally prevalent. In Florence, pneu
monia is said to be marked by a suffocating character,
and by a rapid progress towards the last stage. Naples,
whose climate is the theme of so much praise by travel
ers, shows in her hospitals a mortality by consumption
equal to one in two and one-third, whereas Paris, whose
climate is so often pronouced villainous, the proportion
is oply oqe in three and one-quarter. In Madeira, no
local disease is more prevalent than consumption.
The Jews. —Our childhood is nursed with tales of
the childhood of the Jewish nation. Peaceful patri
archal families coalescing into a tribe, creeping with
stealthy defiance from the treacherous hospitality of
Egypt, hardened by their desert life, and moulded into
a nation of warriors by the greatest of lawgivers, shat
tering the giant Anakim by the force of faith and law,
and giving birth to sublime prophets and a long line of
kings ; —such is the ancient story, which we know far
better than the tale of Saxon, Dane and Norman. We
follow them into their exile, their happy restoration,
the magnificent fury of their last defiance, and then we
lose them utterly for many centuries, to find them in the
present day rising once again from misery and defile
ment, revered, like CEpiaas, for age and sorrow, and
gifts not earthly ; shunned, like him, for memories of
awful and mysterious sin.
Leigh Hunt. —The occasion which called forth the
following lines was this:—Leigh Hunt had brought
some good tidings to Carlyle, which so delighted Mrs.
Carlyle, who was in the room that she sprang up from
the chair and kissed the “ newsman.” Leigh, who is
as courtly a gallant as John Hoope himself, sent her two
bottles of apple-jack the next morning, with these
verses :
Jenny kissed me when we met,
Springing from the chair she sat in,
Time, you thief who love to get
Sweets into your book, put that in ;
Say I’m ugly—say I’m sad—
Say that health and wealth have missed me—
Say I’m growing old—but add,
Jenny kissed me!
The Ear them ware Trade of the United
A banquet was lately given at the La Pierre House,
l Philadelphia, by the earthenware dealers of that city, to
i their brethren of other cities. Mr. Hacker, President
' of the Philadelphia Earthenware Board of Trade, in his
i remarks, gave the following statistics:
‘ The earthenware trade of the United States, although
limited in amount when compared with other depart
■ ments of trade and commerce, i#yet of vast importance
|to the interests of the country. It gives the reward of
j labor to some thousands in the potteries of Staffordshire,
| England. Its bulk is so great in comparison with the
| value of the article, that it gives employment to large
I numbers of the laboring classes in this country, in the
I departments of packing, storing, draying, &c., and it is
| of vital importance to the shipping interests of the world;
j for the groundwork of almost every skip chartered in
I Liverpool for this country and for other distant places is
crates of earthenware and china.
‘The number of packages of earthenware shipped
from Liverpool to the United States for the past six
years averages abn«’* ioo,ooo crates per annum ; the en
tire oLipmeuts from Liverpool to all parts of the world
average about 170,000 per anf»u to , t ,he United States
therefore receive more than one-half of all tne
that is exported.
‘ The bulk of 170,000 crates is equal to 212,000 tuns
measurement, and would load 212 ships of a thousand
tuns each; being four ships a week for all the year.
You can see at a glance how important is the manu
facture of this article to the shipping interest.
‘ The vast amount of freight that is given to our rail
roads and canals in this country is equally important,
for the revenue of it is very heavy, although the value
of it is insignificant when compared to many other ar
ticles that are sold and forwarded to all parts of our con
tinent; yet the freight is paid on bulk and weight.—
The average freight from England to the United
States is abont five per cent, on its cost; the average
freight from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh is about the
‘ Tlie manufacture of earthenware can be traced, and
has been the means of preserving the evidences of past
civilization, as far back as the Tower of Babel. It is
not now confined to England, but is made in some form
in every country on the globe. The Chinese, the Japan
ese and the French are now famed for the magnificence '
of these articles of porcelain; and indeed, the French j
China manufacture is becoming a great source of revenue !
to this government, and is now a staple article of use in :
all parts of the United States.
Jefferson’s Opinion of Farming.
Whatever may be your choice of future occupation—
whatever calling or profession you may select, there is
certainly none more honorable than that of a farmer.—
The patriarch of the fields, as he sits beside the cottage
door, when his daily toil is over, feels an inward calm
never known in the halls of pride. His labor yields
him unpurchasable health and repose. I have observed
with more grief and pain than I can express, the visible
tokens which appear in all directions of a growing dis
position to avoid agricultural pursuits, and to rush into
some over-crowded profession, because a corrupt and de
basing fashion has thrown around it the tinsel of imag
inary respectability. Hence, the farmer, instead of
preparing his child to follow in the path of usefulness
himself has trod, educates him for a sloth ; labor is con
sidered vulgar, to work is ungenteel, a jack-plane is less
respectable than the lawyer’s green bag; the handles
of the plow less dignified than the yard-stick. Unfor
tunate infatuation ! How melancholy is this delusion,
which unless it be checked by a wholesome reform in
public opinion,will cover over our country with wreck and
ruin ! This state of things is striking at the very foun
dation of our national greatness ; it is upon agriculture
that we mainly depend for our continued prosperity, and
dark and evil will be the day when it falls into direpute.
What other pursuit offers so sure a guarantee of an
honest independence, a comfortable support for a growing
family ? Where else can wc look but to the productions
of the soil for the safety of investment, and for ample
returns ? In commercial speculations all is chance and
uncertainty, change and fluctuation, rise and fall. In
the learned professions, scarce one in ten makes enough
to meet his incidental expenses ; how, then, are we to
account for this fatal misdirection of public opinion ?
Chivalry of Old. —lt was the courtesy of chivalry
that inspired Crillon to send vegetables to the scurvy
infected Elliot, whom he was besieging in Gibraltar ;
and, to come down to the last example, it was per
haps an unnecessary courtesy which inspired Sir Edward
Lyons, when our own men were lying half-famished in
the trenches before Sebastopol to send a fat buck to
the hostile admiral within the city. Still, courtesy be
tween knights engaged in hostilities has ever received an
universal and approving acknowledgment. When
George 11. sent the Garter to Prince Ferdinand of Bruns
wick, the great victor at Minden, his investiture took
place in front of the whole army. The French General
De Broglie, learning the nature of the ceremony, gener
ously hastened to do honour to valor by the exercise
of which the French had grievously suffered. He, too,
drew up his men within sight of the spectacle, and then
saluted the new knight, whose skill and courage had
been rewarded by George 11. De Broglie dined m the
evening in Ferdinand's tent, the guest of his adversary.
On the following day they were as fierce enemies as ever.
4The Difference. —The difference between a repub
lic and a monarchy is thus truthfully pointed out bv
somebody : ‘ Pile all the people Into a pyramid, with
the President for the apex, and you have the symbol of
a republic. You can shake the President, but you can
not move the united force of the people. Invert the
pyramid, with a King for its base, and you have a
symbol of a monarchy. Trip up that King, and the
whole structure falls into confusion. , m
Curious Facts. —Capt. Beaufort saw, near Smyrna,
in 1841, a cloud of locusts forty-six miles long and three
hundred yards deep, containing, as he calculated, one
hundred and sixty-nine billions. •
Lewenhceck reckoned 17,000 divisions in the cornea
(outer coat of the eye) of a butterfly, each one of which
he thought possessed a crystaline lens. Spiders, &c. are
similarly provided for.
The hair-spring of a watch weighs 0.15 of a grain; a
pound of iron makes 50,000. The pound of iron costs 2
cents; a single spring costs 2 cents; so that 50,000
produce SIOOO.
Spiders have four paps for spinning their threads,
each pap having a thousand holes, and the fine web it
self the union of 4000 threads. No spider gpittß more
than four webs, and when the fourth is destroyed they
seize on the web of others.
Mole hills are curiously formed of an outer arch im
pervious to rain, and an internal platform with drains,
and covered ways on which the pair and young reside.
The moles live on worms and roots, and bury themselves
in any soil in a few minutes.
Few insects live more than one year in their perfect
state. Their first state is the egg, then the caterpillar,
then the chrysalis or pupa, and finally the procreative
form. But in these changes there are infinite degrees
and varieties of transition, all of which constitute the
pleasing and very instructive study of Entomology.
Every pound of cochineal contains 70,000 insects
boiled to death, and from 600,000 to 700,000 pounds
are annually brought to Europe for scarlet and crimson
Curious Advertising Stratagem.
Some few years ago a hatter in London speculated
in the purchase of the entire stock of a bankrupt
brother tradesman; but soon after his purchase he
found that he had overstocked himself. He was on
the point of reluctantly dismissing some of bis bands,
when a sharp-witted friend- ®»uie to the rescue. By
hisLjdvice, * tana bill, /announcing the cheapness of
"the latter's wares was prepared antt atetmnnimi ■■■.■■ ii,
as had been already done for some time, except-in one
particular The bill was headed “ Who’s your
Atter?" and throughout its contents were invariably
mentioned as ‘ Ats, Youth's Silk Ats, Best Beaver
Ats, Ladies’ Biding Ats, etc. The remainder of the
handbill was in unexceptionable English. The result
perfectly justified the inventor’s anticipations. These
bills were sought after as typographical curiosities.—
Men shouted with laughter at the ludicrous effect
of what they considered ignorance on the part of
the printer, or of the writer. They carried these
bills in their pockets and merrily showed them to
their friends. One or two elderly gentlemen, pre
viously perfect strangers, came to the shop, bought ( ats’
and expostulated gravely with the ‘ atter ’ upon the
solecism. Young fellows purchased gossamers for the
fun of the thing, begged for handbills, and held jocular
conversation with the shopkeeper. The shop became
known, and the proprietor, now a flourishing tradesman,
frequently smiles as he hears the street boys calling out
the now established phrase of f Who’s your atter ? ' the
origin of which, but for the publication of this curious
little episode on advertising, might possibly, in a few
short years, have been lost forever to the antiquarian.
To this day, the pronunciation of the popular inquiry
is that of the original handbill.
The Sugar Cane. —We are pleased to see the
statement that “ the agricultural bureau of the Patent
Office” has made'arrangements’for the introduction
and cultivation of sixteen or more varieties of the
sorghum sucre , or sugar cane, and sincerely hope the
experiments which are now being made with this new
plant may prove successful. If we can raise our own
sugar and molasses in Maine, or even the molasses
alone, it will prove an invaluable acquisition to our
crops. —Maine Farmer.
Camphor a Remedy for Mice. —Any one desirous
of keeping seeds from the depredations of mice, can do
so by mixing pieces of camphor gum in with the seeds.
Camphor placed in trunks or drawers will prevent mice
from doing them injury. The little animal objects to
the smell, and keeps a good distance from it.
A Poser. —A calm, blue-eyed, self-composed and
self-possessed young lady in a village “down east,” receiv
ed a long call the other day from a prying old spinster,
who, after prolonging her stay beyond even her Own
conception of the young lady’s endurance, eame to the
main question which Had brought her thither; “I’ve
been asked a good many times if you was engagedto
Dr. C Now, if folks inquire again whether you
be or not, what shall I tell ’em 1 think ?” “Tell them,”
answered the young lady, fixing her calm blue eyes in
unblushing steadiness upon the inquisitive features of
her interrogator, “ tell them that you think you don’t
know, and you are sure it is none of your business.”
A Georgia nigger was riding along and came to a
bridge, when his mule stopped. < I’ll bet a quarter, f said
Jack, ‘ I’ll make you go over dis bridge,’ and struck the
mule over the ears which made him nod his head sudden
ly. < You take the bet, then,’ said the negro, and con
trived to get the mule over the bridge. ‘I won that
quarter any how,’ said Jack. < But how will you get
the money,’ said a man close by unperceived. ‘ To-mor
row,’ said Jack, 1 massa gib a dollar to get corn, and I
take the quarter out.’
Markets.—The editor of an exchange paper pab
lishes a panning “ market report," in Which he state
that tin plates are flat, lead heavy, iron dull, rakes not
much inquired after, champaigne -brisk, rhubarb and
senna are drags, starch is stiffening, eggs lively, butter
and lard Strang, and paper is stationary. There is no
life in dead hogs, but considerable animation in old
A pedlar calling on an old lady to dispose of some
rds, inquired if she could tell him of any road no ped
had traveled. ‘Yes,' said she ,‘ I know of one, had
only one, which no pedlar has traveled, and that’s the
road to Heaven/ 1
A maid hookecftfee of the best of her mistress’ dresses
the other day bnt the affair was passed over because it
was done behind the beck, s© that there was no
one to testify to the fact. .
The editor of an Eastern wiper expresses Meat i&ifr y
nation at the meaner in which' a woman was barfed Wb?
committed suicide.. He says she ** was buried fflljt
» dog *i(h hor olotboo «i>:r 1 U
A maid.
the other day *.
was done behind
one to testify
The editor
nation at the
a dog #ith

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