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The Emigrant aid journal of Minnesota. [volume] (Nininger City, Minn. Terr. [i.e. Minn.]) 1856-1858, January 20, 1858, Image 1

Image and text provided by Minnesota Historical Society; Saint Paul, MN

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84024825/1858-01-20/ed-1/seq-1/

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<£l)p emigrant M 3iuiruoi,
AW.HIt:D U » A L D ,
KATES 0y advertising : .
Eight lines, one time. $1 00
“ •* three times, - - 200
contracts will be made with those desiring to
adverti.*e by the je.tr
It was the darkest hour oi’ the Revolution for the
American cause There were traitors io the camp,
though the great uius- of the people remained firm and
determined iii the cause of. independence. The British
army out numbered the American forces as three to one,
but liberty was the prize to be won, and brave hearts,
led on by Washington, did not despair. What if they
were clad in tattered garments, and their feet were shoe
less, leaviug marks of blood on the frozen ground where
ever they followed their loved commander, so long as
they battled for the birthright of freedom ?
At the period of our story, there stood in the vicin
ity of the village of Brunswick, a log house of rather
largo dimensions, and built in a manner that proved that
its proprietor wont in more for comfort than appearance,
as regarded his dwelling. There was an air of neatness
and taste about the garden that seemed to prove that it
was under the especial care of a woman, even though
currant bush, houeysuckle and bop vine, had been for
many days under the snows of Decern bar. - The proprie
tor of the house followed the doable calling of a black
smith and a farmer. He was a bale old maa of about
sixty, and his family were composed solely of bis wife
Dorothy, and ids daughter Mary, a beautiful girl just
budding into womanhood. In his youth, farmer Jonas
Hutton had advocated quaker principles of peace, but
in his aue his sympathies were secretly enlisted in the
cause of King George Hi- conduct, however, had been
circumspect, he appearing to maiutam a strict neutrality
as regarded both the British and American cause, that,
th u/i suspicions were rife of his extending aid to the
former, lie had, thus far, escaped actual proof. The
only person hired about his premises was a tall, ungaiu
ly youth, of about twenty years of age, and who served
as helper in the smithy, when occasionally a neighboi
wished - his uorse shod or Ins wagon wheel tired. His
name was Malachi Jones, and he hailed from the Bay
State, from whence he had waudered to his present sta
tion, some three years before, binding himself to Squire
Hutton till one-and-twcßty. He had all the peculiari
ties of the irfigratory race of New England, and though,
as we have stated, he was tall and ungainly in his de
portment, a warm heart beat under his homespun vest,
and he displayed much genius and tact for the beuelit ot
his employer. As a matter of course, he had been in
love lor a long time with the fair form and blue eyes of
his master’s daughter Mary, though she had always
treated his case so coolly, that any one else but a genu
ine Yankee wooer would have left the field in despair.
No girl can bear to have it said that her lover is an ob
ject of ridicule, and Mary was well aware that tali
Malachi—the name by which her father’s apprentice
was generally addressed—was the sport ot all the young
girls in the neighborhood. And yet she might have
made many a worse choice, for he bid fair to become a
first-rate mechanic, was a crack shot with the rifle, and
could out-run, or out-jump, as he expressed it himself,
anything that stood iu two shoes. He was a firm ad
vocate of the American cause, and when his boss was
not by, and he could gain a iisterner’s ear, he would
express his admiration for Washington in the highest
It was in the latter part of December, and close upon
dusk, when a young man, attired in the uniform of an
ensign in the Continental army, and mounted upon a
powerful grey hors*}, rode up to Squire Hutton’s smithy,
and requested that his auiiual might be shod immedi
‘ Friend, thou eeemest to be in somewhat of a hurry ’
was Squire Hutton’s reply, glancing at the stranger;
»and as Malachi is busy foddering the catffc, and I have
promised to have neighbor Parker’s wheel tired in half
an hour, perhaps thee had better apply at the next shop,
which thee will find about a mile and a half farther on
the straight road to Brunswick, and—’
‘ A plague on the neighbor Parker and his wagon
wheel/ said the young man impatiently. ‘A« you have
stated, however, 1 am in a hurry, and bear important
dispatches to Washington, whom I understand is on his
way to attack oar enemies, at Princeton May heaven
favor the cause.’
‘ Amen/ said the smith, earnestly. But, as I have
informed thee before, it will be impossible to attend to
the shoeing of thy beast to-night. It is nearly dark,
;ind I seldom protract my labor after night fall.’
The stranger mused a moment, and then muttering to
himself, ‘ it is not possible that I can have been misin
formed,’ drew a paper from hi. l *.pocket, and handed it to
Squire Hutton.
‘ What’s this ?’ he exclaimed.
‘ Something that it would not be polite to let every
one peruse in these times; but l have heard that you
are a staunch man in the cause of •King George, and I
can trust you. The exigencies of my case, will not ad
mit of delay. My horse must be shod, aud I must be
with the British camp at Trenton, by to-morrow morn
The old smith, with an air of surprise, wiped his
glass's to peruse the document, and by the last fading
light of day, recognized the well known signature of
Lord Cornwallis.
He instantly grasped the stranger by the hand, and
•aid that, for the just cause of King George he would
neglect every other job of work in the shop.
* lint thee will have a rough ride of it, friend; the
roads are in lad condition, and the wind will blow cold
and bit'er in tby lace. I observe the whole of thy
journey. J
The. stranger remark, d, that he had learned to laugh
at such adventures in the camp of the soldier.
» Ay, friend, but tin* night will be black as pitch an
hour later, and ii thy beast is not surrf-»ootcd, thee wit!
scarcely reach Trenton by sunrise. However, I will see
that, thou art well prepared »br thy journey. A good
cup of tea, equal to that the foolish rebels, wasted in
JBsstcs Harbor, mads by wife find • bt WW
biscuit prepared by daughter Mary, will reiresh thee
greatly, previous to thy long ride."
‘ Than ts, kiud sir, tor thy hospitality, and be assured
that it will be remembered to our commander-in-chief.
My business is urgent, for if I reach Trenton by sunrise,
the plan l now bear about iny persou, will place the
rebel army wholly in our power.’
‘ Sayest thou so,’ said the smith, rubbing his hands
joyfully ; then indeed we have no time to lose. H alio,
Malachi; ah, here thou art. Run up to the house, and
tell Dorothy to have the tea-kettle singing in live min
utes, tell her t*at roy lriend Ensign Spencer of the
continental army is goiug to sup with us. He has im
portant documents for the benefit of the American cause,
aud must be iu the American camp by to-morrow morn
ing. Thou caus't shoe his horse, while l extend to bim
the hospitalities of the house,’ and Squire Hutton, tak
ing the yonng man by the arm, ushered him in a tew
moments iu the presence of his wife, aud charming
daughter Mary.
Meanwhile, Malachi, who had eyed the stranger very
closely, lit a lamp, and began to ply the bellows.
‘ Well ! ’ he exclaimed to himself, ‘if this don’t beat
all nature. 1 thought there was suttiiu’ in the wind,
when the critter halted to our place ; so I just stop fod
dering the cattle, and sneaked up to the back side of
the shop to listen. So if he gets to Trenton by sunrise
to-morrow morning, the American party will be in the
power of the British. If you are there by that time,
by Judas, Malachi Doolittle don’t know nothing about
shoeing. Woa—you critter; cau’t you stand still a
moment, while the irons are getting hot ? It’s no won
der you are restless with such a load of sin as you are
about to carry. My boss is a traitor to his country* and
I’m going to cut my indentures to-night, and join the
American army. Who kuows but what 1 may come
back a captain, marry Mary Hutton, and then strike a
bee line for old Massachusetts. But 1 must hurry this
job through, for 1 would not like the boss to inspect my
work, to-night. * There,’ he added, as he drove the last
nail, you will cast off a pair of them shoes about five
miles tother side of Bruuawick ; aud then if 1 don’t
catch you, Ensign Spencer, on our old sorrel, I wish 1
may be blowed up iu a powder mill.’
The wind blew keen aud cold, and the sky was over
cast with dark clouds.
* Shouldn’t wonder if we had a two foot snow before
to-murrow morning,’ said Malachi to himself, ‘and I’d
rather, by a darn sight, go to an apple bee or a quilting
party witii Mary Hutton tucked under my arm, lhau
take a journey to Trenton to-night. However, what
cau’t be cured must be eudurud, as my old school martn
used to say, when she plied the birch ; and so all you’ve
got to do, Malachi Doolittle, is to play possum, aud not
give the Britisher too big a, start.’
He found the kitchen empty, for Ensign Spencer be
ing considered in the light of an especial guest, the sup
per-table was set in the parlor. —-fjM ‘-KF
‘ Rot his picter ! he will be making love to Mary next,
said Malachi, uneasily ; * but if he does, i’ll pay him
off in his owu coin. Ah, here is his pistols and heavy
riding coat Well, now, Malachi Doolittle, I don’t think
it would be unwholesome to your constitution to jerk
the primin’ out of them barkers, for fear matters might
come to a rough-and-tumble. So here goes,’ aud suit
ing the action to the word, the stranger’s weapons were
instantly placed in a harmless condition.
When the apprentice cutered the parlor, he found
Dorothy Hutton aud her daughter Mary in high glee
and good humor. The repast was over, but the strang
er seemed to, be attracted to the smith’s parlor by the
bright eyes of Mary, aud looking twice out of the win
dow into the cold, bleak night, lie gave a shudder, as if
loath to depart on bis journey. Tall Malachi devoured
his supper iu moody silence ; but, notwithstanding his
discontent at the notice the young officer took of Mary,
he made fearful inroads on the Johnny cake and sausage.
A genuine Yankee is seldom so deep iu love that he for
sakes bis victuals ; and such was certainly tall Maiachi's
case. When there was no excuse foi longer delay, the
apprentice was deputed to fetch his horse to the door,
and thanking bis hostess for their kind attentions, and
bestowing a kiss upon the blushing check of Marj, he
bestrode the animal, and set forth at a round gallop, on
his dark and dreary journey. -
‘ 1 guess I’d better go and finish foddering The cattle,’
said Malachi, as the clatter of the horse’s hoofs
away in the distance. * Old Hall has broke his new cir*
cingle all to smash. I calkilate I better take the sorrel
horse and go down to Brunswick to-morrow morning
and get it fixed, as we want, to sled some wood from the
j swamp. Suppose you cad let me have old Sorrel for a
j little while, squire?’
I ‘ Why, how on earth could thee go down to Brunswick
' without him, Malachi ? How foolish you do talk to-
I night.’
| ‘Well, l didn’t know hut what you might want to
! use him,’ said Malachi, closing the door Jxdtind him,
| and starting foFthe barn. ‘Consarn his picter ! kissed
i her lips, did he ? Well, if I don’t have a wrestle with
I him for that trick, my name ain’t Malachi Doolittle.
| Jerusalem, bow co)d it is ! I wish 1 had my other
I shirt on ; but it’s no use to grumble. Oid Sorrel, put
! in the big licks, and you shall be kept on nothing else
| but oats and clover for the balance of your material
; days. And now for a parting salute to the boss/ he
! added, as he bestrode up to the door of the house,
j ‘ Hellow ! Squire Hutton, suthin’s broke loose !’
| ‘Why, Malachi, what is the matter?’ asked the
i smith, opening the door ; *is the barn a tire, or— ’
i ‘No nothin’ of the kind, boss. But I’ve coucluded
! to borrow old Sorrel to-night instead of to morrow morn
ing. I know the whole plot, and l am going to take
them papers from Ensign Spencer and give them to
, George Washington.’
j ‘ Why, hia horse is as fleet as the wind, and ho will
i be to Trentou before thou art half way,’ said the smith,
, with a laugh.
‘ You forget I shod his home, boss Hutton.'
‘ Well, he is armed, and will shoot thee as dead as a
nail, if tLou dost attempt, violence.’
‘ Can’t be did, boss I shook the primin’ from hia
pistols when he was in to supper;’
* Thunder and Belzcbub—Lord forgive me—but—’
The remainder of the sentence was lost on Malachi’o
pg.r, for with a wild ‘ya hip, galong Sorrel,’ he was fol
lowing the track of tb*- British spy.
! . CHAPTER 11.
The night was very dark, and flakes of suow were fall
ing fa*t over the already whitened ground, but old sor
rel was perfectly acquainted with every inch of the
"round, and as'if prompted by an instinct that he was on
I business that admitted T no delay, it needed but little
! urging on the part of tall Malachi to make him stretch
his neck through the village of Brunswick like a grey
-1 l*ou*i
i • • ' tr, ;* ' •' ' . • ?
Occasionally jbu. rider would rein in aud pause to list
en if he could hear the clatter of a h iraa s hoofs in the
distance, and when be ci did hear no souud but the uioau
ing of the wind as it whistled through the forest’ trees,
he would shunt ‘G* Dang, you critter, the game’s ahead
somewhere/ and the hors*} would resume h.s old pace.,
But this perseverance was not to go long unrewarded;
for he had scarcely put the village of Brunswick five
miles behind him, when he descried the object ot his
search a short distance ahead, and travelling at such a
gait as convinced huu that Ensign Bpeucer had liule to
thank Malachi Doolittle for his handicraft. As the mat
ter stood, it was no great feat lor the sorrel or the ap
prentice to rein up by the side of the officer in the space
of a few moments. . ' .
It was too dark for Spencer to recognize his new ac
quaintance of the BimJttoery. t .
‘ Fine evening, squire/ said Malachi, ‘sleighing will
be first-rate to morrow, if it continues to cotuedown this
‘There we-don’t agree, friend/ said Spencer, placing
his hand, by way of precaution, upon, one of his pis-,
tols; 4 for the night, to RijLiuiud, is a curbed dark and
stormy one/
‘ Well, 'tis something dark, that’s a fact/ eras
Maiachi’s response, * for a man ihat’s got a considerable
distance to tide. Got a tine horse, I cau’t see for cer
tain. Critter goes kind a lame ; don’t be.’
‘ Yea, thauks to a bungling fellow who shod him about
two hours ago, I shall nut be able to reach my destina
tion by daylight/
‘ Rather guess you wou’t squire, at the gait you are
travelling now. Trenton, is a long way off yet, aud its
a rough road to travel. Now, squire, setin’ its you, 1
wouldn’t -mind swappiug horses, old sorrel is shure foot
ed, and ouly ten years old next grass; though 1
should require a little.to boot r under the cireumstaucCs,
not in Continental, but in hard Spauish, and —’
‘ Hold ou friend for Heaven’s sake. 1 have no wish
to trade horses on any terms, and your loquacity is per
fectly overwhelming. ave but one question to ask,
au<Lj* answering it ?
Who gave yon the information that I was journeying Jo
Trenton ?'
‘ Jest as slick as grease, squire. You are on our side.
God save King George and down with rebels. I am
Malachi Doolittle, Jones Huttou’s 'preutice buy, who
shod your critter this very night; aud, it appears, it
was so confounded dark iu llie shop, that I made a pesky
job uf it.
4 Pesky job, indeed/ said Spencer. ‘ Why, my horse
is going dead lame, and 1 must be in Trentou by fo mor
row morning—my business is of the most vital import
* Could I not do the business for you ? ’ said Malachi
‘ You can go back to Squire Hutton’s while 1 will carry
the despatches you bear about you to the British camp.’
‘ No/ said ‘“?pencer j witb :i laughs‘thatwould 'hard
ly <io. A British officer placing importune dispatches
iu the hands of a apprentice is altogether
out of the question.'
‘ By J udus, I’ve got it 1 ’ exclaimed Malachi, if struck
by a sudden thought. ‘We will swap horses fui* the
pr-sent. I’ll take your critter back to Iluttop’s and
dot;tor bim till you call for him, and lend you old sor*
rei, be is just as fresh now as when he left the stable,
iand lie can keep the same gait tor fourand-twenty hours
j to come.’
I Ensign Spencer was delighted with the proposition,
| and halting at a favorable place, they both dismounted
|to mike the exchange. Bat uo sooner had the officer’s
: feet touched the ground, than he found himself iu the
close embrace of tail Malachi.
i ‘Now, squire,’ he exclaimed, ‘before it comes to a
i worse tustlc, I’ll trouble you to fork-over them papers.’
* Why, what do yVu mean, you plebeian hound,J fcaid
Spencer, *t>y thu*ritso4tirtgan officer of King George ? ’
struggling to free himself from the iron grasp of the
blacksmith's apprentice. -
/.Mean just what I say, yougaul darned contankaruus
tory varmint. Hurrah for George Washington and the
Continental Congress. Kiss Mary again, w 3! you ?
Well, I'm not going to be cruel, but if you don’t fork
over them papers in a jiffy* by the sixteenth chapter of
Revelations, I’ll make mince meat of you ! I will, by
J udas ! ’ .
‘ Don’t throttle me 1’ exclaimed Spencer, (for Ma
iachi's gripe at his throat had been tightening' every in
stant.) ‘and they are yours.' '<? ■ * v; 1
* Don’t attempt to come any of yaur games yon tory
varmint! I can out-run, out-jump, put-wrestle anything
in our diggings and— ’
‘Such is not my intention. There are the papers,
and much good muy they do you V And no* be kind
enough to release iny collar/ >■■■.?
‘ Wait a bit, squire—so bo, eorrel—mnat make all l *
and, at the moment be let gcr of Spencer, he leaped into
the saddle. ‘ Good night, squire, and pleasant d reams.’<
Spencer instantly aimed one of hia pistols pouted
blank at Malachi, but it missed fire. He dashed it to
the ground with a, curse and leveled the other—ibe trig
ger clinked, but there was no discharge.
‘Ha, ha, ha!’ laughed ‘You'll find the
primin’ scattered round Jonas Hutton’s kitchen floor,
where l left it. Ya-hip, ga-lang sorrel. Three cheers
for George Washington and the Continental Congress.
The hod was not above an hoar high, when » toll slab
sided Yankee, mounted on a bony horse, rode up to the
American lines, where he was hailed by the sentries,
and to whom be made known that he had something ef
the most vital importance to com muni cate to the gen
eral His invincible pertinacity finally procured him
the coveted*audience with the commander-in-chief of the
American forces, and tall Malachi placed the documents
be had procured with so much trouble in bis hands.
Washington say at a gbiqce that, had the plans they
divulged been owned out, the American army would
have been placed in great peril, if not utterly annihil
ated. Of his master's ?b»re iq the transaction r Malaphi
Doolittle said nothing, for he was too much in love with
Mary to betray her father; but ull other questions he
answered with a promptness that proved he had a large
share of good sense to make up for his uncouth- appear
ance. ' ‘
* And yop wish to serve in the army ? 7 said Wash
ington, kindly.
• Such is my intention, your excellency, if you thjok
my services worthy of regard'
4 Wo are always glau to receive such good recruits in
the cause of freedom as thou art. The service thou
hast rendered is u great one to the American cause.
Captain Doolittle, allow me to congratulate you ! for
such is the commission you hold henceforth in the Con
tiaental arm/.
The heart of the new made officer, was 100 full to ex T
press fiis thanks ; but he resolved to prove by deeds, mid
nut by word, tbaf lie was worthy of Washington's con
sideration. The commander-in-chief saw that some im
mediate steps must be taken not only to save pbiiadel
phi*—which he learned by the despatches brought by
Doolittle, the enemy were determined to possess—but to
arouse'the spirit of the nation, that had now sunk to the ,
lowest depth of despondency. He resolved to anticipate
the British, and cross the frosen Delaware, on the night
of the 26th of December, where be learned that a largy
body of Hessians were encamped. He followed up )qs
plan with cuiiueut success; for the atraek being totally
unexpected, more than nine hundred of the enemy were
taken prismers uf war. He rt-croused the river again,
and though his shadow of an army was weary uuu ex
hausted, he determined to make an attack ou the British
forces at Princeton. Here he had the good fortuue to
kill silty, and take three hundred prisoners more. This
good fortuiie served to dispel the gloom that had settled
over the American cause.
It is an uudoqbted fact, that Malachi Doolittle held
a colonel’s commission in the army before the close of
the war,, which took place when Great Britain acknowl
edged the independence of the United States, November"
60th, 1762. * .
On the banks of the river Raritan, sonic ten years
after the incid< nts detailed in our story, there stood a
fine house, built in the style of the Klizubcthiau period
—the residence of Colonel Doolittle and family, who
was now one of the wealthiest farmers in the whole coun
try. He was one of the most hospitable of men, and
neither friend or stranger could pass his door without
oeiug asked to take a uiug of the colonel’s good cider;
or if it happened to be about tea-time, a cup of tea, and
a slice of short c:\ke, made by the fair hands of his wifi-
Mol y. There was an old man, too, who sat in the
cosiest place by the fireside, who for a long time aftei
the close of the war, would advocate the cause of King
George, and talk about haviug somebody arrested for
stealing a sorrel horse—at which his daughter would
gjWjujk silly to her husband—but he finally came fo tin
eonelusioifi,' arpeseeTO* plenty crowned the lend of free
dom, that George Washington was not so much of a
rebel after all.
There was an old lady, too, who appeared to never
grow tired of praising her son-in-law ; and a little boy
very image of his mother, who, at the close of many a
summer’s day, would climb upon his father’s lap, and
say with a tone of earnest entreaty :
‘Now, pa, do tell me all about Ensign Spencer and
General Washington and the Hessians, and how you
hooked grandpa’s horse and listed for a soldier.’
‘ Willingly, my son/ the colonel would reply, * but 1
have related the story so often, I should supp »si- you
had it by heart.’ Yet colonel Doolittle would repeat it
over and over ug'iiu. Such is ene of the many incitfents
connected wjtli the dread hours of the revolution. Al
though purchased with the blood of thousands, it left/
the legacy of freedom to man ; and few acquired great
er fame iu the American cause than Malachi Doolittle,
the Blacksmith’s apprentice.
Some Distinction* of Castes.
To the Brahmins all animal food, save that of fidi* $
and kids, is forbidden ; yet in some districts they will
readily partake of the flesh of any animal whatever, if
only, as in the case of other Hindoos it be not killed
with their own hand. The Rajpoots eat fish, mutton,
and venison ; fowls, beef and pork are held in abomina
tion. Many castes follow the same rules. With some,
however, pork is the favorite diet; beef only is prohib
ited. Those who shrink from the pollution of eating
the flesh of domestic poultry will eagerly devour that of
•the juugle fowl, which differs from the gamecock only
in size. All Hindoos consider themselves defiled by
contact only with feathers; among the tribes at the foot
of the bimaliivas, who are in other rerpects strict Hin
doos, this prejudice does nit exist. Au earthen pot is
polluted beyond redemption by being touched Ly oue of
an inferior caste; a metal one suffers no such deteriora
tion. Coolies will carry any load, however offensive,
upon their heads ; bid them carry amm for a few p ices,
aud, though it be a matter of life and death, ilw-y will
answer you that it is the business of another caste. The
Robilas will submit to be flogged within an inch of their
lives with a leathern inartirgale, but to be strm-k with
a whip or cane would be an indelible disgrace, and very
Likely to be resented with a bullet or a stab. Spirituous
liquors are in general only allowed to Pariahs. In some
parts of Southern India the Brahmins partake of them
without scruple. Among the Nairs of Malabar, Ibe
women enjoy a plurality of husbands. Amonar the
Totiyfers, on the same coast, those within the degrees of
consauguinity possess their wives in common. Many
castes are only p> be known from one another by the
cut and color of their clothes, the shape and arrange
ffient of their trinkets, or some other equally frivolous
and unimportant distinction lroimj on Cantr.
! Manufacture uf Thimbles.
Notwithstanding the facility with which the manufac
ture of these small but essential implements is carried
on by means of molds in the stamping machine, few
processes cap compare in ingenuity and effective adap-
with the ennfriyaoce first made use of in Paris.
Sheet iron one twenty-fourth of an inch thick, is cut
into strips of dimensions suited to 'the intended size of
| the thimbles. These strips are passed under a punch
• pfe-s, whereby they are cut into discs of about two
I inches diameter, tugged together by a tail. Each strip
' Contains one dozen of these blanks, and these are made
| red hot, and lsid upon a mandrel nicely fitted to their
size. The workman now strikes the middle of each
with a round-faced punch, about the thickness of hi
finger, and this sinks it into the concavity of the fir.<t
l mandrel. It is then transferred successively to another
mandrel, which has five hollows of successively increas
ing depth, and, by striking it into them it is brought
lto the proper shape. This rude thimble is then placed
in a lathe in-order to polish it within ; it is then turned
oqtsjde, the circles marked for the gold ornament, and
the pits Indented with a sort of milling tool. They are
next annealed, brightened, and gilded inside with a very
thin coat of gold leaf, which is firmly united to the sur
face of the iron by the strong pressure of a smooth steel
mandrel. A gold fillet is applied to (he outside, in au
aauular space turned to receive it, being fixed by ores
sure at the edges, into a minute groove formed on the
M. Maedlcr, the author of the recent investigations
with reference to the central sun, has long been known
to the astronomical world as the successor of M. Sti uve
in the direction of the observatory at Doaput. His
computations of the orbital movements of the double
stars h ive given to him a deservedly biglfc4reb'fjt/j and
the great theory which he has prop-uftlcfeif'ia, oriJygivfen
to the world after a long uud natjcnt '&2S£minaTtotq fefc
tending through luany _TeaV.'t? ASs'6thing Alcyone aS
the great centre of the ipitfibnVof‘sthrircomposing onr
astral system, and the directionof''the I son’s motion, as
deter mined by Argelatider and Struve, i(e investigate*
these consequent movements of all the stars > yvery
quarters of the heavens. Just where tlifr mo
tions should be fouud, there they actually exist, Which
demonstrates either the froth of the theory, or exhibits
the most remarkable and incredibly coincidences. After
a'profound examination, MaediCr reaches thy conclusion
that Alcyone, the principal star in the group Pleiades,
now occupies the centre of gravity, apd is at present
the sun about Which the universe of stars composing
our astral system are all revolting.
V|»ll lo Valley Forge.
About sixteen tniles‘ , up'thc Schuylkill Phtladel-
J'phia, a stifatt sirCaiii leaves the rich and ‘beautiful wl>
.ley of Chester, and winds its way through pi vine
betwcSprrtwh in ini a tains, and empties its deitY water into
the'riyer. The mountains are tilled \yithJron ore, -and
as the stream afforded water power, tire old inhabitants
of the cohiby erected at its mouth a mill and forge, and
•roond'.thcm a few bouses, and the place was known as
the ‘ VulU-y Forge.’ y
f Jt was aftpr the disastrous results of jbatjttas of
jll ran i lywine c 'and Germantown, iu which the Atifericans
; l°t*t 2 000 soldiers, whom in their already reduced state
! they could'sn poorly spare, that Washington was forced
i to give up Philadelphia to the en••my, and lead his
drooping and discouraged army to this seoluded spot,
which the sufferings of that little band, while it lay and
shivered there during the memorable winter of *76, has
made immortal. • -
We approached the old encampment hy a road lead
ing down a narrow defile which forms the bed of the
stream, and ascended to the summit, where the army
lay, hy a rugged pathway which is still to be traced
among the rocks, aq i were shown by our guide, as we
passed the different spots, where the cannon had been
p!anted to guard fife entrance. When we rearhed the
summit we found it partially covered with tiees and
underwood, yet eighty years had not, been able to de
stroy the efforts that feeble baud had put forth for self
protection; There was still to be seen a ditch and em
bankment, which at present i* about three feet high,
'■xtendiug more thau two miles around the top of the
At the more open and unprotected points are still to
lie seen five different forts of different forms, more or
I less perfect. 'J hey were probably built, principally of
log-;, hut they have long since decayed, au I their forms
it present are to be traced oply by piles of dirt which
bad been thrown up to strengthen them. The most
pcrfi ct one at present is still about ten feet high, and
probably one hundred feet square, with a dividing ridge
running diagonally from one corner to the other, form
ing two apartments of equal size, with but one narrow
entrance It all remains quite perfect, and the walls or
banks are covered with trees. The tents of the soldiers
wer made of poles, which seem to have twelve or fifteen
feet long, built in the form of a pen, with dirt thrown
upon the -outside to keep out the storm. Their re
mains arc still to be seen situated in little groups here
and there over the in closure. While down near the
old Forge we were shown ah old stone house, about 20
by 30 feet, which served as head-quarters, rn which
Washington lived, surrounded by his staff, during the
winter. ,
Wo entered the venerably building with feelings of
the deepest emotion, and examined the room which
served the illustrious chief as bedroom and audience
chamber; It is very plain, and the farniture'Hiuoh as
he had left it. A small rough boil' id a deep wiudow
.-ill, was pointed out *3 having contained his papers and
writing material. The bousa is occupied hy a family
who take pleasure in showing to visitors the different
items of interest The oM" cedir shingled roof which
protected the ‘ Father of; his Wmnfry’eighty yrtrs eg >,
h;id still sheltered I lie old headquarters until a year or
two ago, when |t. was removed, and its place occupied
by tin.
The graves of the soldiers are still lo he seen in dis?
tinct clusters offer tl.e groubd, bdt are mosi numerous
iu the northeast divisisou, where the regiments from
the South, quartered, .depth having rioted most fear
fully sinoiog. th-.m, they jbeipg less able tp epdure the
severities b?a Northern wjnfer.
(t wits during thfeir en'campmetft here that tie tracks
of the soldiers could beT traced ty their blood, as they
gathered wood to Worttt Hfrir miserable rhix**.
And it is here that is sai 1 to have shed
tears like a father,, while Xeholdina their suffering*, j
while they gathered round nim and.nfgad forbread and
clbtlrfiig, and he had'-not tfie meutw td furnish them.;
Yet, although every thing seemed MMtttscou racing, it was*
near here, that the? * Friend' went heme surprised, and |
exclaiming, ,Mb® -Americans. Will conquer yet!; The L
Americans will conquer yet, for I heard a whisper in
woods, and I looked and saW their ctfffef upon his knees, l
and he Was asHrig i, ©od W help- nieto*’ * *
It may be great 1 to lead n powerfnJ unny on to j
but surely it was greater to preserve the shattered retur i,
uants of a discouraged bupd (toget her, when tjijp enemy j,<
was trampling over tlrcm, when their Congreps.couM do j (
nothing fer them, when starving families at home were (
weeping for their return, übd'trhcn there seemed no [,
prospect before them but miserable defeat. : ai: ,
Numerous graves havp recently been opened, and the
bodies of tpany pf . (he officers have been removed by
their friends to other burjiug-gTo'und* in their native
Srates. Hut tho poor and obscure soldiers wboistill' te- ,
main, have monuments snore beautiful.-than art can form |
erected them, for nature lias planted hundreds; of oe- ,
dars as a silent tribute to theit memory, which have ,
been watered by t-ho-puffe aftftfr generous tears of night, y
and they are now forming* living wreaths of evergreens
above their graves— -Ohio S/tUrJottrmil, (
■., v |
Returning Answer*.—-Hear the story of the child «
which went forth into the mountain raying- When the
child wandered there, he called aloud to break the lone - I
lines*, and heard a voice which called to him in the
same tone- He called again, and, as he thought the *
voice again mocked hhn- Flashed with anger he rushed *
to find the boy who had insulted him, bat could find (
none. He then called to him in anger, and with *
abusive epithets, all of which were faithfully fetftrhfed f
to him. Choking with Tage, the child rawtti its mother
and complained that a boy in the woods badahusjed and '
insulted him with W«oy file words- But,.the toother <
took her child by the hand and said: *My these t
names were but the echoes of thine own vdicet -Whofe *1
St or thou didst call was returned to then from the hill- (
■ ' •**«*■:*. ■
side:-'" Ha-let thou called out pleasant words, pleasant
| word* had beeh return dto tbee. Let this bj thy les
•stm: theeugh fife. The world will sown bet an echo of
thine-Own afftilc Treat thy ft-1 lows with onkindness,
end they witf uncwer with oukinduess ; with love, and
thou sbalt have 'lore. Send forth sunshine from the
‘ spirit, end thou sbalt never have a clouded day ; carry
fibouFtbee a vindictive spirit, and even in the Sowers
f shall lurk curses. Thou sbalt receive ever what thou
giveetv and that alotae.’ Always is that child in the
mountain every man and woman is that
child. •»/
I ■i\ «.%' i ■ -■<*••• * ■■■■" ■
j What Makes Dough Rise ? —The cause of the r>-
ing is'vinous fermentation produced by the spontaneous
change of the gluten or albumen, which acts upon the
sugar; breaking it. up into alcohol and carbonic acid gas.
■ If tbe‘feriliei»tatinn is regular and equal, the kneading
and intermixture thorough, and the dough-kept sui
i liciently jnd uniformly warm, the production of gas will
take -place evcply. throughout the cb-ugh, so'that the
when -cut, will exhibit, numberless minute cavi
-ties Or iktc/S equally distributed throughout. For its
capability of betug raised, dough depends upon the elaa
tic and extensible properties of its gluten, which is de
jveloped by the admixture of water with four. Hence
the proper .quantity of-water is thatwhicb imparts to
th%gluten the greatest tenacity—an excess of its lower
ing-the adhesiveness .of the glutinous particles. 'I he
touch ness of the gluten, prevents the small babbles of
gas from uuitiug into larger ones, or from rising to the
surface. Being caught the instant they are produced,
and expanding in the exact spot where they are gene
rated, they swell or raise the dough. All raising of
bread depends upon this principle—the liberation of
gas evenly through the glutinous dough. No matter
what the mode of fermentation, or what the substances
* r agents employed instead of it, they all bring about
the same result in the same way.
Pumpkin Preserves. —The following is home-tried
and provid:
An excellent and economical sweetmeat is thus pre
pared: To 7 lbs of pumpkins take 5 lbs. of sugar, 4
lemons, and 2 oz. of green ginger root, to be obtained at
most grocers’ stores. Cut the pumpkin in slices, half an
inch in thickness, and in size and form to suit the fancy.
Boil the pumpkin in the syrup, until tender. Th-n re
move it uud add the lemons aud ginger root. These
.-hould be sliced tLiuly and scalded before being put into
the the syrup. , Boil it down until it is rich enough to
keep without fermenting, and then pour it over the
pumpkin If the ginger root cunuot be obtuiued,
<cuums alone impart to it an agreeable flavor '
Suet Put ding—Cheap and Good —We often en
joy a very excellent su-.t* pudding, so culled, which we
do not remember to bave described We should rather
call it a suet cake. We last evening asked for a * pre
scription,’ and Takcf one te.»-
cupful of molasses, one of sweet milk, one teaspoonful
of soda, and one of salt, half to three fourths of a cup
of finely chopped suet, or a half a cup of butter, half a
teacupful of currants or raisins, (if desired.) Stir to
gether with, say three teacupfuls of flour, or enough to
form a stiff batter. Add nutmeg or cinnamon to suit
the taste. Put into a greased tin basin, or in a mold,
and cook two to three hours in u steamer This comes
out ( as light as a feather/ aud makes a nice dish for the
supper table, especially where cream can be had to eat
with it.
Foreign Kern.
The Collins steamship Atlantic, arrived at New York
on Wednesday, January 6.
President Bach nan’s Message attracted great atten
tion in England. It was telegraphed entire from
Liverpool to some of the London journals, being the
longest dispatch ever sent by telegraph in England.
- ,'JL’Jbe Loudon Time* says, it is undar*tooa that the
( E*?& l fadia Company have received formal notice that it
is ihe inteution of Government to bring in a bill for the
abolition of the double Government. Tie Glob* 1 (min
isterial organ) says this statement is substantially
Correct. ; •
Further attempts to launch the Leviathan were post
poned until the Spring tides at the commencement of
January. The hydraulic power was to be more than
i doubly... The chip,, remained even and fair on the
ways, at high tide bad nearly six feet of w-tter un-
rsport of an intended aUian~e between the Prince
of Orange and the Princess Alice of England, is said to
be totally,destitute of foundation.
. The marriage treaty of the Princess Royal of Eng
land with the Prince of Prussia has been signed by the
Prussian Minister and Lord Clarendon, and also by tho
Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lqrd Chancellor, and the
Chancellor of the .Exchequer.
| A long-pending dispute between the King of Hanover
tho Quren of England, as to the right of some
[‘ croyrft valued at over a million sterling, is said
| to have been settled in favor of the claiiusof Hanover.
Financial AnUtns. — In London on the 19th, the
i funds wore quite bhuyaut under the favorable returns
fnf the Bank,aid money was easy at dj percent, for
i the best, paper in the discount.market, and at 4 to 6 per
jeeuebn the Stock . Exoha nge . . .-j
I At Hamburg, a further recovery flf confluence was
i reported, and the rite of discount for the best paper re
ceded to between 5 and 6 per cept.
The suspension oL Messrs. Schwab© & Co., of Glas
gow, was
On .Monday, the ‘2 there was increased buoyancy
on .'the London Stock Exchange, under the influence of
tiie large arrival of specie from New York/hud the news
of the rapid recovery going on at Hdnitmrg Consols,
railroad shares and other securities shared Hi the up
war I movement. '
On the Stofck Exchange loans were obtainable with
ease af 4 per cent. At the Bank the demand continued
light, 1 and in the .discount market the rate for best bills
receded to 9 per cent.
The suspension of Mess*. Klibgender Brothers of
was silt nnccd. Lisbilties ab*>ut 240,000/.
A deputation'from the Gerefnihenta of Sweden and
Norway 4md arrived in London, with a view of obtain
ing financial aid to the extent of (it was supposed) 600,-
000/, with which to prevent the permanent brei£ up of
some of the extensive establishments which have lstelj
fail'd in those countries.
v The Time* says: Little doubt is enter hdHod that
when the Bank determines to reduce thotJ’ rtte of dis
count ft will be to 8 per oent, and the probability seems
to be that even that step will speedily have to be fol
lowed by another of a similar kind, the stats'
Of the market Would apparently justify it at <woe. SopO
. * ~ -- *• < v -

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