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Knt4«mi Ha wHiond-eUmi matter March 9, I.MI. at tho poatofflee at r><Ti>tt. Washington, uiuler the act of March :!. 187** Telephone luil. 475/. , Pnblishe.i every Thumlajr by the Cdmmonwealth Publishing Co., 1612 California street. Everett, Washington. Editor and Manager: Maynird Shipley. Advertising Solicitor: F. <!. Cro«by, Mailing Force: Tilli« Roeder, Helen Roeder, Gertrude Cort. Yearly mibacription $1.00 Six month* -jj" Three months ',*"""" *» Sindle eopiea j^^-- z^^zrrsT:r:^JTZ""''"-- '"--*--"-^---- . -Oil MORE ABOUT WAGES AND THE COST OF LIVING. In last week's issue of the i.minimi wealth we called attention to the f»rt that tin' attention and HMtgtel of tln> «a.m'-w orkors of the world niusl be concentrated on shortening the work day ami laereasjag ihe average »:i*e for BMB and women (It jars upon one's nerves to have to add, "and chil dren.") Prof. Scott Nearing. of the Untver sity of Pennsylvania, has gone to the trouble to ascertain, as nearly cor rectly as possible, to determine Just what the average wage of men and women Is in the United States. He found that one-half of the male adult workers earn less than $500 a year; three-quarters of them earn less than $600 a year: and but one-tenth earn above $800 annually. In the ranks of the women wage-earners, the figures are even less: One-fifth earn less than $200 a year; nine-tenths receive less than $500; one-twentieth are paid more than $600 annually. Those women who earn less than $200 per annum, or a little more than $16 per month, will be expected to. preserve their respectability in orderj that they may be eligible for those palaces beyond the skies. They must pay for shelter, clothing and food out of an income of little more than $16 per month, and at the same time retain upon their womanly brows the crown of virtue. Why should the bosses worry and get a wrinkle? They find it easy enough to buy labor-power on the market at from $200 to $500 a year. Why should they pay more than the current price * If some of the "girls"' must have some of the "extras," including a lit tle recreation, a tooth filled with gold, or with a good dinner now and then.j what's it to the employers, as buyers, of labor-power, how the "girls" get! these "unnecessary" pleasures, or luxuries? But suppose that the actual neces saries of life should cost more than, say, $8 per week; suppose the "cost of living" should soar still higher; , would the workers thereby be robbed by the trusts from whose agents the necessaries of life must be purchased? Not at all. The bosses would simply have to meet the increased cost of the workers' maintenance, by an increase in their wages, either voluntarily or as the result of a strike. The real robbery of the workers would still take place in their pay envelopes, not where they purchased their supplies, since the cost of their supplies deter mines how much goes into the pay envelopes. If, for example, the democrats "re vise the tariff downward" in such a way as to lower materially the aver age cost of living, the competition for jobs among the workers would make it possible for the employing class to revise the wage schedule downward proportionately. "Thus," returning again to Marx, "the cost of production of simple labor amounts to the cost of the laborer's subsistence and propagation, and the price of its cost determines his wages. • • • Individual laborers, indeed millions of them, do not receive enough to enable them to subsist and propa gate; but the wages of the whole work ing class, with all their fluctuations, ;ir. nir-rly .nljusted to" the mean cost ol living, whether this av< rage cost of subsistence be higher or lower. For a wage-slave to worry about the high cost of living la as though a horse should worry because his owner has to pay $2.00 for a bale of hay instead of $1.00, as formerly. As the hor»» ( must be kept in working condition, b«»' gets for his labor just what lie always got, his subsistence, enough hay aort oats to maintain hlu\ as a »■»«] work horse: the extra dollar for feed comes out of the owner, not out of the bor»e. | The same principle applies la th* case of the *or*»r, Th« only difference is thai the horse Is owned outright by the man who eiplotts him. whereas In th» case of the human work animal It is cheaper to let htm think he owns hi« o»*n body. v» a Tree and bovprt'lfsh citizen"; ine»nw&!l«\ tin* bosses own the only means by which nald Independent and patriotic otttaaai mi keep himself •>'> the chain-Rang.; When ha works for wages, the land ami tools, or Iks machinery, belong to th* capitalist*, and tho "freo and sov ereign citi/.n" la suif.ri.i t.> UP.* IUOM LESS THAN HALF OF THE MISSING GIRLS FOUND. Daring the months of November, De eeniher and .Isminry. !»fil Inhabitant* of New York I'ity mysteriously dlrmp peered, of whom "!•" were women and Klrls. At this rate. :!.544 persons will have suddenly disappeared during the year. Only IM of the Ml persons lost during the three months named were subsequently found. In lilt, M? 7 persons were murdered in America's greatest city. The aver age ratio of deaths in that great city during the three years 1904, I!W> and IMC, was five out of every 100,000 of the population. In Milan, Italy, the o was but 3.20, and in Venice but >2 per 100,000 of the population. One out of every ten persons whom you meet on the streets of "the rich est city in the world" is destined to be buried in Potter's Field, Thousands of its children go hungry and ill-clad to school. Glorious is trading-class "clviHza tjpn"! What could we do without tho "di rective ability" of the present masters of Christian civilization? Eh? "How is your son coming on at col lege?" "Not at all." "Why, what's the matter?" "He won't do anything but study."— Baltimore American. It is illegal to boycott, so we don't. We just limit our buying to Common wealth advertisars. ; means of subsistence only with the understanding that the said patriot render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, namely, all that the wage worker produces above the actual cost of his "keep"—an allowance taken j from the worker's product which the I boss calls wages. The amount of the I allowance granted, in cash or check, depends upon the average cost of hay and oats, the wage-slave's mainten ance. The main difference between the horse and the typical wage-slave is, ' that the boss has to buy a horse and take care of him, whereas the wage slave is obtained without cost, and has to take care of himself, the boss pay ing for his labor-power only when he needs it to get more products created than he pays for in the form of wages. i During the first three or four hours of the day, the wage-slave produces wealth equal to the wages he is to receive for his labor-power; the rest of the day he works for nothing. He is paid the cost of his labor-power for the day, not for his product. A horse gets the same. All the wealth the wage-worker creates above his wages, the cost of his maintenance as a wage-slave, is unpaid labor, a/id it is from unpaid labor that all rent, in terest and profit is derived. The real issue for the workers, then, is, how to reduce the amount of un paid labor; how to wrest from the capitalists a greater and greater pro portion of the products of wage-labor. Fighting for reduction of the cost of living will not help the workers. Fight ing for more wages, regardless of the cost of living, will help, especially if the fight is successful. Make the wages approach nearer and nearer the value of the workers' total product. With this end in view, the first "stpp iii the right direction" is reduction of the number of hours constituting a legal day's work, beginning; pay. with an fight-hour workday, a half holiday on Saturday, and a whole day Sun day. Organize on th« economic field with this end in vi»w, and at the same time fight for political supremacy, so chat th«« workers themselves ran pans a law making it a felony for an em ployer to work his employes more than eight hours lv twenty four, either at wages, pi»oo work, or on shams. Then enact a minimum wage law, call- Ing for not leas than $1"') a day (of eight hours). If the farmers can't ptand this s^ale of wßjreH, l*»t those who buy their products stand It. Like the. average wage.*!ave, the farmer gels by his labor only tHe ront of his maintenance, and he would R»»t thin if wares were ten dollars 'a tiny, if the farmers, who are actual wealth producers (not acrlcuUtiral landlords') Join with th«« wage-slavpa on these two ittntt. tho "unemployed problem" would be well oil tin! way 10 solution. and tlu> capitalist nyvtAffi w«ll on the way to dissolution ■ REPLY TO OPEN LETTER FROM MOUNTAIN VIEW. I'lulii-c.lt. Witsh . IV|. |, till i.' tiir Comsaoawealtti and Comrad< i m Hii 111111 •<■ 11 The i>i«'ii letter from local Moun lain View Ik timely mid every Social* Ist Who him Hiiniii-ii the problem of education nnd la familiar with our present ichool system, lt« actual alms, and the method') employed! should ■pare no effort to tSSiSi the Bocinllat party In diking t lit* right attitude to ward public education. liicirr \ i PtTUDH CM that? Well, keep llml In the limelight or our in\. tir.allon. first, last and nil the time. It Ih the b*M] riiiulanient upon Which all details of superstructure must be evented 111 absolute harm ony The reason that some Socialists are for and others against different proposition* in education is round in lli<> fact that they have no common altitude A eoinmon altitude Is not enough though, it niusl also he right. This is some Job. comrades We have been lllsa|ie«llH ill the matters of political and Industrial action, not because we have no common basis to work on, nor because it Is not right, hut because individuals and factions refuse to work from even v common basis, to say nothing °f a right basis. X the lack of acceplanee of a right common basis is the cause of strife within the party and among parties Claiming and originating In the same common fundamental condition, desire, aim. or attitude; then it is all the more important that we not only find the right common attitude toward public eil neat ion, but we must express that attitude in definite unmistakable terms in our platforms or let the matter of public education wisely alone till we can do so. Our educational attitude must be based upon tho true Socialist philo sophy. Many Socialists take their philosophy second-hand from Marx, treating his writings much as ortho doxy does the Hible and the Koran. They seem to think his works an in spiration instead of a scientific expres sion of his analysis of the economic relationship of things. What Marx has said is not the basis of our philosophy, the true basis is the source from which he drew, things as they actually are. Marx stands preponderant as a scien tist who could give definite expression to the fundamental scientific facts and laws of things about him, but the basis of our philosophy is true science, not Marx. Science has advanced since his time and we have greater means of enlightenment, while factors he could not imagine have entered human acti vities, so our educational attitude must, be scientific and in accord with the highest enlightenment of our times. The right attitude, being scientific, must of necessity be radically revo-' lutionary as is every other right atti tude we take when compared to things as they are under the system of ex ploitation we live in. Revolution and reform are two different things, and in drawing up our attitude great earn must be taken lest we mistake mere reform for our real revolutionary aim, a thing that has often happened. There seems to be a disposition among Socialists to be pretty well satisfied with our schools of today or to be continually complaining about them. The first group must have a fcilse notion of these schools and the work they are doing or they are off on their Socialism, while the second are doing little good. Neither group is qualified to determine an attitude. Only those who are thoroughly fami liar with our educational system and the true Socialist philosophy and who can offer a scientifically constructive plan should be entrusted with so Im portant a task. Any old capitalistic Dubb can find fault with our schools and suggest reforms. All but the un informed know that our schools have < stagnated, and the spirit of the times demands a revolutionary change. The only posHlble place such a change can l)« formulated is in the Socialist move ment, be it by Individual, faction or party; but It must tie scientific, revo lutionary and constructive. T..et us get to work and assemble all the light we can in this direction. It is suggested that those who have Ideas along these linns submit thfyn to the secretary of our educational bureau and to our party press. The writer will prepare a statement of an attitude that Is quite common among those who have given the subject serious thought. Yours for the evolution, —JOS. V. FUSS WarM Almanar 1914 at Hill's BooV Store, 29J3 (o.D/. Why Are Prices at Thotn sea's Upstairs Bull Shop So Low? Simply because we or* oat of the hl*h rent district and ye have no superfluous expense which enables us to Bell our guaranteed elothinit at Mirprlß lngly low figures. 1712 12 HEWITT AYE Room 102-3-4 Rlley Bldfj. Entrance on Alley HI IIIIMIIITTTIIITTI THE NEED OF 80CIAUST TEACHERS IN OUR SCHOOLS di\ I ii Llndttrora i In Hh ISIUI of October 17 tin' Oka- MgM Heei.nl prints a number or ad (lichhih liv MMM Of tlir* stair's promi nent educatori! Hint were delivered lit tho annual Okanbgan County Teach* era. institute at CoaooßOll} October 14,17. Among thnsn Is one by Prof. Prank O. Kri'UK<<r, head of a department at tin' State College at Pullman. Now I thai] MdMTOr I" DMM H few of lilh remarks 111n 1• • r tIM X-my, anil him! If they will stand a OIOM scrutiny From ii Socialisttc itandpolnt. To begin with, hi- Riiys: "The flrM ■ inn of (Mliicntion should In- to train th« people to BARM the iicdi poaalblc living." (Noti> the accent on 'earn.') Very ,!oo(l, lad Mdi That Is one of thf fnudiimciilaln of Socialism, and whan Urn Bociattati gel la power they will Ma to It that every one does earn Ills llviiiK. "If all were earning their living there would not lie much room for re form." lilt the nail 00 the head again, didn't he? "The second aim of education should be to create a capacity for enjoyment of IITe ami Ihe third should be to train us to serve our fellow man." Very well! Hut we all have the In herent capacity for the enjoyment of life. Under the nodal system which wa are tolerating, that capacity will b« a void, for the great maporlty, until BuCh time as they learn to think for themselves, and take the enjoyment they have earned, instead of allowing thw master class all the good things of lift* and themselves nothing. "Serv ing our fellow man" is all right, too, as long as we do not allow the masters to make it slaving for our fellow man. "One earns a living when he ex changes his useful surplus product for the useful surplus product of others;" another Socialist axiom, and well stated. l!ut how does that apply to the producing class when the masters pocket nil of their surplus products, and give them barely enough to re produce the power necessary to pro duce some more "surplus" for the boss to pocket? And, this being the case, the worker |has no surplus product, and having none of course cannot exchange it for another'!; therefore, he is not earning his living and is of course not entitled to live. How do you like it? "One could not earn a living mak- Mnk whiskey." How about all the un derpaid distillery and brewery em ployes? They not only earn a living, or rather an existence, for themselves, but out of their surplus products, whether useful or not, have been piled up fortunes aggregating many millions .of dollars to be spent by the master class in riotous living. He goes on to say that if Rockefel ler is earning forty millions a year he should be considered as one of the greatest benefactors of the human race the world ever knew; and lias the nerve to put Rockefeller's name along side of Lincoln in this comparison. Why not put the name of Captain KiUd alongside of Lincoln's in the same way he does Rockefeller's? Pot we have been taught to think that Captain Kidd was the greatest pirate of his time, and surely a few years does not make a difference great enough to make the comparison seem any more ridiculous. Now, considered from a financial standpoint alone, how do you suppose the entire stealings of ('apt. Kidd dur ing nil entire life would compare with the income of our modern pirate for one year? Do you suppose that he stole its much as forty millions in his whole life? Not by a long ways, or he would have been a capitalist like Rockefeller, and could have gone any where his Fancy might take him with out fear <>r being molested or inter fered with. I Someone says, "How about the lives h« took?" Did you ever stop to think of the lives that are snuffed out every [day in the interests of big business? Pick up your daily paper and you will find accounts of one accident after another, and seven out of every ten of them could have been averted by the use of the proper precautions for safety. But in the greatest scramble ,to rut down expenses and increase dividend* human life is not considered ntid It matters not at all to the capi talist if a few hundred miners or rail rondorß or workers of any kind are killed. There are always plenty more to take the vacant places and the mad rush for profits goes merrily on. If we are going to place * crown of laurel* mi Mr Rockefeller's brow. It It only fair that *c should include fur ne|?i.«. Vanderbilt. Morgan, Gould and ail th« rest of the Uunch. for th«»y navy stolen as much of the worhera' Burplus products and are responsible for fully as man/ lost lives as our friend Mr. J»ocWe!ler. Now what do you think &t tue l"amprf professor who tries to Incul eatw such tdeaa In the minds of our '«wis and daughters? Hut what art- you going to do about Sit, hs Is tk«n an>l with thousdn<la 'uore *. i.-' VMh Uai i^ •.•...■!.i.«- ..it EDITORIAL CENSORSHIP. I hi' artlclw print <-d tielow, from the pMi of Comrinln I mil Herman, in full of good flings at < apitaliflm and Its products. Hut the editor does not agree, with the whole alphabet, lie Ii opposed to the calm of sabotage And helloes not lielii that the letter J of Hie alphabet is defined with dis cretion. Socialists, more than liny others, should use tact wherever pO5 -.1,1. We're after the Socialist; and there Is a way to not get him. Hut we believe In publishing the con tributions of comrades Just as received whenever this Is possible. Don't blame the editor for views expressed over some other fellow's signature. THE A B C's OF A REBEL. My BMIL IIKKMAN. A. Agitator One who helps to shat ter the accepted ethics, morals, customs, etc., of the existing order and to plant the seeds of revolt. H. Bigot A wage-worker who thinks he knows so much and actually knows bo little that he makes a moat desirahle slave for capital. C. Christian One who does, or pre tends to, helieve the impossible. D, Direct Action—One of the terrors of the capitalist claBS when in telligently applied by labor. B. Kconomy—A thing for the wage worker to practice that the capi talist may squander. V. Faith To accept without quest ion anything taught, by the master or his satellites. (1. OniD —Synonym for food —swill fed to wage-workers in the log ging camps of the Pacific Coast. 11. Hardships—The lot of those who work for wages. I. Idiot —A person foolish enough to go hungry in the midst of plenty J. Judge—A capitalist satellite whom wage-workers should treat with contempt. K. King—A parasite for bigots and idiots to worship and have faith in. ' 1,. Laziness—Something all wage workers should practice. M. Modest —The desires of the aver age wage-worker. N. Nobility—The scum of European society. O. Order—A co-relative of law to be obtained by the use of the club, bayonet and gun during strikes . or hunger riots. I. Poverty —A menace to the average person which will disappear when we product for use inetead of profit. Q. Queer —The state of mind of the average wage-worker. R. Royalty —Twin sister to nobility. 3. Sabotage—A weapon which, when intelligently applied by the wage-worker, reduces the pro fits and decreases the power of capital at the same time it in creases the wages and develops the power of the wage class. T. Trouble —A condition in which the wage-worker should endeav or to keep hi* master. U. Utopian—A type of Socialist who dreams much but does little. V. Value —The necessary social-labor time crystalized in a commodity. \V. Wages—The value of labor-power. X. Xmas —A holiday on which the capitalist class provide the un employed with thoir winter dinner. Y. Youth —A condition unknown to several million child-slaves in the United States. Z. Zoolite —One who prefers to re main a slave rather than strike a blow for freedom. ASK HIM '' WHY NOT ? " Comrades, if you are dealing with a merchant who doesn't advertise In your paper, ask him why he does not do so. Reciprocity is no more than fair play. If you patronize him, let him in turn patronize the Common wealth. Our advertisers get good re sults. By inducing your dealer to ad vertise in >our paper you help his busi ness and h« helps your cause. Isn't this a fair «krhange? Speak to him about it right away, and if he's amen able to reason, we'll call on him and j-'et liia advertisement You cannot afford to be without the Commonwealth. We are willing that It should stand upon its merits. So send In a month's trial subscrip tion. It may make a permanent raader. Children that they must worship the man with the coin. is It any wonder that tht' man with the coin lit" i II and uses every effort to spread their teach ings. The crying noi-d of 'hi- Socialist movement at the present tim» Is for teaeherp. not only on the lecture plat form, but In our school* and among the young people. (Of the children of today art- tin- voters of tomorrow, and upon the kind of education they re ceive as much as upon agitation It pends the success of the Sn-lallst movement and the establishment of •th«. co-«[H.rativ,j commonwealth. BAtHELDKR.<a CORNEIL Better Clothes for Men and Boys/ BARRETTS j^g™J Kitchen Ware Coffee Pots, enamel, only 15c Dish Pans, enamel I«>C Wire Clothes Lines IOC YOUR NEEDS—SEE US—WE HAVE IT >»»»»♦»♦♦»»»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦»»♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»»♦♦♦♦< The New Canyon Wood Go. And Keithly Fuel C«. Under One Management j-f Can now supply you with anything you want in either coal or wood. A Trial Order Solicited Phones: 37 or Ind. 375, S. S. 495 ►»♦♦»♦♦»♦♦♦♦»♦♦»♦♦♦»♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦»»**♦♦♦♦*•»*•♦♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦< Let Us CaJl Your Attention to Chi-Namel The most wonderful finisher of wood yet discovered. You can pound it with a hammer and not Injure It In the least. Hot water has no effect on It. A child can apply It. Let us show you. Curraa Hardware Co., li\c- Corn;r Broadway and Hewitt Everett, Wash NORTHWEST SALES CO., FURNITURE Manufacturers' Selling Agents PICTURE FRAMING AND MOULDINGS 2809 Rockefeller Aye. Phone 697Z ROSE THEATRE . "EVERETT'S LIVE WIRE" ALWAYS THE BEST SHOW IN TOWN Continuous Show ff\, 'A NEW SHOW 11 a.m. to 11 p.m. liAJ|fWW|>%.* tYV\ EVERY ORPHEUM WrIAMWWWA SUNDAY FEATURE W|fWHanu»m .' MONDAY ORCHESTRA "Home of Better Shows" uuirnwccnAv Daily 2:30 to 4:30 HEWITT AVENUE BETWEEN wtUNts>UAY and 7:30 to 10:30 COLBY AND WETMORE FRIDAY DO YOU ATTEND THE ORPHEUM REGULARLY? IF YOU DO NOT, WE BOTH LOSE. ORPHEUM PROGRAMS REPRESENT THE BEST THA'K MONEY AND EXPERIENCE CAN BUY, AND ARE OF TF J HIGHEST STANDARD OF RESPECTABILITY— THE SHOW YOUR FRIENDS WILL BE DELIGHTED TO f VISIT WITH YOU. BRING THEM ALONG. COME TODAY- * .y GRAND Theatre "THE HOUSE OF FEATURES" \ Wednesday and Thursday j February 18th and 19th j Daniel Frohman Presents the Distinguished Dramatic Favoriti , JOHN BARRYMORE In the Celebrated Comedy-Romance "AN AMERICAN CITIZEN" By Madeleine Lucetto Ryl«y A made-to order marriage, a s\idden chanKe of nationality an.l a million complications, beginning with a laujfh and ending with a roar. Whatever happens, don't miss is Music by the Grand Elite Orchestra, Max Elster Leader SEE THE GRAND FIRST Thursday, February 12, 1914.