Newspaper Page Text
VOL VII NO. 24
CURRENT I COMMENT During the Past Week of Men and things—Man Burned at the Stake in Col= orado — Notes. Preston Porter, the Negro rapist, \ paid an awful penalty for the horrible • crime he committed on the innocent ': little- 10-year-old girl, when he was ~y burned at the stake by an angry mob *-;., in Lincoln county, Colo., one day .;. last week. It seems to us that no :. punishment too severe could have been inflicted on a man guilty of a ; crime as heinous as that which Por !-: ter himself confessed to have com ; mitted on an innocent little girl, for .. rape in itself is enough to tempt any j parent to inflict death on a monster - who had so mistreated a daughter, -; but when rape is combined with ; murder, it becomes almost impossi •. ble for any parent to restrain him ; self from wreaking any kind £of vengeance on so guilty a ■ wretch. However, it seems to us that ;' the-men who participated in the ?. burning of Porter at the stake, com mited a worse crime against the j peace and civilization of the com i munity and state in which they live % than even that committed by Porter. "; It matters not how heinous is the ■*;. crime committed by man, the laws £ of our land ■should be sufficient to V punish such, evil doers, and, if the •> laws are not sufficient as they now |; stand there should be laws enacted ; that will reach any crime however -enormous dt is. -; The governor of the state of Colo i: rado, the sheriff of Lincoln county :;. and all-of the citizens who partici pated in that awful tragedy of burn i ing a man at the stake,- are guilty of ■i crime that should be punished by ; the strong arm of the law of the ;; United States. Porter was guilty, £ confessed it, and deserved death in >j the most excrutiating form, but it f should have been done by the law, V:'after a fair and impartial trial had J. been given him. , is rather remarkable that no state in the United States has ever as yet burned a man at the stake ; un less such^sjjite was pverwj^piingly 4'Democratic. No in the North § ever before so far forgot the civilized ;' code of its "country ]as to relapse into *; barbarism sufficiently to permit it to ;•> burn a human being at the stake, 7 with the bare exception of Colorado, ,;- which was done within the past : week. That both Gov. Thomas and •: the sheriff of Lincoln county are I guilty of murder is shown from the X very fact that they said ere Porter was taken back to Lincoln county he would be lynched by the angry citi zens of that community if taken " back, but in spite of that he was . taken back, and on last Thursday he was chained to an iron post and burned, the pyre having been lighted and applied by the father of the daughter he so cruelly murdered. The citizens of Denver, Colo., met at the Y. M. C. A. hall last Sunday , ;in large "numbers and denounced in scathing terms the lynching in Lin coln county, proclaiming it to be a , blot % upon the face of the state, and such a blot as should not go unpun ished by the officials of the state. Gov. Thomas spoke at this meeting, ; and declared that his hands were not guilty of the blood-stained act, and that it rested wholly with the coun ty officials in whose charge and safe keeping the Negro had been en-_ trusted. The resolutions passed by the enraged citizens of Denver, ;verged almost into riotousne?s them selves, and it appears that had the sheriff of Lincoln county made his appearance at that time the audience ■ would have torn him to pieces with equal vengeance as did he encourage the mob to destroy Porter. Resolu tions were passed denouncing the burning by all the colored churches -in. Chicago, 111., and a gigantic peti tion was signed by both white and black citizens of that state, praying that the president of the United States suggest some law or remedy in his. forthcoming annual message whereby perpetrators of such crimes may be punished regardless of the state laws in which they lived. HILL'S NORTHERN PACIFIC. Current reports have it that James J. Hill, the great railroad magnate •. of this country, has gained control of the Northern Pacific system and . will operate the same in connection with the Great Northern. If this be true, there will be a great revolution in railroad affairs of the Pacific Northwest, and many changes may be expected. Having learned that Hill had probably gained control of the road a number of Seattle's leading citi zens at once conceived the idea that it meant nothing more or less than the overthrow of their rival city, Ta coma, and that most of the works of the Northern Pacific would be cen The SEATTLE REPUBLICAN tered in Seattle instead of Tacoma. If Mr. Hill has control of the North ern Pacific, it should not be lost sight of that he also has control of vast properties both in Tacoma and Portland, and that it will be hi); ut most care to see that these proper ties are properly looked after and nurtured into double their present value. For that reason he will hard ly do anything, regardless of his pre tended love for Seattle, that will in jure either of these cities. But if | Mr. Hill has control of the Northern Pacific, as he has of the Great North ern, it will give him a clean and clear swing from Port Townsend to Portland and the entire water front of Puget Sound will be monopolized by this great railroad magnate. ' WASHINGTON'S EARLY SNOW. One of the worst snow storms that has ever prevailed in the Northwest in early November set in last Satur day night and raged all.Sunday and Monday. Old settlers claim that nothing of the kind has ever before since they have been in this country prevailed as early as the present bliz zard. The storm raged not only in Washington, but all over the North west, and an immense amount of damage was done in Montana, Idaho and Eastern Washington, where the wind blew at a terrific rate and an immense amount of snow fell. In Montana the mercury was down to zero, and in Eeastern Washington and Idaho it was nearly as bad. . The weather, however, moderated early in the week, and Washington has as sumed its usual moderate climate. A BUSINESS SESSION. According to Senator Aldrich, the closing term of the 56th congress- is to be a business session. By this he means that it is to rush matters of an important nature through without tolerating any objections or obstruc tions on the part of the Democratic party. In some instances it is thought that the Democratic party will approve of many measures, and those measures will be put through practically without opposition. Chief among those that will be urged will be the repeal. of the war revenue tax, is ■' the money accumulating from that; is now so voluminous a.^to be come a load on the treasury^ officials. Another measure that willxlealt: with at ■o nce will tl%« -apportion ment for the '58th. congress the various states; According tt> the census reports some of the states will be entitled to at least one more con gressman, while others will lose at least one. In this, however, there will be a bitter partisan fight, as the Republi cans of the North are inclined to base the apportionment for the Southern states on the number of rotes cast, rather than the number of persons that are counted by the cen sus in those states. For an instance, it takes 50,0000 votes to elect a con gressman in Washington, while it takes but 5,000 in Mississippi, and vet Mississippi is far more populous than is Washington. This is ac counted for from the fact that at least 100.000 voters in Mississippi have been disfranchised, and yet are counted by the census enumerators, and yet men who disfranchised them are clamoring for extra recognition in congress on account of those very numbers. The Republican side of congress is not disposed to grant any such favor and is inclined to cut down the number of representatives from the South instead of increas ing them. This will bring on a bit ter partisan fight, which will not be settled before the 57th congress is in session. OUR TWELFTH CENSUS. Uncle Sam's twelfth census of the population of the United States is causing quite a bit of comment in the various newspapers and maga zines of this country, and the fol lowing from the Outlook is very ap propriate: "The aggregate population of the United States as. fixed by the new census is 76,295,220, as against 63, --069,750 ten years ago. The gain is something over 13,000,000. or near ly 21 per cent. There are many in teresting developments in the rela tive growth of states and sections. Thus, New York state still remains much the largest in population, hav ing gained the full 21 per cent, of in crease, rising in ten years from 5,997,853 to 7,268,009. Of this gain 75 per cent, is to be credited to New York city alone, while it is worth noting that the present city of New York now contains almost exactly one-twenty-fifth of the total popula tion of the entire country, and has as many people as the four states of California, Colorado, Connecticut and Florida combined; while its populous and prosperous neighbor, the state of New Jersey, has little more than half as many people as the metropolis. Without going into exact figures, it may be added that Pennsylvania and Illinois show rap id growth in population; Ohio has not gained nearly as Cast as the two states just mentioned, while Texas, on the other hand, has made enor mous gains in population, and has taken Massachusetts' place as sixth in population in the country, the order being Xew York, Pennsylva nia, Illinois, Ohio, Missouri, Texts, Massachusetts. Kansas Ims lost three places in the list of rank of population; Colorado and Washing ton have grown faster than Maine, while Florida, Washington and Ore gon have grown faster proportionate ly than Maine, Vermont and Xew Hampshire; Wyoming and Nevada -till have less than 100,000 people jacli, and Nevada is the only state in the country to show an actual de crease in population. Extremely im portant questions relating to the re apportionnient of representatives in congress will grow out of this new census. If congre.-s fixes the ratio of apportionment as one congressman for each 200,000 of pouplation, as it will very likely do (instead of one member for each 173,901 of the population as at present), the house will consist of 377 members, and the presidential electoral college of 4T57 members. It seems to be considered probable that this source will he pur sued. If it is, Kansas, Nebraska, Maine and Virginia would lose rela tively in their representation, while six states (Illinois, Michigan, Min nesota, New York, Pennsylvania and Texas) would gain two members each, and twelve states one member each. Politically speaking, and bas ing the conclusion on past elections, this would appear to be favorable in some degree to the Republican strength." THIS YEAR'S WARS. The year 11)00 i> rapidly drawing to a close, and it will go down in history as a great year for wars and national embroglios. England's war with the Boers, Uncle Sam's war with the Philippines and the revolu tion in Colombia, South America, are the most important. The following from an exchange throws some light on the South American war, which few citizens of the United States seem to know much about: News from the South American republics is slow in reaching the Uni ted States, and as it often comes al ternately from the two opposing po litical sides, it is not only slow, bat untrustworthy. Thai a revolution has been going ou^in Colombia has been known, but the first fully intelligible account of the situa tion we have seen is that given by the United States minister to Colom bia upon his arrival in New York last week. Most readers will be as tonished to find that the loss in kill gd and wounded of the present revo lution is estimated to aggregate 30, --900. This is not far from the num ber of killed and wounded generally estimated as the loss of the Filipinos in the conflict with this country, and it is very much larger than the loss on either side in the recent war be tween the United States and Spain. That such a war on our own side of the Atlantic should have attracted little attention is surprising; the cause is px*obably in tinl fact that no great questions of principle are in volved in this revolution, which, like most revolutions in South America, springs out of the clash of personal ambition and the lack of knowledge of what representative government Should be. At present the revolu tionists in Colombia, although they have gained some important battles, are strategically overmatched by the forces of the government, and Mr. Hart, our minister, thinks that the insurrection will soon be put down. Its leader rejoices in the poetical name of Rafael Uribe Uribe. But, apart from the insurrection, another political crisis exists in Colombia which may readily take the form of a second revolution, if it is not al ready of that character. The presi dent is Senor Sanclemente; the vice president Senor Marroquin. The president is somewhat old and infirm, and lias been living at Bogota to re cuperate. The vice president promptly took advantage of the situ ation, assumed all the powers of the presidency, and gained possession of the government buildings. The Marroquin government has been rec ognized by foreign state departments a.s the government de facto, the papal see alone declining to do this. Both presidents, by some financial and political arrangement impossible to understand here, are receiving full presidential salaries. Dr. Samuel Burdette, King coun ty's wreckmaster-elect, has incorpor ated an insurance company which charges an initiation fee of $5. T)r. Burdette has organized companies before in this city, and many of the citizens, both here and elsewhere, have some slight remembrance of those companies. Desk room for rent at the office of The Seattle Republican, 714 Third avenue; steam heat, ground floor and down town. Next door to the Seattle theater. Call at this of fice for further particulars. SEATTLE, WASHINGTON, FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 2*. 1900- WaslojooLGliajie_Ofts6Pvatlon§ _ t-kJ^ Ph i£ c Ie "f ashin?ton. showing different counties. Straits of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound and Columbia nver-the latter, forming two-thirds of the southern border between the state and Oregon. The Cascade mountains divide the state, running north and south and along the eastern borders of Lewis, Pierce, King and VVhatcom counties The markings show the average amount of rainfall for the different and irregular sections-the first, or w^ite less than twenty inches annually; single bars, 20 to 40 inches; diamond checks, 40 to GO; fine single bars, 60 to SO; "mail squares SO inches or more The Olympic mountains occupy the major portion of Jefferson and Clallam counties, extending southinto Mason and Chehalis counties By noting the figures along the Straits of Fuca-120, 100, SO, GO, 40-Uhe great rainfall on meu immediate coaßt Wlll be and. the constant rapid decrease as the storms advance eastward over the Olympic THE CLIMATE OP WASHINGTON". Seattle, Wash., "Nov. 20, 1900. j : The Pacific coast states are pos sessed of a climate peculiar to the coast, and little understood by peo ple of the East as a rule. Both Ore gon and Washington may be said to each have two different climates, varying greatly, produced by differ: ent causes herein discussed. It is with the climate of the state of Washington, however, with which this article will deal, the data being compiled from government statistics and local observations, 'being a syn opsis of an exhaustive article an the subject written by Prof. W. NY. Al len, of Washington state. Truly, a state wherein may :be found almost every phase, of "genial: climes —the salubrity of England; tempered by the Japanese current, ocean ward, and by eternal " snow capped,. mountains, landward, with no few and wonderful glaciers lurj»£ ing at their case; sumtiier^sunsnme, mingled with warm rains in so-call ed "winter months, points where zero weather never comes, where health conditions are always favorable, and midst scenery unequalled elsewhere in America, Washington —so little understood and so much misunder stood —is entitled to general study and better acquaintance. Of it wonderful scenery more anon. Its climate is of primal importance. A well-known United States weather bureau official, H. F. Alcia tore, has well said: "For equability and mildness of climate, absence of either very hot or very cold waves, and freedom from destructive torna does or cyclones Washington stands foremost among the favored states of the American Union." The climate of Washington is much more equable than that of other states situated jn correspond ing latitudes. The daily and season al range of temperature which so greatly affects climate everywhere is not great in this state. The mean temperature for the month of Janu ary, which is usually the coldest month in the year, is 35.2 degrees. This is the average of the mean Jan uary temperature for ten years, taken at stations distributed throughout the entire state. A similar average for July, usually the hottest month, gives 64.6 degrees. These aver ages cannot be far from the true or normal temperature for January and July. The difference between these is 29.4 degrees, the seasonal range. A comparison of the difference be tween the winter and summer tem perature in Idaho, Montana, Xorth Dakota, Wisconsin or "Michigan, all of which lie in the same latitude as Washington, with the seasonal change in this state will show that it is comparatively low. To this fact may 'be attributed the entire ab sence of sudden changes or violent disturbances of the atmosphere with in the state. The average of these two extremes, the temperature of January and July, gives a little less than 50 degrees for the mean annual temperature of the state. This is, however, about one degree above the true or normal temperature. . The daily range, or the difference between the daily maximum and minimum temperatures, is likewise comparatively low throughout the veak The climate of Washington is free from extreme variations of heat or cold. The highest temperature of the summer months gradually low ers to the lowest of the winter months. The change is almost im perceptible, especially west of the Cascade mountains, where the flowers bloom and the grass is green all the year. This equability of climate or th.it range in the daily and season* change of temperature is due chiefly to the influence of the ocean, the di rection of the prevailing winds, and the relative position and direction of the mountain ranges. The Cascade mountains divide the state into two sections, which differ as much in climatic conditions as in topographical aspects. The mean annual temperature of the whole of the Columbia river ba -i!i (Eastern Washington), deduced |rom official reports from fourteen stations well distributed over the basin, is 42.25 degrees. The station has a mean annual temperature of 54.7 degrees, the highest in the state. The mean for July is 76.3 de gree;; that for January 34.3 degrees, over 2 degrees above freezing point. The Chinook wind, which is a pretty Indian name given to the warm, moist winds from the Pacific ocean, cross the ocean freighted with the delightful odors of tropical climes. They'erifeT the state neaT the Trrrvnttr of the Columbia river and follow the course of the valley its entire length, even to Idaho, Montana, and some times as far east as the Dakotas. They are always welcomed. With them comes spring, warm sunshine, beautiful flower? and pleasant wea ther. In summer these winds from the ocean are cooler than the sur face of the valley, hence they have a refreshing influence upon all forms of life. They are, in fact, that part of the general atmospheric circula tion known as the prevailing wester lies. They are the rain-bearers of Washington. In fact all winds from the southern points of the compose •ire likely to cause rain. The annual rainfall in Eastern Washington is 14.66 inches. This is the average of sixteen stations well distributed throughout the basin. As compared with the average rain fall in the state it is much less than one-half. The rainfall at Walla Walla is 17.43 inches. One of the most interesting fea tures of the rainfall of a country is the time in which it occurs. The annual rainfall may be sufficiently great to supply all the requirements of agriculture, yet the distribution in time be such as to render agricul ture impossible. Tt is well known that little rain at the right time is of arreater service than much rain at other times. The rainfall in Eastern Washington is well distributed in this resipect. An inspection of the monthly reports shows that July and August are the dryest months, and that there is a gradual increase from September to January, when pre cipitation is greatest. From Janu ary to July there is a gradual de crease. This might seem to be the reverse of what should be for agri cultural purposes. It would be in corn-growing regions, or place-; where crops grow in summer and mature in autumn. The Columbia river basin is a district best suited to the growth of small grain and grasses. This is due to the peculiar ity of its soil and climate. Grain is [sown in tha autumn, about the time the rains begin. Tt remains in the ground during the period of great est precipitation, which is usually in the form of snow, matures and rip ens with the decreasing rainfall of ; sprint and early summer, and is har vested and threshed during the dry ■ est part of the year. This kind oi . distribution of rainfall is certainh . of great value to the agriculturalist . It does not necessitate the storing o1 > grain or hay. either before or after il > has been threshed. Hundreds o1 , thousands of bushels of grain mai be seen sacked in the harvest field: j during the summer months, or wait ,1 ing at the railway stations for ship nient, with nothing over it save the clear blue sky. There is another fact which should not be omitted in the consid eration of the climate of this district, and that is the character of its soil. Much depends upon it both, from a climatic and agricultural standpoint. If it be loose, sandy and porous, the solar heat and rain penetrate it to a .Treat depth, and are retained longer ,han if it were compact, cleyey and aard. The soil in the agricultural sections of the Columbia river basin is mostly of a loose, volcanic ash, which receives a large quantity of heat and moisture readily, and re tains them for a comparatively long time, ; Fastern 'Washington is a land of sunny rather than of cloudy weather. The state for the year 1898 averaged 138 clear, 114 partially cloudy and 113 cloudy days. The greatest num ber of clear days was 206, at Ellens imrg. . The .greatest number of rainy days was 33^ at Sunnyside. The least number of cloudy days was 18, at Fort Simcoe. The maximum clear sky prevailed in the Yakima valley, the real sunny side of Washington. This valley ranges in elevation from 330 feet at Kennewick to 1,700 feet near Ellensburg. The prevailing winds are from the mountains. They are dry, salubrious, rarely high, al though the valley proper is treeless. The snowfall in Eastern Washing ton averaged 30 inches for the yeaT 1898. This is somewhat less than the true or normal. It fell mostly during the months of November and December. This afforded the win ter wheat, meadows and pastures good protection during the coldest part of the year. Western V\ aaliiiiKton. This section is noted for the mild ness and equability of its climate. The temperature of the air over the ocean between the parallels of 45 and 50 degrees north remains sen sibly the same through the year. The prevailing winds, both in winter and summer, are from the ocean, from oil the Japan current, which flows southward just off the coast. These winds are comparatively warm during the winter and retard the lowering of the mercury. During the summer they have the opposite effect. They are comparatively cool and prevent very high temperature. Besides the close proximity to the ocean proper, there are at least 2,000 square miles of water surface within the confines of this part of the state. This great arm of the ocean, commonly known as Puget Sound, stretches far to the south, and extends numerous projections inland in almost every direction. Twice a day the ebb and flow of the tide, the coming and going of the water from and to the sea, cause an interchange of air from sea to land, and from land to sea again. All of these influences tend to equalize the temperature and maintain the equi librium. The second great influence in the climate of Western Washington is the relative direction of the moun tains to the course of the prevailing winds. The Cascade range extend north and south and forms the east ern border. This range is sufficient ly high to intercept the cold Walla Walla or east winds which, as a re sult, move down the Columbia river basin. The Olympic range from the mouth of the Columbia river to the Straits of Juan de Fuca, forms the western border. The variation of heat or the rising and falling of the mercury in the thermometer is not as great west as east of the Cascade mountains. The seasonal range or the difference be tween the January and July mean temperature is only 22.85 degrees west of tne mountains. On the east side the difference is 41.3 degrees, or nearly twice as much. Tiie mean annual temperature in Western Washington is 50.37 degrees. This a fraction over two degrees higher than in Eastern Washington. The mean temperature for January, the coldest part of the year, is 38.85 de grees. This is 6.80 degrees above freezing point. This means that Jack 1-rost does not visit the Sound country often, that the streams are not obstructed by him and arc open for navigation during the win ter. The grass is greeen and flowers bloom the year around out of doors. The mean temperature for July, the hottest month, is 61.7 degrees. This is 7.6 degrees less than the mean temperature for the same month east of the mountains. \\ estern Washington borders up on the largest of oceans, and has an interior water surface of over 2,000 square miles. Its low mountains are upon tne west and windward side, me Cascades form the eastern boun dary. A large per cent, of the "low s'" enter tne l nited States from the west and pass eastward through Washington. Mich are the general climatic conditions of this section, iiiey are conducive to much rainfall. Hie quantity, however, is not uni iorm as to distribution. It varies ac cording to local conditions. The average annaul rainfall ot the Pacific slope (along the immedi ate coast) is 91.75 inches, the great est average of any district within tlu I nited Mates, if not in all North America. The area of the slope i& comparatively small, however, con taining only about 6 per cent, of the total area of the state. At Clearwater, a station near the coast and about midway between Grays Harbor and Cape I 1 lattery, oc curs the greatest annual rainfall in the state, 132.09 inches. This means an average of about eleven feet yearly or about eleven inches per month. The chief reason for this great rainfall at Clearwater is found in the fact that immediately back of Clearwater is the highest and most compact portion of the Olym pic range. The slope is abrupt. The difference between the temperature of sea-level and the summits of the mountains is great. The moist winds from the ocean move land ward. They strike the snow-cover ed mountains, which cause conden sation and precipitation in great pro fusion. The two stations of ClearwateT and Port Townsend are not far apart, yet the difference in the an nual fall amounts to 110.40 inches, or over nine feet. Clearwater is on the rainy side, while Port Townsend is on the sheltered side of the Olym pic mountains. From Clearwater northward there is a decrease in the rainfall, also in the altitude of the mountains back of the stations. At Lapush the fall is 85.79 inches. Much of the moisture passes over to ward the northeast before falling as rain. There is a gradual decrease in the fall of rain from Cape Flattery east ward along the south shore of the Straits of Juan de Fuca to Port fownsend. At Neah bay, just in side the tape, the fall is 109.37 inches. At Pysht it is 68.28 inches. Further east, at Port Angeles, it is 29.64 inches, while at Port Town -end, the eastern extremity of the -trait upon the south side, it is only 21.69 inches. This means a decrease ;)f 87.68 inches in about as many miles. A comparison between the rainfall it Port Townsend with that at sta tions east or northeast, such as Blame, Xew Whatcom, Sedro and shows a decided increase. The average of the above named >laces is 43.18 inches, or nearly twice is much as at Port Townsend. The Puget Sound basin lies be tween the Olympic and " Cascade ranges. This section is much larger than the narrow belt along the Pa cific coast. It extends north and south through the entire width of the state and far up the mountain -lopes upon either side. In the north ■entral part of this basin is situated Puget Sound and most of the large cities of Western Washington. The mean annual rainfall, taken it ten stations in this district, is 17.95 inches. These stations are quite equally distributed from Blame, near the northern line, to La Center, in Clarke county on the southern border. Tn elevation they range from 15 to 300 feet above sen level. The length of their records extends from one to twenty years. The average, then, cannot be far from the true normal. . Chehalis has a rainfall of onh L 8.13 inches, while Ash ford, sonif distance northeast, has an average oj 71.74 inches. Ashford Jias an alti hide of 1,775 feet and is situated oi the western slope of the Cascadt ( Continued on page 2 ) PRICE FIVE CENTS POINTED PARAGRAPHS Touching on Science, Indus try and Mechanical Im provements-Scientific American Roasted A pipe line built to carry Caspian petroleum to the sea is 142 miles long. Heretofore the petroleum has been carried to its destination by trains, which has proved rather too expensive. Hence the new pipe line. Soda water fountains, an Ameri can institution, are slowly but surely being introduced into English drug stores. During the past summer a chemist shop in Birmingham sold as; nigh as I,OUO drinks a day. The physicians of that city made strenu ous objections to the use of the icy drinks; nevertheless they were con tinued to be sold. The annual report at the conven tion of the progress of the United ■States .National ..Museum for the year ending June 30, 181)8, was very en couraging to the promoters of the institution. There were 450,000 dif ierent specimens brought in during the fiscal year. The total number of specimens up to July 1, 181)8, ex ceeded 4,00u,000,000. Since 1881 3,972,987 persons have visited the museum. Coffee-growing in tropical Africa, \vhieh is a recent innovation in that, country, lias developed into a most lucrative as well as profitable busi ness. Though only five years ago iince the first seeds were taken there, iOO tons were sent out by the dealers during the past season. The coffee produced there is said to be a supe rior quality, even surpassing the fa mous ilociia. The demand for it at present is much greater than the sup ply. Each year the Russian minister of iinanie fixes the amount of sugar which -ball be produced in the em pire and the price at which it is to be sold. The average domestic con sumption is about 1,000,000,000 pounds, and that is the legal amount allowed upon the market by the gov ernment. In addition to that amount 180,000,000 pounds are pro duced and put in storage in case- of accidents. An excise tax of 2 1-2 cents per pound is charged by the government on the annual allowance.. j.f this does not supply the market, the reserve is let out without tax, md if the reserve does not supply . the market, then the government buys the necessary amount from for eign governments, and this is also let out to the people without an excise tax. The government of Russia has twice made outside purchases within the past ten years. Up to December 31, 1899, there were 190,833 miles of railroad com pleted in the United States. Of that 186,590 miles are reported as traffie earning. Upon this trackage were carried about 538,000,000 passengers and 978,000,000 tons of freight. The total traffic revenue was $1,336, --000,000; the operating expenses were $888,000,000, leaving the net earnings $448,000,000, which with $66,000,000 other receipts brings the total revenue to $513,879,443. There are 37,245 locomotives, 34,000 passenger and baggage cars and 1,328,000 freight cars. "A telegraph line has been com pleted between Seattle, Washington, and Skagway, Alaska." —Scientific American, issue Nov. 3, 1900. If the above statement is a sample >f the American's accuracy in its re ports »if all scientific matters, then it .s a complete imposition on the peo ple of this country, who absolutely depend upon it for correct scientific reports and information. There is no telegraph line between Seattle, Washington, and Skagway, Alaska, and none even in construction, and as near to a telegraph line between the two points mentioned as is an actual fact is a favorable recommen lation that the United States gov ernment lay a cable line between Se attle and Skagway at an early date by a recent army officer, which re port, it is thought by many, will be favorably acted upon by the Wash ington City authorities. In the fu ture the Scientific American should know that the news it publishes is unquestionably true in every detail, for it is yellow journalism to jump at conclusions as absolute facts, and a weekly journal like the Scietific American should be the very last kind of a paper to give out such con clusions as facts.