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The Seattle Republican. (Seattle, Wash.) 1???-1915, August 02, 1901, Image 1

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84025811/1901-08-02/ed-1/seq-1/

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Vol. VIII., No.««r
Of Men and Things in the
Public Mind.
Uncle Snm<H Trade With South Am
erica— Sampaon-Schley Controver-
I My—France!) Flying; Machine a
Siiccea*— Lamentation at
Hi* Political Overthrow—Sooth
Carolina Democrats Split in
Twain—Boer* Breathing- Their
Last—Krujjer Dying; in Exile.
The countries of South America
are becoming quite a factor in the
financial affairs of the United States
and for no other reason than on ac
count of the trade relations that
have steadily grown between these
two countries since the memorable
Pan-American conference, which
was planned and carried out by the
immortal James G. Blame. While
some of the South American gov
ernmenat still look upon the Unit
ed States with distrust, believing
that she has an eye single to absorb
that entire country, yet firms are
freely exchanging trade relations
with her ,and a few figures from
year to year on the subject will
prove the truthfulness of the asser
tion. ' In 1890 the total exports to
South America from the United
States were $38,752,648; in 1901
the exports from the United States
to South America had increased to
$45,181,000, and to Central Ameri
ca to $7,020,000; to the West In
dies to $49,100,000 and to Mexico,
$37,000,000 showing that our trade
on the whole to the Latin American
countries had grown from $90,531,
--000 in 1890 to $138,300,000 in
1901. While this is not what it
should he and what it would be and
what it will be if the proper steps
sire only taken by the commercial
men of this country, nevertheless it
shows a marked increase over what
it was prior 'to the Pan-American:
The controversy which has been
going on between Admiral Sampson
and Admiral Schley, as to who was
entitled to the victory won by Un
cle Sam's naval fleet at Santiago,
ever since the memorable battle
was fought, is now being investigat
ed by a court of inquiry, and it
is hoped that the real facts will be
brought out and the honor will be
given to him to whom it is due.
Schley friends have from time to
time insisted that he won the day
on - that occasion, while Sampson's
friends are equally positive that he
won the day. The Republican be- :
lieves that Admiral Sampson won
Santiago victory. It believes that
Admiral Schley took an active part
in the fight and doubtless watched it
from his flagship, as did the other
naval officers, but there seems to be
no doubt that Admiral Sampson
planned all of the details for the
fight in case the Spanish fleet at
tempted to escape, and though i per
haps Admiral Schley did carry out I
the orders of the commander in
chief, Sampson, he is entitled to no
great amount of honor for obeying;
orders. If Schley's contention be
sustained then the popular belief
that General Grant won many bat
tles and finally captured General
Lee, would be only an idle dream.
All of his under generals could step
in and, under such a ruling, claim
the honor, as they executed his or
ders, and might perhaps truthfully
say that General Grant was either in
the rear or was by no means in the
thickest of the fight when success
came to his forces. Admiral Schley
was the underling at the Santiago
battle and should expect no more
than others who were compelled to
obey orders on that occasion.
/ •——
If M. De Santos Dumont's flying
machine proves as huge a success as
he now believes that it will do, aerial
navigation will soon become as com
mon as automobiles, and an up-to
date family without a flying ma
chine will be very few and far apart.
The automobile at present is out of
the reach of the average working
man, but it will sooner or later be
reduced in price so that a laboring
man can be the possessor of a splen
did automobile and thus be able to
give his family a spin about the city
and into the country without very
much expense. If, as said above,
Dumont's flying machine'is the suc
cess that a great many scientists
now believe that it will be, the fly
ing machine will finally be on a par
with the automobile, and it will
then only be a , question of time
when it will become as common to
the middle classes as it is to the
| wealthy classes, and a man will have
his family out flying in mid air
| with all the ease and safety as rid
ing in a railroad car. Inventors
: have been struggling to perfect a
! flying machine for the use of man
I almost since the mind of man run
neth not to the contrary, but it
j seems that Dumont, a young
! Frenchman, has come nearer solving
'• the problem than anyone who has
! ever undertaken it. His invention,
■ which was recently put on exhibi
tion in Paris, did all and even more
I than was expected that it would do
i when turned loose in the air, and as
cended and descended to the ground
at the will of the operator.
It was pathetic almost beyond
i measure to see how hard the im
mortal William Jennings Bryan
| took his final overthrow in the Dem
i ocratic party. First one state and
then another has made onslaughts
on Bryanism, but the climax was
! reached a few days ago when Ohio,
possessing the most powerful organ
ization north of Mason and Dixon's
line, struck it a body blow below the
belt and Bryanism was perhaps put
to sleep for all time to come. Wil
liam Jay\ who had furnished the
wind and water for this political
machine since 1896, made desperate
efforts to blow new life into the po
litical corpse, but it would not go;
it had seen better days; the struggle
was ended, and it yielded up the
ghost. Visionary as was William
Jennings Bryan, nevertheless he
i caused more political consternation
among the voters and business men
of this country than any one man ]
i since the republic was first organ
| ized, and had this master mind been
i inclined to support measures thai
j would have advanced the commer
; cial interests of the country instead
of blocking it, the United States!
would have never possessed a more j
remarkable man than he, but, like!
I the old man from the country who j
remarked that his friend, Mr. Jones, |
was the smartest man in the world,
but it. all ran to devilment, so it
seems to have been with Mr. Bry-j
! an. He is now a thing of the past. '
■ and peace bo to his ashes.
It is worthy of more than passing j
i notice to read of Tillmanism pitch- \
I forking Senator McLaurin out of
: the Democratic party in South Car
jolina. Owing to the force of cir
cumstances, Senator Tillman was!
j for the present able to hold his op
i ponent up to political ridicule, not
only in South Carolina, but all over
the country, but it is he who laughs
last who laughs best, and The Re
publican predicts that before anoth
er five years will have passed Till
manism will be completely swamped
by McLaurinism in South Carolina,
which will spread to other South
ern states. The conditions that now
exist in the South cannot continue,
and the political internicine war
that has broken out in South Caro
lina will become common to the
South, and it will result in the dis
franchisement embargo, which has
been placed upon the Negro of that
section, being raised and he will be
given his full political rights in or
der to help the various factions out
in their'respective struggles for su
From bad to worse the govern
ment over which the venerable Paul
Kiuger, more commonly known as
Ooin Paul, has from time to time
been driven and struggle as though
the Boers could or did they must
now see their doom and realize their
final overthrow at the hands of
Great Britain. "He that soweth to
the wind will surely reap a whirl
j wind," and this the Boers most as
suredly did and they are now reap
| ing the inevitable results of their
I sowing. Their president an exile
J from home, is not only an exile, but
jis fast tottering to his grave.
His soldiers and his generals are
i either prisoners at St. Helena or
j guerrillas in South Africa striking
spasmodic blows here and there
without very much effect. Mrs.
Kruger, who for years was the mov
ing spirit of the republic, passed
away one day, last week and this
| threw another great gloom over the
; disheartened people and so weaken
i ed Mr. Kruger that his days are now
! numbered. What a pity that more
consideration was not used on the
part of Mr. Kruger and his advisors
in the framing of their republic in
South Africa, by making friends in
>tead of enemies out of the natives
I" and subsequently -by offering
I fight instead of diplomacy to the
British government. There no lon
ger exists any government or any
form of government for the British
to treat with, interpose as much as
the European powers might or will.
j The Boer population has been re
duced to a few guerrillas and there
is but a wreck of a onec prosperous
' republic left to tell the tale.
1 7% F"S f% *T 11F™ W%
mjf I ! V 111 Li I I
Under Critical Eye of Ob
-1; serving Men.
Afro-AmericnnH Need Civil Service—
They Shout Too Load for the Gov-
C'hirnKo'ti Illy Church in
Dancer of tleiiiK' Colored
Men Not Good Moulders—Bishop
(•nine*! Sail* for Europe— Talks on
the Negro Problem in This Conn- i
try at Length. ;
No class of American citizens ]
should be stronger sticklers for civil;
service than the Afro-American, |
for the reason that it affords him an
opportunity* so far as the general!
government is concerned, to get a!
place and position that he otherwise!
could not possibly get if left to the!
selection of private individuals.!
Within the past two years in the
city of Seattle, three colored per
sons ha"ye taken the civil service ex
amination, and, remarkable to say,
each of them stood first or third on
the list in the class with whom they 1
took the examination, and with such
standings each of them have been
able to get good work and not noly
steady positions, but fairly good!
wages. The recent selection of Eu
gene Harris as official stenographer
at Walla Walla is a position that he i
could not have gotten under any;
circumstances had he applied to:
some congressman or to some reg-;
ister of the land office, for however
j capable he might have been the po- j
j sition would have been refused him
J for no other reason than on account
J of his color, but he took the exam- '•■
I ination and was assigned to duty al-i
most at once. The educated Afro-
American therefore should have
• nothing but praise for civil service,
--i that is civil service indeed, and
j when municipalities will have |
I adopted civil service and reduced it
to a business proposition, and then
men who are able to pass the exam-'
S ination will be the men selected re- '
gardless of their party politics or
their nationality, then it will see
■good results.
Over in Kentucky and even in a
number of exchanges edited by col- j
ored men, a strong condemnation \
has been registered by-the colored
folk on account of Governor Beck
ham objecting to having a colored
church built on a lot adjoining.his
home in Frankfort Ky. So bitter
ly opposed to the proposition is he
that he threatens to have the capi- 1
tol of the state removed from
Frankfort if the church goes up. i
The Republican sees nothing to
condemn the governor for on this
point and if the colored folk them
selves will stop and consider, they
will remember that they serve God
more demonstratively than any oth-j
er race, many of them pray as
though He were deaf, and their j
shouts and hallelujahs mingled with
their excitable prayers, especially in
a large congregation, are by no
means pleasant even to colored folk
themselves who do not believe in
that way of serving the Lord, and if:
the governor is satisfied in his mind j
that the congregation that contem-1
plates building by the side of him
will prove just such a demonstrative
congregation as is mentioned above,
he should not be condemned for
not wanting the church built by the:
side of his home. Kentucky rebels
do a whole lot of things that de- j
serve the condemnation of all good !
people, but here is one objection
from them that is deserving of a
fair and impartial consideration lye
fore being condemned.
It is learned from the Inter Ocean
that the large, commodious church j
edifice known as Quinn Chapel in:
Chicago, is in danger of being sold
under a - mortgage foreclosure.
Quinn Chapel is perhaps the largest
church edifice in the United States
in the possession of colored folk.'
and it is estimated that it has the
largest congregation of any church
in the country. No church in Chi
cago, regardless of the nationality,
has as many regular visitors as this
church, and it seem- rather remark
able that it should not be able to
maintain itself and prevent the
property from being sold under the
hammer. The debt against the
church amounts to $7,000. and at a
rally a few Sundays ago the pastor,
Rev. A. J. Gary, succeeded in rais
ing $2,500, and not being able to
move beyond that notch, he has all
but despaired of raising the other
$5,000, and unless some one takes
hold of it the property valued at not
less than $25,000 will be lost, which
the A. M. K. Church can ill afford
to lose. If, therefore, the pastor can
go no further it seems that it would
be meet and pi'oper for the A. M. E.
organization to step in and raise the
necessary funds and thereby prevent
i the connection from losing a val
] nable piece of property.
In the Metal Worker, a weekly
I journal published in New York and
j Chicago, some very interesting facts
are learned about the Negro as a
moulder. They are not only inter
esting facts, but they should prove
very salient lessons to the young Ne
gro, who is coining forward in this
; day and generation to compete with
his brother in white. Some twenty
years ago it was thought by many of
1 the operators of foundries in the
South that the Negro promised to
i revolutionize foundry work through
out not only the South, hut the en
tire Tinted States. He seemed by
nature an adept to the business, and,
owing to the fact that he naturally
lived cheaper than the white man,
it was thought that those employed
in foundries would soon become
wealthy citizens from their enarn
ings, but nineteen years of experi
ence have proven far different than
was anticipated, for the writer de-1
dares that at the present time there
is but one foundry in the South that j
employs Xegroe.- as moulders and
this one does so more for policy's
sake than for real merit. The rea
son that they are not given places
as moulders, is that they do not do
their work systematically nor do
they ever learn the difference in the
articles which they are moulding. So
earless are they about their work
that they are left completely out in
tlii.- business. If the Negro of this
age intends to compete in the work
ing world he hail better learn a les
son from this and practice punctu
ality and study the art of doing hi?
work the most cuccessful way, and
whenever he has finished a piece of
work, let it be done with neatness
and dispatch and be able to favor
ably compare with that done by any
other man, regardless of his nation
ality or lot in life, or he will never be
more than a hewer of wood or a
drawer of water.
Hisiior <;ai\ks talks.
Among the noftd Afro-Ameri
cans that have gone to Europe this
summer is Bishop W. .1. Games and]
daughter, who will spend some four
months touring Europe. Bishop
(James is noteworthy as being the
second bishop in the A. M. EL
church as to service, the bishop
ranking him being Rev. 11. M. Tur-I
ner. lie is also noteworthy because I
of the fact that he has written a!
number of books, which have been j
very favorably received by the gen
eral reading public. Though he was,
born a slave and is far from being
a classic student, yet his books show
profundity of thought, clean cut
sentences, each of which strikes the
vital point, and. in short, they show
the work of a scholar rather than
a cobbler. Prior to sailing in an in
terview in the New York Times he
used the following language touch
ing on the race question of this
"I am not in favor of any radical
measures to improve the conditions
of the Negro. We must work out
our salvation by degrees.
"1 have perhaps a novel theory
along this line. It is that the Ne
gro shall imitate the Jew. Some
years ago a certain hotel in Sarato
ga objected to the Jews as guests.
You know what the Jews did? They
bought the hotel. That's what 1
preach to my people, lie saving,
educate yourselves, he law-abiding, I
become substantial citizens, and yon |
will one day have a power they can't!
wrest from you.
"It is not the old people of the
South who are so bitter against the
Negro, it is the younger element. \
They have bitter views and feelings
against us that their fathers did not \
entertain: they are not so kind."
Persons who were present at the
time the Negro found under the bed
of some young ladies in this city one
day tin- week was arrested, say the
report in the little twinkling * to
the effect that there was talk of
lynching th"c man was a most flag
rant a- well as malicious lie and
such was published by it for sensa
tional effect. Nine tenths of all that
that measly sheet published day in
and day out are lies and deceptions
and this is only one of many. The
business men of this city would
rather a hundred times over lynch
the head of that lying sheet than a
hundred rapists, be their color white
or black. It advocates anarchy, rev
olution and everything damnable
and the business men of Seattle who
patronize it are only giving succor
to an institution that is fostering
riots and revolution. Of all tin 1
rapes that have occurred in this city
no talk of lunching was ever l>efore
heard of until there was a black man
' in it.
j Among the World's Christians
and Quasi Christians.
:■ —
(liristinn Endeavor Grown Very
Rapidly—The Pnn-Amerirnn l',\-
ItOHition Huns on Sunday—Chris
tian Scientists GniniiiK Grounds—
Religion* Confcrrxs liolil.o Seventh
i Animal —Ctiluiii Catholics
in Financial Straits—Enjylanii'H
Methodist I.ll} Preacher**.
j It might be of interest to persons
| of religious inclination to learn that
the twentieth annual convention of
the Christian Endeavor Society,
J which was recently held in Cincin
nati and which-was organized In"
Francis E. Clark, has now a mem
bership of 4,000,000, with 61,427
distinct societies. The constitution
of this organization is printed in
thirty different languages and the
indications are that by the time it
j is half a century old, it will have a
i membership of not less than 10,
--| 000,000 and be one of the most
powerful religious organizations in
the world.
Much pressure was brought to
bear on the directors of the Pan-
American Exposition to have them
close the grounds on Sunday, but
the desire on the part of the direc
tors to make the Exposition pay.
proved a more potential influence
than the religious pressure, hence
despite the fact that much attention
and consideration has been given to
religion in various ways by the di
rectors of the Exposition, the
grounds are thrown open the same
on Sundays as on Monday, and
probably has larger crowds on that
day than any other. The desire of
the city folk to have a Sunday out
ing has destroyed much of the old
Puritanic spirit and it is not-con
sidered very much of a breach of
religious belief and faith to go out
and spend a pleasant .Sunday in in-;
nocent amusement during the sum
mer season.
Christian Science, whether good
or bad. is fast becoming strongly
! fixed in the minds of many of the
citizens of this country, and that,
too, to an almost alarming extent.
Legal steps in. many cities have al
ready been taken to prevent minors
and irresponsible persons from be
ing treated by Christian Scientist.-,
but responsible persons are permit
ted the habit of being treated by
this faith cure imposition to grow
upon them. That the whole theory!
is as false a.- itjs foolish is beyond
a question, and it is most remark-;
able that persons of good sound
mind and well deueated would per
mit- themselves to be imposed upon
| by impostors of such a low type.
During the week ending July 18,
the seventh annual congress of the
religions of the world was held in
Buffalo, X. V.. and it was largely
attended by delegates from all parts
of the world. The Jew, the Greek,
the Gentile, and all other religious
denominations were represented and
discussed the various phases of re
ligion from their way of thinking
with fervency, and, of course, bril
liancy. These conferences may nev
er result in one common religion,
I but they will result in one religion
| ist showing much more respect for
the other, a- well as prompting one
nationality to show a greater con
sideration and respect for the feel
\ ings and religion of the other.
The change of government in the
island of Cuba ha.- deprived the Ro
: man Catholic Church of that island
jof an annual revenue of $300,000,
I which amount was drawn from the
! treasury. This has caused so much
financial consternation in church
j circles of the island that the bishop
jis offering the church lands and
I property at sixty-five cents on the
i dollar and still finds it impossible to
dispose of the property even at that
reduction. The overthrow of the
Spanish government in Cuba. Puer
to Rico and the Philippine islands
was a hard blow to the Roman Cath
| olic Church, not only in those is-
I lands, but to the Roman Catholic
| Church in general, for with Ameri
can conquest, Protestatn religion
i follows in its wake. While the con
stitution of the United States has
no religious clause in it, neverthe
i less Protestant religion follows tin 1
j constitution like unto the flag of Our
country. The one is quite inseparn
! hie from, the other.
j _ —
! Lay preachers are still a feature of
'• English Methodism and according
to reports there are at present 19,
--i 950 lay preachers against 2,152 ac
tive ministers in the Wesleyan
; j Church of England, and these
preachers are supported for the most
j part, owing to their old age. by a
mutual aid association, which was
1 founded some fifty pears ago and is
i a feature of all forms of Methodism.
I The custom of paying tithes in
the Mormon Church is still relig
iously lived up to by persons who
; believe in Mormon ism. and if a
stranger, whether he be a mechanic,
artisan or common laborer, works
1 for the temple or for one of the
Mormon' bishops, ten per cent, of
■his wages is deducted every week
for the church. • If the workman.
however, kick? on the proposition
the balance is paid to him, but one
is not supposed to work for the Mor
[mon Church in any shape, form or
; manner without surrendering one
tenth of his wages to the church.
This is their custom and they expect
it to work with one man the same
I as another, if the man is working for
j (he church.
Parochial schools have been com
j mon to the Catholic Church and al
so the Episcopal Church for many
i centuries, but the latest move in
that direction is the establishing of
a parochial school in connection
with -.the Seventh Day Advents'
church. They claim to have 2,000
churches and they propose to find
j teachers among the worshipers of
! each of those churches and to or
ganize schools for the children of
'the members of the various
churches, and have • those teachers
i put in charge of them. While pa
-1 rochial schools to some. extent are
common to all of the Protestant
churches, yet (hey have never be
come a part of their religion like
they have a part of the Catholic and
episcopal churches. Whether right
or wrong, the idea is becoming firm
ly fixed m the minds of persons of
such religious faiths, ami it is not
'decreased to any great extent, fight
as hard as the', various Protestant
j churches of this country will or I
f may. . ■
. __^^
Mr. F. F. Keebel. Tacoma's well
j known barber and bath house man,
! was visiting the city last Sunday,
and it is said on the quiet that Fritz
has found attraction in the Queen
1 City that promtps his weekly visits.
Key. M. Scott will preach his fare
welt sermon Sunday, August 10,
am! will leave for the annual confer- j
ence the following Thursday. His
farewell sermon does by no means
! indicate that he will not return to
I this place after the conference ad
journs, but it i.- the custom of Meth
odist preachers to always preach
their farewell sermon prior to going
to the annual conference, that in
case something happens that they
will not get back the* will have fin
ished up their work properly. Rev.
Scott i- well liked at this point and
will doubtless be returned to the
work by the bishop.
It. is said that the angora goat is
fast supplanting the cattle and
sheep sulture of the West. The first
angora goat was brought to this
country in 1849 by Dr. James B.
Davis of South Carolina. They were
not a success in the South, but prov
ed a splendid investment in the
West, and there are now over a
million goast in Arizona, New Mex
ico, Texas, California, Idaho, Utah
and Oregon. The stockmen are re
alizing that the day is not far dis
tant when the angora goat will take
the place of both cattle and sheep.
A new anarchist party has been
organized in Rome, Italy, and in
the manifesto issued by it. the fol
lowing are the essential points: The
suppression of the cause- of all so
cial inequality; absolute liberty is
essential to all men, with the re
spects for life ,which should be sac
red and inviolable. Condemns vio
lence and all attempts on the lives
of sovereigns and other persons.
A French count, who recently
died at the age of eighty-five, left
$800,000 to his native city, 'Rouen..
Twenty thousand of this is to be
given each year to the biggest and
best built couple when married, of
that city, ten thousand each to the
I husband and wife. This is done
with a view of improving the
French race.
Mr. MeLaurin will be. a Republi
can and he will lead the liberal
forces against Tillmanism, and the
next Republican presidential candi
date will stand a splendid show of
getting the electoral vote from that
state, though the local conditions
may not improve over what they are
: at the present time for the next two
; decades or more.
Price Five Cents
j Brief Statistical Wayside Notes
I of the World.
Fact* and Figures About Things in Gen
eral Culled and Collected by th«
World;. Master Minds—Much in Little
Concerning Things That Interest Hu
manity Most - The United State*
Leads in Points of Interest Commer
i cially and Otherwise.
There is a cheap quality of wine
j that can be bought at wholesale in
Lisbon; Spain, for two cents a quart.
In order to keep an engine in
smooth running order it requires
100 gallon? of oil per year.
. The refining of sugar was first in
vented and put into operation in the
! sixteenth century at Antwerp.

i Autocars are to be used by the
Paris police to overtake street cars
limning at too rapid a rate and for
the overhauling of criminals using
an} r knid of a,rapid transit to escape.
The Kansas legislature recently
passed a law forbidding the require
ment of children to prepare their
lessons at home for recital the next
day at school.
i In the islands of Mount Surrat,
British naturalists have discovered
a sting I ess bee that is famous as a
honey .maker, and an attempt will
be made to transplant the breed to
England and other places.
Female hpysicians of Sweden are
not permitted to hold positions in
hospitals, and a monstrous petition
lias been presented to the govern
ment that such a privilege he no
longer denied them.
According to some scientists the
bread eaters of the world in 1871
numbered 000,000; in 1881 the
number rose to 410,000,000; in 1891
i:-2.;nH\!M>'>; ■■at~- the -present 4ime~
they number 516,500,000.
Aeeordingto a medical and surgi
cal reporter there has been a mark
ed decrease of mortality in recent ,
years, which is largely due to the
better knowledge of medical juris
prudence among the soldiers.
The editor of a medical paper has
just discovered that a half an hour's
nap in the afternoon after a meal
has been partaken of is helpful, a
fact most any old body has known
for many years.
An American's expectation of life
is good at any period. The Eng
lishman's is not quite so good by
just a shade; the German's is less
by a year, and the Frenchman's is
a little better than the German's.
The personal property of the late
Senator Fair of California is valued
at 6,000,000, and, according to the
ruling. of a judge in that state, two
thirds of the amount will be imme
diately sold and distributed among
the heirs.
Though Thomas Jefferson and
John Adams were for many years
close personal and political friends,
yet the later years of their life they
were such bitter enemies that Ad
ams left the capitol rather than see
Thomas Jefferson inaugurated pres
ident of the United States.
Empress Josephine first popular
ized what is now known as the
handkerchief, owing to the fact that
she had irregular, black teeth, she
held a lace handkerchief before her
mouth whenever she laughed, and
the custom was thereby established.
The Sprague family has had
charge of the American "consulate
at Gibralter for sixty-nine years,
but the Fox family, Englishmen,
has held the little consulate at Fal
mouth since the time of George
Washington and has received $300
--per annum for the same.
Kansas i- at the front with
"standing wheat in the field at
noon, harvested, threshed, ground
into Hour, baked into bread in large
quantities, sold around town by 6
o clock, served for supper, all in the.
same day." Kansas is remarkable
for remarkable lies.
.*—— -
Here is the history of London's
bridges in brief: Westminster bridge
was begun in 1738 and finished in
1746; Blackfriars bridge in 1760
and finished in 1770^ Waterloo
bridge in 1811 and opened June 18,
1817; Southwark iron bridge in
1814 and finished in 1819, and the
present London bridge in 1824, be
nig opened on August 1, 1831.

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