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Chicago eagle. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1889-19??, October 22, 1898, Image 6

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the way of vmt iiu'oIkiiiIojiI lm
l.roColtK'Ul IlilVO l.lK'll (UU'Olll-
Ii.-khhI by Wostorn r.illruiitl tliulnj;
tho pat fow yoar. To a in'ron tin
fnmlllnr with tho ilotnlN ol tho kuiiio.
an until tit provo both tirirNltii: and
ntnnr.ltiL Tho ilomaiul for iicrtVot tialn
orvlci'i roailway niTi'iiorlp that on
able a correct calculation on small
part of a inlniito, convonlciico. com
fort, utility all arc oli'inoiit In the on
tirrlt that tliinli nothing of ieml
lug million on t.lui'liii: Uk rallri.ad on
tin mot nnnrovvil baI. Tho Int ami
mot Important object of attention to
ougro'"" railroad inniiauoineiiH li;n
been the advantage of track elevation.
The cuormoui evIN of graile fiwlnjj.
It wn found, had to be done nwiiy with
lafety to life and limb Insured to citi
zen, while the solving of the problem
of rapid transit wik mNo concerned
for ordlnauce has failed to restrict
"peed. Delays and Interruptions to
street tratllc and travel will never be
abolNhed. guards and gates dlxpciiscd
with, kii?tli ot trains regulated, the
noise of bells and whistles mitigated
In fact, the elevation of tracks, as In
Loudon and Philadelphia will place
the railway systems irtwiit Chicago on
u klud of automatic basl-, so to speak.
Chicago Is the greatest railroad cen
ter In the world, nml Its mileage of
tracks exceeds that of any other city.
Within the corporate limits are found
115 lineal miles of main ttack. This
does not Include -every track of each
system, but the real aggregate from
two to ten tracks of each Hue as one.
There are lu addition 1,500 miles of
other tracks switches, yards, belt
lines and the like. Nearly ten years
since the public began to dlcuss how
tho great loss of life occurring to per
sous passing over these tracks could be
avoided. Fences, walls, guards gates
even did not entirely Insure safety.
Isolation seemed necessary. At one
tdugle crossing It was found that from
morning till mldulght T t:i trains passed,
with :i,U5L' cars. During these eighteen
hours, M!7 street cars pa-jed. carrying
10,510 paseugcrtf ;.:- wagons, trucks,
buggies and other vehicles, with 1,401
drivers and other persons, l'cople on
foot aggregated some liO.UOO. This was
at a point that, from the frequency of
accidents, came to be known generally
as "Dead Man's crossing."
The movement to force railroads to
elevate their city tracks developed very
rapidly after Its llrst agitation. In 1SIK.'
the Illinois Central took the lead by
elevating Its ten tracks on the lake
front for a distance of live miles. Vast
pecuniary benefits Immediately accrued
to tho road, for during tho next year
of tho World's Fair It was enabled to
almost double Its speed In carrying pas
sengers. Tho cost was something over
S-'.OOO.OOO; and the Northwestern rnad
soon followed the example. Within
three years the platfovas In prospect or
operation with nearly all the railway
lines centering at Chicago.
Tho result Is that skilled contractors
have reduced track elevation to a posi
tive science, Chicago mechanical abil
ity bringing this about distinctively.
Tho tlrst venture cost extra time and
money, being practically experimental.
The methods then employed lacked
economical results. Now, tracks aro
elevated with no Interruption to traf
fic. The tracks aro raised by Jacks In
sections of about 300 yards, and dirt Is
rammed under them. Tho elevation Is
so distributed as to allow a gradual In
cline from tho sutface level to theclcvn
tlon trade. A clear Idea of this method
wos furnished at ouo crossing, where
hundreds of trains freight and passen
ger cllnied up and over the elevation
lu progress without mishap.
In building the big retaining walls to
hold the sand or dirt, concrete testing
upon a solid foundation of clay Is used
In the process of formation, molds of
heavy planking nro sometimes employ
ed, one side vertical, or nearly so, tho
other In a herlcs of offsets, to give tho
necessary batter to tho Mulshed wall.
Into this substantial mold Is poured
the concrete mixture, which Is made to
a consistency to adapt Itself readily to
tho sides of tho mold. Constant ram
ming Insures the solidity of tho mass,
nnd Alls all Inequalities. Tho mixing
and handling of tho concrete Is done
by portablo machinery, and the mold
Is left until the concrete walls have
thoroughly hardened.
At one point where th" tracks of one
railroad had to be depressed under
those of another at tho same crossing,
details were both skillful nnd Interest
ing. I'lllngs were at first driven down,
and tho dirt was then excavated there
from, It being necessary to put In sev
eral sots of pilings. At tho proper stage
of tho work the tracks to bo elevated
wero sot across tho depression by
means of pilings fixed at Intervals.
As closely as can bo figured out at
present, tho total elevated and roek
ballasted trunk lino trackage within tho
limits of Chicago, If stretched out
across tho continent, would reach Salt
Lake City ten feet abovo tho present
trans-continental grade. In short, more
than 1,500 miles of railroad would be
Inclosed within massive restraining
walls at tho average height stated
abovo street grades. Tho great Olzen
pyramid, which took 100,000 men
twenty years to complete, cost $-12,500,.
000. Owing to Improved appliances In
excavation, moving nud filling, 15,000
workmen have finished tho work of ele
vating the trunk railroads of Chicago
lu fourteen years, though the total out
lay will be 17,500,000 moro than was
expended on the monster pyramid of
tho Egyptians, or, approximately, $50,.
000,000. In the 300 miles of restrain
ing walls for the Chicago elevated
i IlWOlllOM llilVO 1.0011 01R-.II.. ,, jo,,, strei,ls, , cnle( 8, , Mfc
grade, the largest blocks of stone nro
eight feet long, four feet wide and two
feet thick, or a cubic contents of about
two nnd one-quarter yards. The total
cubic measurement of stone used In the
grade walls and subwnys will fall little
short of Jl.OOO.OOO yards. Of sand and
dirt, mostly taken by trains from drives
along the Lake Michigan shore, not
lcs than KOO.UUO.OOO yards will eventu
ally be packed Into elevated grades. If
the filling of the Chicago elevated trunk
roads were raised and shaped compact
ly. It would form three Olzen pyramids,
and a fourth one about two-thirds as
On many roads the (ask of elevation
has been simple, but at "Dead Mini's
Crossing." as the district nbout Clark
and IStli streets Is called, since early
spring the work in progress has mark
ed some extraordinary activity nnd the
evolution of tunny remarkable engin
eering problems. .Here sixteen rail
road rights of way crossed each other
at street grade: the Santa Fe. Kastern
Illinois, Kile, Motion, Wabash, (irntid
Trunk. Illinois Central, Michigan Cen
tral. Iturllugtoti, Madison, Lake Shore,
Hock Island. Alton, Western Indiana
and Nickel Plate. In this network of
tracks ninny an Imperiled citizen has
been kept busy guessing which way to
Jump out of the way of cow catchers
and bumpers, and the loss of life lu ten
years has been enormous. The work
here has been more Important and en
grossing than nt any other point of
track elevation. Here labor has been
the rule, day and night, rain or shine.
The problem of so many lines crossing
mi as to Insure nonlutcrruptlon nnd ab
solute safety of trains, while prescrib
ing open way for street tratllc, was
solved only after Intricate calculation.
No such complicated and busy railroad
and street crossing exists In nny other
place on earth. It has been found nec
essary to raise two of the lines on a
little Island of masonry nt the mouth
of a subway. This subway, which Is
cement-walled, Is graded four feet
above the river, which Is uear by, und
Is perpetually drained by a pumping
station constructed lu the west wall.
It will bo crossed by six railroad
bridges. Perfect security and facility
of movement at the few elevated cross
ings remaining will be guaranteed by
a system of Interlocking switches,
which will stop only one of two ap
proaching trains, thus rendering colli
sion Impossible.
From "Dead Man's Crossing" out flvo
miles, It Is now possible to take a sub
urban train that runs nt the rate of a
mllo a minute. Beyond, the railroads
have combined to use a union depot.
Here are yards with an area of fifty
two acres, coutalnlng about 13,500,000
yards of filling. They take the form
of subways at an oblique angle, and
are of exceptional length. The semi
subterranean highways leading up, In
cluding approaches, aro nbout 1,000
feet. Tho cost of this piece of work Is
about 1,000,000.
Track elevation has come to bo ns
Important n plank In Republican und
Democratic party platforms In mayor
alty and town trustco elections, as the
"clean street" plank, In Chicago, In
tho past four municipal elections, tho
track elevation Idea was inado conspic
uous. This principle Is spreading to
other Inrgo cities and to towns. At
several places tracks have been ele
vated to a distance of oven fifteen miles
out of tho city, where they run through
largo suburbs.
Twenty-seven ordlnnnees have been
passed already, respecting tho eleva
tion of tho railroad tracks, nnd during
tho present city administration an un
compromising determination und zeal
to have tho laws compiled with has
been displayed. Only ouo pugnacious
company seemed disposed to hold nloof
and fight. Drastic measures wero
ndopted lu treating with this corpora
tion. Other roads commendnbly have
hurried tho work prescribed. Hovcrnl
of tboso corporations havo not only
crowded tliodinpiovemonts iequred of
them, they have rock-ballasted their
roadwoys Into tho very depots,
The' following tables glvo a very
clear Idea of what Chicago has dono
and Is doing lu tho way of track elera
tlon. Here are some facts that very
clearly outline the scope of jo work
,.., .ii..4..'..'ur'iifc. I'ri.u-tlOto
w.wi-.yftinitJ ,,ftn
Total Iltienl mileage or mnln track
Inside of city limits of Chicago., . 115
Total miles of track elevation as per
ordinances pnsed since 1802 51.7
Total miles elevated to .lime, 1808.. ltt.0
Total mileage yet to he elevated. . , . 112,7
Total miles elevating during 1MW., . 23.5
Total grade crossings elltnliinted us
Iter ordinances pneii 271
Total eliminated by completed i-leva-vntlon
Total yet to be eliminated 185
Approximate estimated cost of
elevation under ordinance. .17,380,000
Approximate amount expend
ed to June 1, 1808 0,000,000
Yet to be expended $11,380,000
Amount expending hi 1808. . . U,000,000
The following table shows work that
has been carried out this year by vari
ous lines, as Is now lu progress, the ap
proximate cost to each, and tjie num
ber of grade crossings abolished:
A.. T. & H. F. BY
St. Charles Air Line and Joint
roads, eight grade crossings
to bo abolished ten tracks, '
six of which are depressed
eleven feet $2,000,000
Pennsylvania Coin puny, seven-
term grade crossings to be
abolished two tracks
Lake Shore nnd Michigan
Southern, eight grade cross
ings to bo abolished two
Chicago and Northwestern,
thirty-two grado.erosslugs to
ho abolished four trucks, , . .
Chicago, Milwaukee and St,
Paul, twelve grade crossings
to be abolished two tracks, .
Chicago, Bock Islnnd and Pu
clflc, twelve grade crossings
to be abolished two tracks, ,
Chicago, Burlington nnd Qulii
cy, twenty grade crossings to
ho abolished two tracks,,,.
Total miles of truck elevation..
Total grade crossings to be
abolished 100
Total approximate cost $0,000,000
Tho agltntlou of track elevation has
been like a small snowball, set In mo
tion nnd fast growing npacc. As nn
economic feature of railway progress
it has proven Itself to bo nn adjunct
not only profitable but lu line with the
demands of tho nge. The matter Is one
that Is now occupying tho Interested
attention of townships as well as mu
nicipalities, nnd the grade crossing Is
fast becoming n dangerous nnd trou
blesome thing of the past.
Appearance of the Grave of Major
Orady at Huntlngo.
MaJ, Grady's body was Incased In a
box made from boards from a Spanish
blockhouse nnd was deposited In a
grave at Santiago about fpur feet deep.
After the grave was filled a mound of
earth was thrown up over It about one
foot high, sloped on sides and ends,
with roil ml stones sunken lu nil around
the. slopes. In tho center of tho mound
was a cross mudo of shells nnd sur
rounded by a circle of small stones.
Tho headstono was of brown tiling,
with Inscription cut In,
The Flajcullanta.
The Christian sect known In history
M the Flagellars aroso la 1200 ,at
y. .m.-. jAmsmajM -Ww -
Peruglii, and spread throughout nml
beyond Itnly. Its adherents, who saw
a plague raging, and moreover cxpee
cd the world speedily to terminate, be
lieved that they could propitiate tlni
Divine Being by walking In procession
With only a clolh tied around them,
und flogging their bare shoulders with
whips, which they carried, nnd preach
ing "that without shedding of blood
there can be no remission." At llrst
they wero noted for sanctity, and made
tunny converts, but doubtful charac
ters beginning to Join their ranks, they
fell Into disrepute, and were restrained
from their proccslons by the civil and
ecclesiastical authorities, and the sect
gradually died away. The terror .pro
duced by the dreadful diseases called
lliu Black Death, which destroyed
many millions of people lu Kuropo be
tween 1318 nnd 1351, caixed a revival
of the Flagellation mania, which
spread over most of Kuropo, nnd was
intended by greater extravagances
than before, lu the reign of Ed
ward III., u baud of 120 Flagellants
made their appearance In London on a
missionary enterprise. They innrched
In procession throiigh the streets, sing
ing hymns, nnd then scourging each
other, trusting that the spectacle
would prove contagion, but the sober
minded Englishmen could not bo In
duced either to flagellate themselves, or
submit to be llagellated by others, nnd
the strangers left the country without
having inn tie even one proselyte. In
13-11), Pope Clement VII. declared tho
Flagellants heretics, and took steps to
repress them. The llrst leader of this
extraordinary sect was a hermit called
Balncr. In the llfteonth century their
lender was Conrad Schmidt, who, with
serernl of his followers, was burnt by
the German InquUltors nbout 1414,
They existed In some parts of Italy un
til recent times.
Difference Between I'hyslcnl Culture
antl Profession!.! Training,
Dr. W. L. Savage explains tho differ
ence between the trainer and tho physical-culture
man. "Wo take a man and
build him up and make him n strong
nnd useful man, one who, If he has tho
Inclination, may become an nil-round
athlete. The trainer, on the other hand,
takes n man who has mi aptness In
some particular direction and lu whom
somo muscles are possibly developed
beyond the normal point, and with n
view to making the man still stronger
lu that particular part he produces nn
abnormal man. While the trainer Is
building up his man or rather tho
strong part of him the weak points nro
being neglected. While the strong ones
are becoming still stronger, the went:
parts, although they may remain sta
tionary for the time being, appear
weaker than they really are bj$ con
trast. The physical culture expert
leaves the strong mid superdovcloped
parts of his pal lent alone and applies
himself only to the weakparts tho oth
ers will take care of themselves. Take,
for example, the men who have the bl-
cyelo craze. They have heavy thighs
and calves, but many who have gained
lu that direction have acquired hollow
chests, round shoulders, abnormal arms
and weakness lu the abdominal region.
Now, we do not try to make such a
person's legs stronger, but we do try
by proper exercise to bring the rest
of tho body up to the thigh" standard.
After the whole body has been thor
oughly developed, no one part at tho
cost of the other, then, If the man has n
tasto for sprinting, for Jumping or for
any other sport, he may safely place
himself In the bnnds of a trainer, but
without the proper foundation ho would
run a risk In doing so. Tho athletic
clubs take caro of that end of It, nnd
with men In good condition they do
good work."
Men and Women at Sea.
Walter Wellmau gives us tho follow
ing statistics ns to a voyago with mod
erately rough sens or long swell: Men
seasick and invisible, 20 per cent.; men
sick and on deck but not going down
to meals, 25 per cent,; men who go to
meals but only nlbblo through prldo's
sake, 15 per cent.; men who were
"never seasick," but who have "eaten
something that disagreed with them,"
10 per cent.; men not sick at ah, 25
per cent.; women too sick to learo their
cabins, 35 per cent.; wonicu sick on
deck, 40 per cont.; women who are "not
seasick at all," but who havo "bad
headaches," 15 per cent.; women who
"don't feel Just right," 7 per cent,; and
women who really enjoy It, 3 per cent.
Quor Chinese Passport.
In China a traveler wishing for n
passport Is compelled to havo tho palm
of his hand brushed over with tine oil
paint. Ho then presses his hand on
thin, damp paper, which rotalns nn Im
pression of tho lines. This Is used to
prevent transference of tho passport,
as tho lines of r.o two hands are alike.
Molecules in Gas,
It has been calculated that the num
ber of molecules In a cubic Inch of any
gas Is 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
and lu each of theso molecules there
aro several atoms moving among them
selves at the rato of 70 miles a minute.
He Wouldn't Understand.
Blrdlo Thero's a Frenchman behind
us; I'd hotter tell you this In English.
Bertie-On tho contrary, you'd bo
safer if you wero to speak French.
"Don't you thluk forty dollars a week
alimony Is a llttlo too much to de
mand V" asked tho referoo In tho dl
vorco case, "when ho Is only making
fifty dollars?" "No, I don't," said tho
lady. "That's what I used to mako
him glmmo when I was Uvlu' with
him." .
Sunday School Teacher (Illustrating
tho "still, small volc6")-'Vhat Is It,
dear children, that makes you fool so
uncomfortiiblo nnd unhappy after you,
have dono something which you ought'
not to do? Dear Child A llckln'.-Box-bury
Much of tho talk In public Is as poor,
as the talk In private. You don't hear
a good speech et jraar,, ,
" - ' ---.-iT---. fcf''..'.ffiMfff,Wtj
The Old Pape Mansion Btlll Stands at
The old Pape mansion or the state
house, ns It was afterward called, Is
without doubt the oldest brick structure
In the Mississippi valley. The old build
ing now stands In what Is nbout tho
center of tho remains of the historic vil
lage of Old Knsknskla, and unless some
nctlou Is taken against tho, continual
encroachments of the Mississippi river
ihn house will cro long follow all the
other old buildings In their course and
fall a victim to the relentless waters.
The date of the erection of the build
ing Is veiled In uncertainty, but It wns
built some time nbout the year 1780,
Tho material of which It Is constructed,
large square bricks, were brought down
the Ohio river from PlUnburg, nnd
thence up the Mississippi to Knsknskln
In keel boats. They were tho llrst
brick brought Into the country then
known ns the Illinois territory nnd
though more than 100 years have
elapsed since they were put Into tho
building they are still lu a perfect
state of preservation. Tho old house
has been repaired from time to tlmo
nnd nt present tho outer walls arc cov
ered with a heavy coat of cement. The
building has n most remarkable his
tory. It was erected as a residence, but ns
It ncared completion, the various coun
cils which met nt Knsknskla having no
uttnblc building wherein they could
hold their sessions, mid as tho Pape
mansion wns everything that could be
desired the citizens of tho town pur
chased the building and converted It
Into n public halt. In 1809, when nil
tho territory lying west of tho Wnbnsh
river and north ns far as tho Dominion
Tin: or. papk mansion.
of Canada lino was organized into tho
Illinois territory, Kaskaskla becamo
tho territorial seat of government and
the 1'npe mansion was converted Into
the nsscmbly-houso of the territorial
legislature. On June 10, 1801); the tlrst
territorial legislature that ever met
west of the Wabash river convened In
this old building. The body wns com
posed of General George Edwards, the
territorial governor, nnd Judge Stuart
and Judge Sprlgg, two of the three su
preme judges of the territory.
From Juno 10 until September 10 tho
counties of Madison, Gallatin and John
sou were organized, making altogeth
er, with St. Clair mid Bmulolph, live
counties. Ouo representative from each
county wns elected, and on November
10 Governor Edwards Issued a proc
lamation ordering tho representatives
to convene at tho Papo mansion nt Kas
kaskla, nml here the llrst laws of tho
territory of Illinois wero enacted. Tho
largo hall on the lower floor of tho
building wns used as the assembly
room and the rooms lu tho upper story
served ns the otllces of tho governor
nnd tho other cxccutlvo officers. It was
In this building that tho legislature In
corporated the tlrst bank In tho terri
tory, which wns located at Cairo.
In tho year 1818 Illinois, owing to her
rapid progress, was admitted to tho
union as u state, Tho petition praying
for tho admission of the stnto Into tho
union on an equal footing with tho oth
er states Is said to havo been framed
In this old building. Tho legislature
was In session nt Kaskaskla lu Janu
ary of that year and tho session was
held lu this building.
Tho Interior of tho house has now
fallen to decay, and has long since
been abandoned oven by tho present In
habitants of Kaskaskla.
Sue Is Working to Becure a New Trial
for Capt, Dreyfus.
Erer slnco the trial and conviction of
Capt. Dreyfus on tho charge of selling
government secrets to n foreign power.
Mile. Lucie Fnure, tho daughter of tbo
President of France, has belloved In
his Innocence, and her womanly sym
pathy has gouo out to Madumo Drey
fus. Sho has used her lulluenco with
her father In Dreyfus' behalf. Mile.
Fauro Is, a beautiful and Intellectual
girl, who keeps thoroughly In touch
with tho events of tho day, and sho Is
also a deep student of state affairs.
Tho Sultan ns a Housekeeper.
Tho Hultau of Turkey Is said to bo
tho most extravagant housekeeper lu
tho world. According to nn cstimato
his domestic budgot runs thus: Be
pairs, now furniture, mats, beds, etc.,
15,000,000 francs; tollot requisites, In
cluding rougo and enamels for tho
Jadles of the harem, and Jewelry, 50,
000,000 francs; extra "extravagances,"
05,000,000 francs; clothes and furniture
for tho Sultau personally, 10,000,000
francs; douceurs and wages, 20,000,000
francs; gold und silver plate, 12,500,000
francs; malutenanco of five car-rlages
and horses, 2,500,000 francs-a total of
175,000,000 francs, or about $0,000,000
Nearly all cats are chtonlc usTerert
iron IombbIo.
iiiHHHilli mm
smaaLHsisHl4rW WmM
aaaajaaajw.jg5MMSjBMCSjgjrr'jC3 11 tftrt -"; -j
148-150 Wells Street,
Telephone Merth 059.
LIVERY: 148 and
OflQLoeai Open
Livery, Boarding,
331 and 333 Webster Ave. ' (Tel. North 646.)
303 Larrabce Street,
Telephone North I8S.
A $7.00
DDK n ' ' subscribing- to the Bujtat
' 1 1 FKld Monument Souvenir
If 1 1 (cloth bound, alt 8xil) as
X i i atouvenircertinctteofsub.
W i i scrlption to the fund toward
miiiuiu. ! !
tab. CMtarieftrkutbaaij.
amhn mmii nim mmdmiiit Mumm tow,
lt rrt Dtirbera B.lldtai, CklMf, III.
H.iUoa ihli Jounul, u tfnitiMr M U luuMi u om Mtrw.fita.
john McCarthy,
Public '
, j
SQUARE WOOL, all prices.
DUCK-LINED, squart .
shaped, all grades.
and unllned, all styles sad
qualities, cut to fit aa4
guaranteed to stay on.
Wagon Corers.
WHITE DUCK Horse and Wa
gon Covert. ,
Wagon Covers.
ANYTHINd that can be made
out of Duck or Caavas.
Note change of addreast
333 S. CANAL ST.
and Livery .
176 Grand Avenue
Telephone Main '
150 Weill Street.
Dny eun.dL CTlarliK
1 ruua. BUDKMDIlOntallOW
1 aii.oowlUentltletbedoaor
1 ta thl. hsadMim volume
i hutldlnff a monument ,n thA
A ii Bclorcif Poet of Childhood
"''' fc ! cMtrtbatlM
win. irt.uti .ruw
Mala 1943,
4XXr -M . i Ct i

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