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The national leader. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1888-1889, April 13, 1889, Image 8

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~ FARM NOTES.
RELIEVING CHOEKED CATTLE.—
Bouthern Cuitivator calls attentiva to
a plan devised by Professor Simonds,
of the Royal Veterinary College of
England, for relieving cattle when
choking. According to Professor
Bimonds ‘“‘the amount of danger in
cases of choking may be mostly calcu-
Jated by the abdominal distention; for
death results from the lungs being un
able to expand, in consequence of the
pressure of the rumen against the dia
phragm. In many cases prior to reliev
ing the patient, the gaseous compounds
which are disengaged from the ingesta
and distend the rumen must be given
an exit by puncturing the rumen to
prevent suffocation.
Two assistants are required. One of
these should be placed on either side of
the animal, holding the handle of the
gag. which protrudes from the side of
the mouth, with one hand, and the
opposite horn with the other. The head
must also be kept elevated 80 as to bring
it as nearly as possible Ina straight line
with the neck.
Professor SBimonds’ instructions for
operating are as follows:
The probang being held thus is to be
passed through the opering in the gag
and carried carefully over the dorsum
of the tongue into the pharynx, and
from thence pushed inward until it
reaches the obstruction. Sufficient and
well regulated pressure is now to be
made until the obstruction yields, when
itis to be driven by the instrument
into the rumen. Care should always
be taken te propel the obstructing sub
stance into the first stomach, and we
should never rely on the power of the
e3ophagus to do this after we have suc
ceeded in removing it from Its original
situation. 'Waut of attention to this
simple rule has often protracted suffer
ing to the animal ard not unfrequently
death. The probangs in ordinary use
are seldom of sufficient length, nor are
the bulbs with which they are tipped of
a proper shape. The mstrument should
not be less than six and a half feet
long, and the bulbs should be large and
slightly cup shaped.
A HeEN SMOKER.--Tobacco smoke
is death to lice. it Is alsodeath to the
fowls if confined until the smoke is
thick enough to kill the lice. Here 1s
the description of a convenient smoker
which almost any one who is handy
with saw, hammer and nails may con
struct. The sinoker is made in two
compartments. Tope upper one for the
fowl has a ho'e cut In oue side for the
fowl’s head, and one in the floor to ad
mit the smoke from below. A pan of
live coals is placed in the lower com
partment, a handful of tobacco leaves
or stems placed on them and the door
closed. A few holes should be bored
in the door near the bottom to admit
air,
A sliding dcor on the back of the
Yox is 80 constructed tbat when opened
for the purpose of inserting or taking
out the fowl, it closes the hole which
admifs the smoke from below, and
when closed after putting in another
few] the hole 18 opened and admits the
smoke.
We apprehend that this smoker can
be used to great advantage when a
Jarge number of hens are sitting.
Another use to which such a box may
be put is ‘or ridding house plants of
the green aphls, and in that case one
side of the box may have a pane of
glass inserted so that the operator can
tell when enough smoke has been ad
mitted.
A GRAPE {rellis is a permanent in
stitution, and the extra expense ot
making 1t right pays big profits yearly
for a long time. How much will it
cost to put up a few boards over a
favorite vine that annually just barely
misses ripening its fruit? That by
warding off cold rains and dews and
checking the passing off of heat into
space will probably make the grapes
one or two weeks earlier, This semi
protection is also in many places a
preventive of mildew. The finest
grapes grow on vines trained to house
walls under the projecting eaves and
sornices, s
THE color of the hog seems to be a
matter of importance. Experiments
show that, contrary to expectation, a
black hog, such as the Essex and Berk
shire, thrives best in the South, while
the white bieeds, such as the Chester
‘White, Yorkshire and Cheshire, thrive
best in the North, The Poland-China,
a spotted hog, and the Jersey Red are
preieried In the Western States.
UNLE:S the shocks of corn are made
firm in the fleld they will be blowx
down. A little extra care in shocking
will save much loss in fallen shocks.
‘Wherever possible haul the shocks to
the barp, as corn fodder is always in
jured to a certaln extent, no matter
how well it may be shocked.
THE heavy breeds of ducks can be
kept within an inclosure, with a very
Jow femce, and, if given a trough for
bathing purposes, they will thrive and
do well if fed on erass or bulky food.
Too much grain is detrimental. The
Pekin breed seems best adapted on
farms that have no ponds or streams of
walter,
IT has been estimated that catile
disease in the past 46 years has cost
Great Britain $500,006,000. Commis
sioner Colman recommends a cattle
quaratine against all Europe,
which bas been the hot bed of dis
eases which afterward afifiicted this
country.
RooTs should not be fed with straw
or poor hay, as they are too much alike
in composition. Feed the roots with
¢lover or good hay, and give the more
concentiated food with the straw. It
requires more skill to be swecessful
in feeding poor than rich kinds of
Jood-
' TEE CUT WoORM..—The cut worm
is an interesting subject. @ Whatever
anybody has to say about it will be
‘read by the average farmer with eare.
We observe that an eastern writer says
that salt is no remedy. He says that
he has kept the worm in salt, and that
it has Jived and maintalned a good
degree of health. We should bein
cliped to douabt that if an apparently
truthful man had not asserted it. Come
to think of it, we doubt it anyhow.
This writer thinks that the frost is the
best remedy for the cut worm. He
can endure the cold beneatn the sur
face, but when he is turned up out of
the ground where the frost can get
right down on him it soon ends his ex
istence. To clear a field of cut worms
plow the ground in the fall as late as
possible, and leave the ground in the
rough furrow without harrowing. No
matter how much sod there be or how
heavy the soil, but few cut worms will
escape. However, to make assurance
doubly sure, cross-plow the field in the
spring as early as possible, 8o as to give
the frost another chance, and you can
put in your corn or early vegetables in
perfect security. The frost will not
only kill out the cut worms, but will
pulver:ze the clods and render the soil
easier of cultivation during the grow
10g season. Fall plowing saves work
In the spring at a time when the
farmer is anxious 10 hurry bis erops.
No farm upon which late plowing is
practiced is troubled with the cut
worm, It left alone, the cut worm
gets out of the way of the frost long
before it appears, but seldom goes
deeper than the plow, and if thrown
out late in the fall is unable to get
back to a safe depth. Sod land is not
the only place for the cut worm Let
all classes of soil be plowed. It will
be a benefit even if no worms are pres
ent.
The writer will flnd people who will
not agree with him. He will find those
who will not believe that salt is useless,
and he wlill ind those who will not
agree that fall plowing is a sovereign
remedy. But fall plowing will do
good.
WHEREVER forest leaves can be
gathered for the purpose of littering
stock the opportunity should not be
neglected. A statement has been made
to the effect that a pile of leaves ten
feet high and seventy-five feet square
at the base, after two years, left a resi
due of not more than two barrowloads;
hence it is concluded that *‘‘such put
tering work will not pay.”” Had these
leaves been put under a horse for litter
the animal would have enjoyed the
soft, warm bedding, and they would
have gone out with the manure and
served a most valuable purpose in the
soil, not only contributing to 1t useful
plant food, but mixing with it ab
sorbent, pulverulent matter which
greatly Improves the texture of both
light and heavy soils alike. This pile
of leaves would not have weighed over
ona thousand pounds, and it left two
barrowloads of debris, after two years,
which contained twice as much valu
able mineral matter and one and a
half times as much nitrogen as one
thousand pounds of timothy hay. But
who would call the gathering of
timothy hay free of cost for its use as
manure ‘‘puttering work?”” The fact
is, the value of forest leaves is scarcely
known by farmers, either for their
use as summer feeding or for winter
litter.
To TELL A SHEEP'S AGE.—It Is
often usetul to be able to tell the age of
sheep. At one year there are two
large teeth in the centre of the jaw,
and two are added each year up to five
years, when the sheep is said to bave a
“full mouth.”” After this the age can
not be told by the teeth, and unless
the animal lis vigorous it has nearly
outlived Its usefulness, and sbould be
prepared for the butcher. The Shep
herd says that not many boys under
fifteen can tell how many front teeth a
sheep has in the under jaw,
Do not let your chickens go into
winter quarters with scaly legs. Treat
them to a couple of applications of
sulphur and lard, and coal oil the
roosts frequently. Scaly legs are not
only unsightly, but the fowls cannot do
the work they ought to, thus encum
bered.
A SKILLFUL farmer will not overfeed
L's animals, ’Tis queer. Farmers
w:ll let their animals get poor, and
t'irn when they think they must fatten
them they siraightway begin to stuff
themn with all the grain they will eat.
This is unwise. Ther2 is then a great
waste. Feed moderately and watch
the bowels. If the excrement begins
to show looseness theanimal is overfed.
It should have less, One animal may
be able to digest as muc h again as
another.
TaeE finest feed for steers that one
could possibly imagine is Indian corn
fodder cut up early enough in the fall
tolavse it bright and green. If this
fodaer is grown so thick as to have ears
about half or two-thirds the usual sizs
upon each stalk the amouut of feed
will be surprisingly large, and there
will still be suflicient grain to keep
the animal thrifty even though a part
of the feed is millet and oat straw.
Such corn-stalks may be fed long, or,
better yet, should be run through the
feed-cutter and deposited in feeding
boxes so constructed that the cattle
cannot throw out the fodder in search-
Ing for parts of it.
How many cows are in your herd
which have not paid their way? Could
a manufacturer live with half his
machinery running him in debt? This
is the case with many dairymen,
There is no doubt but that the dairy
interest carries an average loss of 25
per cent. No other business could
‘stand it, 5
HUMOROUS,
NorHING TOO Goun —Editor, to
gentleinan justarrived —We doa’t want
any poatry.
Gentleman—No?
¢“Nor prose,”’
“NO?”
**Nor blank verse.”’
“How would as 2 bill suit you for a
year’s subscription in advance?”’
‘““Why, my dear sir, why didn’t you
say so at first? (To office boy), James,
give this gentleman a couple of chairs
and the floor to spit on.”
TRAMP—Please, mum, I’m starving.
Won’t you let me Lave a postage
stamp to lick?
Experienced housekeeper— Why, cer
tainly. My husband is just finishing?a
letter to John L. Sullivan, offering to
fight bim anywhere, at any time, for
$lO,OOO a side, Marquis of Queensbury
rules. Wait until heis through and
perhaps he’ll let you put the stamp on.
Tramp, hastily departing—Thankee
kindly, mum, but maybe I ean git a
stamp at the next house without wait
mg.
BANEKRUPT.—Jie was taking her
home, after the theatre aud a little
supper at Delmonico’s.
*Darling,”” said he suddenly, as he
gazed dreamily at the silvery disk over
head, *‘why am I like the moon?”’
**lt isn’t because you are full, is it?”
she asked, as she edged away from him.
**No,” said he, sadly; **it’s because
I’m on mwy last quarter.”’
—_—_———
BoTH IN BARD LUCK.—This story
opens on the third floor of a magnifi
cent New York apartmert house.
**‘He bhad been twisting about on his
chair trying to find words to express
his undying devotion, and had already
begun to hem and haw, when a voice
came from the floor below:
“‘Miss Candlestick,” it said, ‘I love
you passionately—madly; bid me but
hope, and all the dark colors of my life
will changel” '
This was a bonanza for the young
man above.
*‘Miss Clara, darling,’’ he said, trem
ulously, ‘‘them’s my sentiments.’’
Then another voice came from be
low:
**No, Mr. Goatee, I cannot bid you
hope; I love another.””
‘*And them’s mine, Mr. Morris,”’ re
marked Miss Clara.
DipN't FiNisH.—Winks—l didn’t
see you around yesterday.
Minks—No. I had a voom that
needed papering and palnting, and I
thought I°d stay home and do it my
self. But can’t stop to talk—l’m in a
hurry. :
“What’s up?”?’
‘“Well, I’ve got to take my business
suit to the dyer’s and ecleaner’s, my
wife’s best dress along with it, and I
must stop at a store for a new carpet,
and then hunt up some painters and
paper hangers to—to put the finishing
touches to that room, you know.”’
A SURE SlGN.—Kind old gentleman,
to street boy—Where were you born,
my son?
Boy—Dunno, sir.
“Ah, you don’t know. What are
you going to do when you become a
man?”’
“‘Rob trains,”
‘“Ah, (musingly), the little fellow
was born in Missourl”’
——————
“Is 1T true, Angelina,’’ said a young
lady addressing an acquaintance, *‘that
there has been a rupture between you
and Clarence de Johnes?”’
*lt is quite true.”
“‘Graciousl What was the couse?”’
“*He was addicted to the use of
slang.”’
uth’
““Yes, I begged hme to discontinue
the habit, but he persisted 1n it,”
‘‘And the result?”
‘*The result Is, he is in the soup.”’
LIEE FATHER,—Madame Paine—
Don’t you think Miss Grace is a very
bright little lady?
. Dr. Paine, dryly—Yes, often too
bright. I sometimes wonder if her
humor does not amount to a disease,
M. D. Jr., eight years old—Perhaps
she has Bright’s disease, papa.
S 0 sl e
CARPET DEALER—Yes, madame,
that is a fine stair carpet and very dur
able. :
Woman—Will 1t llast well? .
“Madame, fourteen years ago I sold
a piece of that carpet to & woman and
she used 1t ten years steady.”’
**Then.did she throw it away?”’
“No, madame, I should say not,
For the last four years her boy has
worn it for every day pants.”’
bl
Too MucH THEORY.—Customer,
angrily—Look here, Hafton; what do
you mean by sending me'this coal bill a
second time? Why, man, I pald that
bill a month ago, and got a receipt for
it!
Hafton, consulting s books—TUml!
Ah! Yes, I see. Well, don’t mind
that, my dear fellow. You see, my
son was just graduated.from a business
college, and this is some of his double
entry bookkeeping.
AT Miss deSnobbe’s musicale:
Smith—l wonder what those two
women over there can be talking about.
They baven’t listened to & single bit of
the music.
Muttonhedce—Sh! They are two of
the most prominent society leaders,and
they are trying to manufacture a coun
ple of grandfathers for the Centennial
ball. }
I wWAS badly bittess by files in every
country in Europe ex Belgium.”
~ “Have they none ' i
~ “Idon’t know. I ’t go there.”
HOU=EHOLD.
SALMON SANDWICH —Broil gunar
ter ot » pound of smoked salmon over
a slow fire, or use some that has be=n
cooked and cooled, chop it until it
forms & paste, or pound it smooth in a
mortar, mix 1t with an equal quantity
of butter and use it instead of plain
butter for sandwiches. One of the
nicest methods of cutting sandwiches
is to hold a loaf of bread firmly against
the side with the left side and arm, and
cut off the end crust smoothly, then
upon the cut end spread a thin layer of
salmon butter, made as above, and cut
a slice an eighth of an inch thick off
the loaf, doubling or rolling it before
laying it on the plate. A lhittle careful
practice will enable one to cut these
slices nicely and rapidly. FPrepared
with butter made with cold bam,
tongue, poultry, meat or fish, these
sandwiches are an excellent tea or
lunch dish.
RaGcour PICKLE.—Two gallons of
sliced cabbage, one gallon of green
tomatoes, twelve large onions chopped
fine, one galion good v:negar,one pound
of brown sugar, one half ounce of tum
erlc powder, one tablespoonful of
ground allspice, one tablespoonful of
cinnamon, one ounce of celery seed,
one teaspoonful of ground cloves, one
guarter of a pound of white mustard,
salt to the taste. Some persons like
the addition of three green peppers
chopped fine, without the seeds., 801 l
all together for three or four hours,
until quite temder, and to not add the
spices until 1t is done. Ready to use as
soon as it is cold.
EGas are poached by dropping them
raw from the broken shells Into a pot
of boiling water, lift them from the
water In a perforated ladle, and do not
let them remain long enough in the
water for the whites fto be made
opaque. The beauty of a poached egg
is the visibility of the yellow yolk as
seen through the semi-transparent
white envelope, Serve on slice of hot
buttered toast, and lightly sprinkied
with pepper, a poached egg is most
appetizing. In the spring of the year,
as a top dressing to boiled greens of
any kind, eggs prepared this way are
almost universally liked.
b
SPICED ONIONS.—One quart of good
apple vinegar, two cups of sugar, one
teaspoonful each of cloves, allspice and
pepper. Slice some nice omons and
put them in a galion jar with just a lit
tle salt sprinkled over each layer of
onions., Scald your vinegar with the
spices and turu over your onions while
bot. Let it stand twenty-four heurs,
drain eff, scald and turn over them
again, They will be ready for the ta
ble in three or four days and are nice
with all Kinds of meat.
A Mosy excellent pudding Is made
by stewing one pound of prunes until
they are so tender that the stones may
be removed without difficulty. Take
one qnart of sweet milk and subtract a
teacupful; into this stir enough flour to
make 1t like thick paste, then mix it
with the rest of the milk; beat four
eges very light and add, and lastly stir
in the prunes, over which you have
first sifted a little flour. DBoil or steam
for two hours. Serve hot, with some
highly flavored sauce; vanilla or wine
sauce is preferred.
—— e e
A 6oop relish to take with a lunch
is made of ham. FPound some pieces
of ham in & mortar, just as flne as you
can. Season it with pepper and spice,
and moisten it wath clarified butter.
Put this into a mold, or earthen bowl,
and press it in very tightly. Put it
into the oven for half an hour, Let it
get perfectly cold. It can then be cut
into thin slices. It is nice if used fora
filling for sandwiches.
THAT plush may be cleaned is a fact
of interest; children’s plush coats that
have become 8o led on the front can be
softly and delicately sponged with a
little borax and water without injury;
a teaspoonful of powdered berax to
nearly a quart of water is the proper
proportion; use a very soft sponge, and,
by the way, a sponge may be softened
by bolling it 1n clear water; then take
it out and rinse it in several waters, it
not softened sufficientiy repeat the boil
ing and rinsing process.
A DRINK tnat is truly refreshing for
one suffering from sors throat or cold
is made by pouring a quart of boiling
water over a carefully washed handful
of Irish moss. I.et it stand until the
water is cool, then strain through a
muslin bag, add sugar and lemon juice,
with a few thin slices of lemon, until it
is about like lemonade; a little cinna
mon is considered an addition by some
people.
VERY rich fritters are made of one
and one balf pints of flour, the yolks of
four eggs, two small teaspoonfuls of
baking powder, butter the size of a
large hickory nut, salt to taste, with
enough milk to make a thick batter,
fry in lard that 18 heated to the boiling
point. A rule for plainer ones may be
wished for also. Two eggs, one cup of
sweet milk, a little salt, flour enough
to make a stiff batter. These are nice
with maple syrup. t
A GARGLE made of strong black tea
and used coid, night and morning, is
now the fashionable preventative in
London against falling a victim to sore
throat during the cold winds of spring
and similar ‘cold spells’ at other times
of the year.
A LITTLE soda as well as sali is rec
ommended to boil with cabbage, and
affects the flavor agreeably. For one
head of cabbage take a pineh of soda
equal in bulk t 0 & good mzed pea,
MUTTOR oPS. —Trim off ih
perfluous lat 4ld skin, beat each
tat, and lard h with strips o
salt pork, drawJauite through so
proteet both sgfles of the chop. put
a saucepan, spfinkle with minced o.
pepper and raley and barely e
with any weal} broth you may eh'
to bave. Put}on the saucrepan lid,
1t where it wilf not boil under oue how
Then lucreas¢ the heat and simme
balf an hour, or until tender. Take uj
the chops and keep hot. Thicken the
gravy with browned flour, add fuice
of one lemon, one large spoonful mush
room catsup, stir one minute. Put
back the chops and heat 10 a weak boil
Lay the chops on a dish, pour over the
gravy and serve, |
e — e e ‘
BRATSED BEEF.—Put a plece of fillet
without bone, weighing five or six
pounds in a pot, Scatter sliced onibns
over it, salt slightly, and if you have
any good gravy add it to the cup of
boiling water you pour over the meat.
Cover lightly, cook slowly one and one
half bours. Add more boiling water
should the gravy sink too low. When
done dredge with flour and set in a hot
oven. As the flour browns baste with
butter to glaze. It should not remain
longer in the oven than ten minutes.
Strain the gravy. pour on the fat, put:
into a saucepan with a little brown
flour, add a teaspoonful of catsup, Boil
until thieckened, pour a few tablespoon
fuls over the meat and serve the rest 1p
a boat.
—_— e -
BAKED Fisd,—Dip the fish quickly
in boillng water, then wipe the scales
off, rinse in cold water, wipe 1t dry,
sprinkle salt both mmside and out, about
as much as you would for steaks. Then
dip m flour, place the pan that you are
going to bake ¥ in, in the stove
with a plece of butter in ilt the size of
an egg. Let it melt so that it covers
the pan. Your pan should be abowt
the length of your fish, 1t larger, the
butter will be apt to burn. Place your
fish in it, the inside of it next to the
pan, Putitin a hot oven and bake
one hour, if it is a large fish, less time
if smaller, It should be well done and
of a nice brown color.
ESCOLLOPED OYSTERS,—Crush the
desired quantity of erackers,put a layer
in the bottom of a buttered dish, wet
this with a mixture of the oyster liquor
and milk slightly warm, next a layer of
cysters, sprinkle them with salt and
pepper and lay bits of butter upon.
them, then another layer of moistened
crumbs, and s 0 on. Let the top layer
be of cruambs thicker than the rest, and
beat an egg in the milk poured over
them. Stiek bits of butter thickly over
it, cover the dish and bake forty min
utes, remove the cover and brown by
setting it on the upper grate of the over
for a few minutes.
HOMINY FRITTERS.—Two teacup
fuls of cold boiled horainy, stir in one
teacupful of sweet milk and a little
salt, four tablespoonfuls of sifted flour
and one egg. Beat the white separate
ly and add last. Have over the fire a
pan of hot lard, drop the batterim by
spoenfuls, and fry a nice brown. This
is especially designed for a breakfast
side dish, and rioce is good used In place
of the hominy.
RYE BREAD,—ScaId two coffeecups
of corn meal with boiling water fo a
thick batter, When this is cool, add
one fourth of a bowl of light sponge—
taken from the bread sponge prepared
with potatoesthat has raised over night
—one half teacup of sugar, three tea
spoons of soda and salt, This stir a 8
stif with rye flour as can be stirred
with a spoon. Let this raise very light
and then add as much rye again as ean
be worked In with the hands without
kneading. Drop in a buttered pan and
bake slowly for one and one half heurs.
BROILED OYSTERS.—Drain, then
dry in a cloth; salt them and place in &
broiler. Use care that they cook quick
ly but do not burn. When done dish
up and add a little butter at once, and
serve without delay.
FRIED POTATOES.—BoII potatoes in
skins; when cold, peel and cut in slices
one fourth inch thick, fry in butter or
beef dripping a nice delicate brown.
When done, take outdrain grease from
them and serve; or they may be chopped
up small, seasoped with pepper and
salt, and fried lightly in butter, turo
‘ng them several times, that they may
be nicely brewned.
—e el
roacuep Eaas,—Nearly £l afry
ing pan with boiling water. Add &
little salt and vinegar. Breek your
eggs one ata time inio a wel saucer
and slip from this upon the surface of
the water. Cook slowly three minutes,
take up with a perforated skimmer,and
lay carefully upon rounds of buttered
toast,
STEWED HARE,— o two hares take
a half pound of fat salt pork, one large
onion, one tablespoonful of butter, one
tablespoonful of browned flour, pepper
and salt, half a lemon peeled and sliced
thin, a half eup of gravy. Slice the
onion, dredge with flour and fry brown
in the butter. Add a balf cupful of
gravy, and well mixea tuin all into a
saucepan, Put In the rabbits, jointed
as for fricassee, the slhiced bacon and
lemon. Season, cover close and stew
one hour, or until the meal i 8 tender.
Thicken with browned flour, boil once
and serve.
A HANDSOME low screen is made by
painting a large cardboard 8 sky-blue,
then painting s spray of da}fcl =
clover blossoms on it. Then —
aframe of plush about 81 och
balf wide, and this is 10 be placed In

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