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HIGH SCHOOL PROBLEMS IN VIRGINIA
IRE DISCUSSED BY THE PRINCPILS IN CONFERENCE IT V. N. 1.1.. PETERSBURG A most helpful and instructive meeting of arincipals of Negro High Schools of the State in conference with State. City. and rural officials, engaged In high school education was held at Virginia Normal and Indus trial Institute, December 21-2 2. Mr. William D. Gresham, Supervisor of Negro Education; Mr. Henry G. El lis. State Supervisor of Secondary Education and D.\ J. M. Gandy, President of V. N. t I. I. presided. At the first sessio.x, 10:00 A. M. Thursday. Dr. Gandy welcomed the visitors to the Institu.ion. Among his remarks Dr. Gand/ stated that the function of the high school teach er is “to train the minds of a race for leadership.” and that this fact makes evident “that the progress of civilization rests upon the teachers, and largely tihe high school teachers.' In referring to work that the State Is doing for education of all the people. Dt. Gandy remarked: “The State must finally come to realize that the burden of education must rest upon the State.” MORE HIGH SCHOOL. Mr. Bills in a short talk gave as the purpose of the conference: “To lay* a basis for future high school development.” Dr. George P. Phe nix Vice-principal. Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, spoke on. “The need for more accredited High Schools for Negroes." In his dis cussion Dr. Phenix said that hte In terest In colored schools was because colored people are citizens, not be cause they are colored; and that it is beside the point to discuss whether Negroes pay sufficient taxes to sup port the schools that should be es tablished and maintained by public fund^. He further stated that since the Negro was a large factor in the production of wealth of the State, and a comparatively small consumer of its wealth, that he ibdirectly was a heavy taxpayer. Dr. Phenix en dorsed the recommendation of the "Virginia School Survey” in refer ence to Negro education. PETERSBURG’S NEW SCHOOLS. Mr. P. M. Martin. Superintendent of School?, Petersburg, spoke on “The Attitude of Local School Au thortit.es.” Mr. Martin spoke only for tlio city of Petersburg and offered to show the members of the confer ence concrete evidences of the atti tude of the Petersburg authorities in the Peabody High School and the Henry William Graded School, a building which cost $100,000.00; an other grade school in the process of construction, which Sh to cost $50, 000.00, and the plans for still anoth er grade school. The Peabody High School, Supt. Martin said, is Qhe most effective effort in the State for secondary ed ucation for Negroes. The Virginia Survey rated this, school at 940 on a scale of 1000 points. AMERICA MUST EDUCATE ALL i THE PEOPLE. Supt. Martin struck the key note in his statement of why Negroes should receive as good education as they are capable of. Wo live in a democracy, Mr. Martin said, and the safety politically and the progress economically depend on the intelli gence of all the people. No demo cracy can exist when the people are ignorant. Since t.he Negro is a part of tilii’s republic,, and he is here to stay, the life of the nation and the ideals of the democracy depend to a largo extent or the intelligent func tioning of the Negro population. Mr. Martin clinched the above statement with these words: “If we don’t edu cate all the people, rich, poor, black, white, native and foreign born, we are lost as a nation. As a matter of self-preservation. America must educate all its people.” IDEALS OF EDUCATION. Mr. Martin set forth the following ideals for conducting efficiently the education of all boys and girls: 1. The ability to read, write, and figure sufficiently to carry on the business of his life. 2. To understand the government under which he lives so as to be a law abiding citizen. 2. Tbo ability to work with his hands so as to keep his own self respect and to win the respect of others. 4. To he able to appreciate the be<t in literature and in sci^nfe. 5. To develop the aesthetic self through a knowledge of music, vocal and, instrumental, as far as the na tive talent can be trained. Mr. Martin closed lbs remarks by stating that it is the idea of the authorities of Petersburg to give ev ery boy and girl toe best and most practical education led by the best teacters that can be secured. ATTITUDE OF RURAL BOARDS. The attitude of the Rural Board« was discussed by Mr. E. J. Watkins, Superintendent of Schools, Halifax County. Mr. Watkins touched the questions from a different angle from either of the speakers who preceded him. He approached it from the spiritual »We. Among his remarks, he said that the spiritual appeal is the most effective appeal. He be lieves In stirring the hearts of those in authority so that they will be led to feel their responsibility to a race who has always been faithful even under the most trying circumstances Mr. Watkins gave statistics to show the attitude of the Halifax School Board toward Negro educa tion: Average dafly attendance in 1912, 2390; in 1922 it has risen to 4,768. Number of teachers in 1912 was 65; in 1920, 110. Paid out to Negro teachers in 1912* $12,756; In 1920, $37,752. County built in 1921 colored schools at a cost of $15,000. MISS GJtEGG ON BASIS FOR THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS. At 3:00 P. M. on Thursday, Miss R. E. Gregg. State Supervisor of Teacher Training, spoke on "A High School Education as a Basis for Pro fessional Training of Teachers." Among the results expected from a high school training. Miss Gregg set forth the following: (1) To elim inate the inadequate. (2) to estab lish better language habits in the in dividual, (3) to give him a better method of attacking new subjects, (4) to develop power of reorganizing material. (5) ability to make re search on a problem, (6) to broaden general information of literature, science and history. (7) broaden ed ucational experience. In speaking on her second main idea. "Things needed In the profess ional training,” Miss Gregg enumer ated (1) ability to teach the various elementary subjects, (2) a broad background of science, htetory, lit erature. (3) one full year of college work as basis, (4) d,efln|te founda tion in principles of education, (5) observation of the art of teaiching. These things are necessary lor the training of teachers for both ele mentary and high school iwork. All high soliool teachers, in addi tion to the above should have at least two years of college training in the subject they are expecting to beach and professional training equivalent to at least one year of education. These requisites if met will eliminate much of the poor teaching now being done in the high schools of the State.' ruvjn ov-nwwLi ivDv^uiivrviiicji^ 10, The second speaker of tihe session. Mr. Henry G. Ellis, State Supervisor of Secondary Education, spoke on the ‘‘Requirements of the Stnte Board of Education for an Accredit-; ed High School.” Mr. Ellis’s speech contained a wealth of information on many of the most vital questions in the minds of the principals assem bled. After insisting upon the necessity of adequate and efficient elementary schools, for no high school has a right to exist at the expense of the elementary school, Mr. Ellis spoke of the development of Negro High Schools, private and public. The high school work for Negroes in the State is mostly done by the private schools. Outride of those schools there are only four accredited high schools in the State for Negroes, Armstrong in Richmond. Booker Washington in Norfolk, Peabody in Petersburg, and I. C.~Norcum in Portsmouth. COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS. The County Training Schools and High Schools in other cities and towns have from one to three years of high school work. Fbr the min imum requirements for an accredited high school, the speaker gave as fol lows: (1) nine months’ session. (2) elementary grad.es in connection with High school must arso have nine months, elementary grades in the district) must have seven months, (3 Principals must have two periods of supervision, (4) Teaching force of at least three high school teachers, holding State certificates for high school work he is doing, (5) pro gram organized on departmental basis, (G> phj-sical equipment for ef ficient instruction under healthful conditions. (7) library requirements. 300 books. Mr. Ellis’ speech was eagerly dis cussed by the principals who were anxious to know not only the ‘whst’ of the requirements but the ‘how’ also. The question of finance neces sary to make these requirements practical in Negro schools was a very vital one. and one on which the State authorities present were un able to answer satisfactorily for themselves or for the principals. Added legislation is needed to supplv the necessary funds to retilize these conditions in the Negro high schools, and it was the unanimous wish of the body that some measure toward the rea'izat on of these ideals be parsed by the coming legislature. I)R. GREGG. OF HAMPTON. The evening session was held in the Audience Hall of the Institute, tiie whole body of students and a few visitors being present. Most enjoy able music was furnished by the Choral Society under the direction of Miss Anna Lindsay, head of the music department of the Institute. The entlire student body sang jubi lee songs to the delight of the visi tors. The speakers of the evening were Dr. .Tames Gregg. Principal of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, and Mr. Harris Hart, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. Dr. Gregg gave figures which showed that Virginia is behind, both North Carolina and Kentucky in the development of Negro high schools: North Carolina. 76 high schools, 19 carrying four years. Kentucky, 38 high schools, 28 carrying four years Virginia, 33 high schools, 7 carrying four years. Dr. Gregg gave two general reasons why Negro high schools should he more rapidly de veloped In Virginia, First. the Ne gro hoys and girls have tihe thirst and the ambition for this higher training; second, certain professions and offices require this fuller train ing. HON. HARRIS HART. Mr. Hart developed his speech along similar lines as did Mr. Martin, of Petersburg, a d.emocratffc govern ment necessitates tihe ability of all its c?'Irens to do "straight think ing.' Among tihe things to keep In mind as to the Job of the public school system, Mr. Hart sj*>ke thus: (1) To give everybody a chance and the ability as far as it can be devel oped. to think and to think straight* If every one has not the power of thinking, the scheme of democracy falls down. The cost of education Is the price we pay for lining in a democratic government. (2) To create a common capacity for work. A happy society is a busy society. The public school system will grow when it rests upon a safe and sane economic basis. (3) To create eth ical notions of what should be. The vast amount of Bolshevistic thinking today is due to lack of ability to think straight. THE PROGRAM OF STUDIES. At the last session on Friday morn ing at 10:00 o’clock. Mr. Combs. As sistant state Supervisor of Secondary Education spoke on the program of studies. This, he said, is the weak est part of the school system. To a remark that had been previously made by one of the speakers that the program of studies was the very heart of the high school. Mr. Combs remarked that if this was true, then the high school system in Virginia is suffering wftth a bad case of weak heart. Mr. Combs spoke of the changes of recent dates in ths purposes and alms of the curriculum of high schools and the necessity of every teacher knowing the trend of educational thought of today—(the differentiated, curricula in which all types of pupils will be allowed to do what they can to get what they really need either for practical life Immediately in the community in which they live, or as preparation for college entrance v Each curriculum, Mr. Combs stated, should be built around what he called a “major” with other allied subjects. In every course the sub ject of English is considered as a "constant” that is. it mubt occur and run throughout all the courses. This subject of curriculum making needs to be studied carefully by every principal/ for as Mr. Combs stated, many principals in VlrgLnia are Ig norant of even the technical terms i used by educators In speaking of the subject. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. The subject of Vocational Educa tion was discussed by Mr. R. V. Long. State Supervisor of Trades and Industrial Education. Vocational Education as it fs generally under stood te not intended, for all the pu pils of the high schools, but only for those who are going to make practi cal use of the training secured. Mr. Long attacked the too theoretical nature of much of the work now being done. He also highly advo cated short intensive part-time cours ‘ es during the day for farmers in the less bu3y season, and the part-time and evening schools for other trades and vocational work. “Physical and Health Education” was discussed by Mr. G. C. Throner, State Supervisor of Physical Educa tion. The State requires at least three periods per week of thirty min utes each as the minimum of phys ical training In all high schools. Much interest was manifested by the body in the subject of athletics. The meeting closed after voting Its appreciation to Mr. Gresham, Mr Ellis, and others who made the meet ing possible and so exceedingly in structive. A committee was ap pointed to perfect plans for the per manent organization of a meeting of principalis of the Negro Secondary Schools. TRAIN STRIKES C. JERROD. Little Rock. Ark., Jan. 4.—Clarence Jerrod was seriously injured last Tues day morning at about 6:30 o’clock when he was struck by a Missouri Pa cific switch engine. Jerrod was on his way to work when the accident occur • ,ed. He was given first aid by members of the engine crew, and later removed to the Bush Memorial hospital, whei« it is said that he will probably have to have his arm amputated. He had sever al cuts on the head and his shouldeis fut and bruised and one arm almost severed from his body. TWF P| AM FT ^T-mbrclla Coupon <*OOD FOR FIVE VOTES. I ,| *£ Webster’s | | Mew International i DICTIONARIES arc in use by busi- * - ncrs men, engineers, bankers, : judges, architects, physicians, : : farmers, teachers, librarians, der- : • pymen, by successful men and \ ; uomcn the world over. Are You Equipped to Win? ■ The New International provides : : the means to success. It is an all- : : knowing teacher, a universal ques- ’• - tion answerer. If you ocek efficiency and ad y vancc mcnt why not make daily ] : use of this vast fund of inform- ; : atlon? j 2 400.000 Vocabulary Terms. 2700 Pages. 00»O Illustrations. Colored Plate*. ’ ?0.000 Cooftraphleal Subjects. 12,000 ■ : liioftruphlcal Entries. Regular and India-Paper Editisas. s vvrlteiorepeo- l imen pages, ' illustrations, - etc. Free. • : set of Pocket : Maps U you • namo toil . paper. ; etc. MERRIAM : CO., t Springfield, Miss, j IKG10ES ARE LOYAL TO ■am sirs SEYM MOLL Gaffney, S. C„ Jan. 1.— The tree Negro of today is Just as loyal anl friendly to the Anglo-Saxon people os they were to their antebellum nnces tore; Seymour Carroll, Recreat ion Director of the American Red Cross at the U. S. Veterans* Hospital No. 26 near Greenville declared today in opening hJto address here in the Cherokee County Court House at the 69th annual emancipation exercises celebrating the freedom of the Negroes from Slavery. Speaking to an audience of several hundred people among whom were a large number of white people Carroil asserted that “no race in the world’s history have ever made more marvel ous progress than the Negro since emancipation from slavery a little more than fifty years ago. “The splendid showing that we have mhde could not have been accomplish ed had it not been for the fact that deep down in the hearts of the two raoes here In the south; there is a sin cere feeling of the good wishes of pros perity, friendship and co-operation , among the better elements of the two races here in tbe South. “Good citizens among the Negroes of - a community mean as much to the Ne gro himself, as it does to the white people. I have always found that where there are a bad white people In a community, where one race is shift less, indifferent and idlesome that you will find the same thing in general among tbe races in the same commun ity. Good citizenship, safe citizenship, sane citizenship, progressive citizen ship elevates the standing of the com munity, it makes life, health and pros perity safer—promotes a spirit of iu dustry, morality and a high Christian spirit of co-operation among the races in the city, the county, the state and country. "We must not permit the troubles here and there on the part of a few thoughtless white people who so often misrepresent tbeir own race to caus? us to feel that we do not have some good friends here in the State of South Carolina. We will ever have disturb ing elements among both races-—al ways trying to create trouble. Such people never represent the best ele ment; they are enemies of both races. I have an abiding faith in not only the willingness, but the-desire of the white people of the State and country to lend a helping hand to the good, safe, sane and progressive Negro »n every community.” THE MIGRATION OF THE NEGRO ‘ Declaring that the migration of the Negro from the South to the North and West is a heavy loss Seymour Carroll advanced no ideas as to how it can be checked, but declared that the movement is not actuated by racial animosity. In hi. opinion it is causej by the presence of the boll weevi , poor housing and industrial conditions poor school facilities, the dread of what he has read and been told of th Ku Klux Klan. He is looking for bet ter living conditions, more opportuni ties for the education of his children in the free public schools. He hopes to make more money. "I want to say here.” he declared, "let us make up a program for better educational, social, economic ccndi tions. let us declare ourselves In favor of justice at the bar in nil courts ot the land for all races. Stretching bis remarks to the great program of his people in education, commerce and m dustry he went on to say that then* ( I are 70 successful Negro banking insti tutions in the United States, three or which have an annual clearing in ex cess of $1,000,000 each, that in ta* past 60 years illiteracy has been reduc ed from 95 to 25 per cent; that the No groes in the U. S.. have amassed over $1,000,000,000 worth of property an I are increasing their holdings at the rate of $50,000,000 per year, while the most of them are found on the farm* we have 1,000.000 in various trauee and industries, there are 400 normal schools and congee*, teachers and $28 000.000 was the hud pet for Negro education last year, of this amount $2.000 000 was the direc. and voluntary contribution of the Ne groes themselves. I want to say heio that if the American Negro can sur vive the competition of the American business man. I am sure he can tri umph over every other difficulty which we may find in the pathway of our commercial, industrial and education al progress. When the Negro asks for beat. school facilities!, adequate sanitary ar rangements in the part of the city giy en over to him1, good streets equal rail road accommodation, police protection in his part of town, he does not seek social standing with his white people in the community, but the things that will tend to make him a better citizen and give him the comforts of life, let us credit the black man with a desire for civic Justice, to be treated on his moral, intellectual and economic mer its aw any other American citizen. I brand forever the lie that there lives a colored man or woman in dear old South Carolina who ever wanted to sr-cinMze. with white people. I do feel that deep down In every Negroes soul Is that sincere desire to be the best Ne gro in the community.” Throwing his arms high into the air, he said he was thankful to God here In South C** olfna that the black man has unseinsn. God-fearing white friends in every part of the State who are not afraid ot defending the Black South Carolinian in the right, white men who are with us In the right to help keep us right, with us in the wrong to "help get ns right. I count among my beat, and dear est friends white people who live in the eity of Greenville. Closing his add resit he added: "I have an abiding faith In the good peo ple of South Carolina, both black and white.” leaning over the court railing ho closed with the dying words of Gen. Wade Hampton: "God bless all of my people both black and white alike." j - --—. I =saa——PU ROMAN REMAINS DISCOVERED IN ENGLAND. left 1? ro.”twI^,mm”dteThe,»ned. paVement wlllch ha8 '"’o'1 d‘*»«red at Colcheeter, England. On the » • POCKETS NOT LARGE ENOUGH TO TAKE HOME HIS SALARY. Phofto shows a German baker receiving his weekly wage which lie is placing in a cigar box preparatory to his Journey home or to the bank. In this country master bakers receive in the neighborhood of $80 to $90 per week. If this baker received anything like this sum in marks, it is not unlikely 'that he will have to build a private bank to store his marks. A GRIM SOUVENIR OF THE WAR. Hero is a grim war souvenir from the Adriatic Sea. A mine cast upon he shore near Rimini. Italy with a’.l it’s "atmosphere” of the days before the armistice, st.ll intact. A HUMAN LETTER X. A professional skater doing a difficult Jump and turn on the Ice In Switzerland, where the winter eportfng season Just openedr **■■■ . ..-. ■ I AVIATOR HAS NARROW ESCAPE, A British aviator had engine trou ble and his plane fell nose down into the ocean. Fortunately a squadron was in the vicinity and saw the pilot sitting on the tail of his plane, wav ing frantically and picked him up. I iaWMWMll'.LIlllllilUMBillMMMMP- Mini' STT RETIRES LEAVING A $1,000,000 BUSINESS TO EMPLOYEES. Henry A. Dix. makers of women’s uniforms is ready to retire at age of 72, having turned his business over to his employees, to whom he has lent $250,000 for working capital. He will serve as director at a salary of $1.00 per year. A DINNER FROCK. A story of fashion in told here In the meshes of laces, Sheer pleated, lace panels combined with brown satin, dinner frock for a ‘Jenne Flele'