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His Birthday ""Ours.
For a few hours celebrants of the advent of the Christ-child will com memorate His Birthday. Some will revere the Christmas Day in a reli gious way. Some will exhaust mirth and music, with various adjuncts, in order to display their happiness. Some will receive presents and give none; others will give presents and receive none. And a few hours after the yuletide season has passed by, avaricious people will be at each others' throats again, and the "Sur vival of the Fittest” will again unfor tunately become the dominant creed of thousands of our citizens —our brethren—His children. America’s ten million Negroes, who could forget on His Birthday, will be reminded on the morrow, even in the smallest hamlet of this country, that ’Peace and Goodwill” lose some of their sweetness when put to the acid test. This tenth of our population will be reminded of that truth in ten thousand convincing ways. They're not sorrowful, though, at the prospects of the coming days. They know that as long as life lasts His Birthday will be commemorated. They know that our birthdays will be commemorated in some, way which He permits. They know, too, that the birthdays of Prejudice, Scorn Discrimination and their legion of associates, no matter how joyously they are celebrated now, must some day pass into a night to which there will be no dawn. These oppressed people Know that, and so do their oppressors, though they flaunt the truth in the face of falsity, lest fear of the day of freedom might over* whelm them now. This tenth of our population, though offtimes ill at ease beneath its burdens, is just as offtimes gladsome at its visualized future. For at one time, was He not despised and rejected among men? And is He, Himself, not free now? And did He not say: “I will maKe all men free?” i (Pitston News Sen-Ice) COLORFUL NEWS “MOVIES” By “THE CAMERAMAN.” 1. Congressional Hopes., 2. Mortality From Tuberculosis. (Fronton News Service) ‘1 have the honor of being the first Republican leader to urge the election of members of your race to the State Legis lature and to the Board of Aldermen. I now wish to go fur ther and urge that the time is at hand when one of your mem # bers should represent this district in Congress,” said Secretary of State, John J. Lyons, of New York, in a recent address to the Appomattox Republican Club, a Negro organization of the Empire State. And HOPES sprang in the breasts of men, brave and bold, who would fain TROD the HALLS OF CONGRESS and broadcast remedial oratory far and near. The IDEA is a FINE ONE, and Mr. Lyons and the Appomattox Club are to be congratulated in fostering the parentage of such a splendid motivation. But, sailor, what of the night—the Arabian night of fancies, all because the colored voters of New York seem to have marched themselves into the barracks of Tammany Hall and the Democratic Party. Why they did it, no one knows. A few jobs have been handed out, ’tis true; but the big gift—the freedom from the alliance with the complete Dem ocratic platform—is as far from the grasp of the BRETHREN as ever. They have eyes, yet they see not. The answei. then, is plain. The departed BROTHERS ,-who forsook the Republican camp for the Democratic desert, _ should, by now, rub their eyes and wake up from their long slumber. They know the moral worth to them of representa tion in Congress, especially when that representation could be builded upon the rocks of Republicanism rather than upon the sands of Tammany Hall and its guardian. Democracy. The thing can be done if thoughtful voters will assemble together with a common object in mind, built upon a platform which will safely hold everybody. It is announced by the U. S. Department of Commerce that ‘ compilations made by the Bureau of the Census show that 90,452 deaths were due to tuberculosis in the registration area of the United States in 1922, with a death rate of 97 per 100,000 population. This is a drop of 2.4 since 1921, in which year the rate was 99.4 per 100,000 population. Ad justed rates have been calculated separately for the white and colored population. In this group of states Tennessee has the highest adjusted rates for both white and colored (respectively 121.8 and 299.8 per 100,000 population). The lowest ad justed rate froip tuberculosis for the white population is 54.5 for Mississippi and this state and Florida each shows the lowest rate for colored population (171.5 per 100,000 population).’* The racial death rates in Mississippi and Florida, from the dreaded malady, on account of being somewhat lower than in other localities, are encouraging; and they would be more so were it not for the fact that there is another malady in those states which is more dreaded by our group than Tuberculosis— and that malady is the lynching evil. Take this away jfrom the land of cotton and palm trees, together with its kin-evils, and Southern migration figures would take a big drop. Still, though, there is much of a problem in the tubercular diseases among our people. It is safe to say that the problem lies in the one cruel word POVERTY—which means poor food, poor clothes and poor housing. * necessities are paramount in avoiding tubercular germs, ambit will take both WEALTH and "WELFARE to reduce their toll. WHY JIM CROW IS FLYING NORTH. Colliersj Weekly Gives Graphic Review of Causes Which Underlie the Great Exodus -— ■ ■ _ (By W. O. Saunders.) I am a Southern white man, born and raised in an old-fashioned South ern country town where the popula tion woa about half black and na>. white. I have lived nearly all my life in the South and close to colored peo ple. When I was a child I loved my "ole black mammy" and played wi'n Negro children without prejudice. Bn’. 1 grew up to dislike Negroes general ly*. Just as almost everybody in the South does, for no particular reason at nlj except that "a nigger is a nigger.’ I came to manhood with a Southerner’s dislike and contempt for Mack folks: Once or twice I searched my he*rt and mind for tome basis for this dis like. At such times I satisfied myeelr by comtemplating only vicious, indol ent shiftiest improvident, dirty, rang ed, ignorant, offensive type of Negrc. I did not give much thought to any other kind or recognize that a new type of Negro was growing up. And then, a few years ago, a soi,<; awoke me. It was more of a chant than a song; it was a new and strange song, the like of which I had never heard before: Boll weevil here boll weevil there. boll weevil everywhere; Oh, Ivordy, ain’t I glad! ^ * # It was p.tyegro singing. He was a Georgia Negro, who with' a score or more of his kind, was employed j*i road construction In North Carolina. TMs was one of the song* that he h > i brought from the farther Southland That song haunted me. There was n note of genuine gladness, almost of ex ultntlon. In thfe voice singing It., not unIke the note one hears between lines in the Old Testament songs of Jews triumphing over the downfall of ♦heir enemies. It seemed a song of <*HanC**>a^0n’ * ducked the words add music a wav in my memory bo cause I pretty well knew that there "/as a story there somewhere. Negro songs have meaning One who lives among the Negroes and studies them comes to know what is in their hearts and on their minds by the songs they sine. If a Negro hasn’t an old song to fit hi- moods or thoughts of the mo ment, ho improvises a new song as he works. He sings h.»s hopes his fear* his loycs. and Ms hunger. A NegTo d»* satisfied with his Job and planning to nu’t the works r.n the morrow may suddenly start from a fit of sullen si lence and sing as he swings his ax -)r I*is shovel.: • • # • . j i’se a gwine to trabel. trabel trabelT in de morniu.' And In the morning he will have traveled, and the overseer will have „9 hunt another laborer. And so. when I heard that black b y from Georgia singing bis gladness that the boll weevil was everywhere, I sh pected that nothing less than a rom ance or a tragedy ln Negro life had in spired those words. I have never henrd them since, and Mr. Monroe N. Work that wonderful Negro statistician at 1 uskegee who has tucked away a mb I. on tacts about the colored people, can find no tong like It in all bis files. But I have found out for myself just whet it meant. I have looked into the exodus ot ne groes from the South for Collier'e. 1 i have traveled through Georgia, A1 j bamn Mississippi and parts of Louisi ana and Tennessee in recent month*-. I have talked with Negroes in Atlanta Montgomery, New Orleans, Vicksburg Memphis, and elsewhere. I went to fuskegee Institute. I went into the only town in tbe United States that is peopled solely by colored folks— tnc only town that has a Negro mayor a Negro policeman, and a Negro post master. I talked with Negro farm hands, lawyers, preach«er8 editors, and business men In several Southern States. I rode In a railroad coach with Negro migrants leaving the Yaaoo and Mississippi Valley via Memphis for Cincinnati and other points north, i know now why a black boy from Geoi gia slinging hot asphalt in the broil ing sun on a North Carolina highway back in 1917 was singing Jofully: Boll weevil Here, boll weevil there boll weevil everywhere; Oh: Lordy, ain’t I glad! To millions of hungry and oppresse.l blacks laboring for a mere subsistence cn the cotton plantations of the South the invasion of the Mexican boll wc*v II. laying tyaste tbe acres of tbe pinion tlon owners, was nothing less than an act of Providence. To these Macks who read the B hle and believe everv .word of it the plague of the boll we9 I vll was put the hand of God laid heev ily upon their taskmasters. WHO WILL PICK THE COTTON? The Negro in the towns and cities was most exultant; he beckoned to u:* brothers and siBters on the farms to lay down the shovel and the hoe. now that actual starvation confronted them and come into the cities, where employ ment awaitgd them at certain wages. The Negro on the bankrupt plantation laughed at the boll weevil and made his way to the cities. And the pennt less, indolent, care-frge, ever-restle. s change-seeking Negro of the towns fell in line with this movement and move ] on too. Millions. of Negroes have left th* South within the past ten years to seek economic freedom in the great Indus trial centers of the North and Wear. Millions: more arc leaving and will leave. Thtey were pouring out of Jack sonville, Savannah, Atlanta, Montgom ery. Mobile* New Orleans Vicksburg 1 Birmingham, and Memphis, by th.? trainload thio summer. Plantations of h thousand acres have been abaneloneu in a night. Negro labor plowed the fields of Southern planters last /all and put in the crop this spring. The cotton and the ;eldom corn was push, ing it* way through the earth and >• fng for intensive cultivation. Ani from millions of acres Negroes went away in groups, leaving no one to ho end grub and bring the crops to fruit ion. Plantation owners have ap pealed to the law to keen the .Negroes on the farms where they ar» sorely needed. Labor agents have been thrown into Jail. Negroes have been nr rented on trumped-up charges or bei-. for debts. But the exodus has not abat ed , One finds in some rural towns whole blocks of Negro cabins deserted . In many cases the migrants leave every thing behind them to divert suspu-ic.i I Many of them possess little more than the wretched/ clothes on their backs; they bAvo no ties of property to bitsi I them. Others who have by thrift cult' vated a small garden, kept a pig and (little poultry, leave the pig in the pen and the chickens roosting in a tree while they steal away in the night to catch a train that will take them to Kast St. Louis or Chicago, a labor f.«ent^,rn,shefl t,leTn w,th transporta tion. Often the whole family goes. Mo •« often only the men go at fln-t* but a»t er a few weeks they send transporta tion back home to the women and ebb dren. who, In turn, go to the Northland where wages are high and "where a nigger has some rights.” 1 through ibe Yazoo and Mlssi* sippi Valley, a Negro Pullman porter pointed out to me a group of Negro W^mPn an<1 rh,,f!ren hoeing the young rotton on a plantation of several thou* ana acres. "See tho?e women and ch?i idren*’’ said the porter; "we hauled tliefrTmenfolks out of here three weeks ago; another week or a fortnight we will hauling tae women and chil dren too. am» i.ierc will- be no black folks left on that place.” The exodus spells immediate heavy financial loss and in many cases, ut ter ruin for the owners of millions ox feres of farni lands in Southern StatP-j There never is enough labor to picii the South’s cotton crop clean, even when conditions are normal. But it wasn’t the boll weevil that sent the Negro on his wild flight north. The boll weevil was only one of many reasons. The four main ones are: (X) Discovery by Northern industrialists that the Negro is a dependable and enduring laborer. (2) The dearth of foreign labor, due to our new immlgra tion restrictions* compelling the Northtern emplover to seel: a new ia bor supply. (3) The inability of ti.e South, ixpder l*s present antiquat ed, wasteful and inefficient methods or agriculture, to pay the Negro a liv ing wage. (^) The Negro desires more than anything else to find educational opportunities for his children. The Ne gro Is flocking north to high wage-.. | entering industries that pay him fiva i dollars to ten dollars a day for his j work—and pay Hm in cash. To get ; north and get these wages and educate ' his children, he Is forsaking a lard that too often gives him only a pitiful dole of corn meal and fOrghum, de clares him a- debtor still to the landlord after his work of a year is done and as a rule provides only a three months’ | school term for his children. We Southerner'*. have tried to fool | curselves into a belief that the Negro was for-Rklfig the South to flee into a field of Industry *n which he could aot compete. This is not true. The Negro is proving hjmself a more satisfactory day laborer than the lower-class im migrants who huve manned many of the more Important industries. He lv hard, enduring, and docile—and he can understand orders given in English If the Negro had not proved his worth as a day laborer, the North would not be sending for him and pay ing his transportation. Again we lia^e been fooling ourselv. es with a lot of talk about the hard con dltions confronting the Negro in thr North. Our newspapers are full of Ji lt is mostly twaddle. I have seen Ne groes swarming in the most wretched enements in congested districts of Northern cities. A white man would shudder to t foot in many of ♦he places in which Negroes live in Northern cities. But they are not worse than the cabins In which go many ct these Negroes lived in the South THE WHITE MAN’S WORD. Have you ever seen a typical Negro cabin on a plantation in the Mlssissip pi Valley? It is usually only a dimfru 1 five board structure of two rooms in 1 s*.y» •**./%* ... which a family of five, six eight, or more eat and sleep. The common type of these cabins is called a “shotgun house.” because of its single-barrel c°n atruction. During the hot summer months deep in one of these cabins I* next to impossible. When it rains, tns water often pours through the roof. I have never seen one of these cabins rcreened. «nd only 0n small farms have I seen them with windows other ihan a near-tight wooden shutter. Com pared to these, the squalid brick tene ments of the North are very mansions In the sklf s. The roofs of the city tene inents do not. leak; snnkes and lizards and insect<> do n°t crawl up througn Ibe crevices in the floors. It. Is not unusual for an llllterata black man and h's family to work for a landowner for a year growing noth ing but cotton. The landlord will per mit him to grow no corn because ho could stenl the corn or appropriate a bit of it for his food. He cnn have no pie end no poult : y because pigs a yd poultry must have grain or the scrapf from a kitchen. There are no ‘icrap* from the poor Negro’s kitchen. In a year the Negro tenant may pro [luce ten,, twenty, thirty, or more bales of cotton. He and his wife and chil dren pick out. this cotton in the fall end carry it to the gin. where it I* pressed into hales. The Negro turns rhe baled product at his labor over >o Ihe landlord and. awaits a settlement. Sometimes the landlord say« at the eno of the year: “WeM. John you did pret ly good this year; you raised a good rop and you owe me only forty dol •era.” For a vear that Negro and hit, whole family have tolled and sweated During this t?me they have lived on limited rations bought at the commis sary owned by the plantation oWner. The rations consist almost wholly ot sorghum and corn meal. And at tl»3 end of the year the Negro is told ne is in debt. He cannot challenge the white man’s word. He has kept no nc counts of his own because he does not know how. He dares not appeal to th" Jaw because the law 1® the white mar's iaw. He suffers in silence and when opportunity comes he steals away ‘n the night. In the North he finds a city that pro vides a year-round school term for hi 3 children* a community center for him pelf and his wife a city dispenmry to give him drugs wh»n he is sick and penniless, a public-health nurse an'J hospital care when ho needs them nne «• dozen helpful agencies to which he cap turn In emergency. I have before me a bill of complaint drawn up by Negroes in a mass meet ing in Jackson, Miss on May 1. 192 5 giving the reasons why they are leav ing the South. It starts with the state ment (hint “the Negro feels that life is not safe in Mississippi, and his lift may be taken with impunity at any lime by a white man... .The Negro has generntly despaired of obtaining his rights as a citizen in this section ’’ The document goes on to particular tee. laying emphisis upon the fact of his lack of educational and uplift op portunities. He complains of the fart that for every S2C spent for the educa tion of white children in th® State.on !y $1 is spent for the education of the Negroes: of the 800 consolidated schools in Mississippi, all are for whites: of fifty and odd agricultural school® for whites, there i® not one for *~l J&MJETS Wy5HouB BREAKS THAT GOLD Hill’s Cascara Bromide Quinine will break your cold in one day. Taken promptly it prevents colds, la grippe and pneumonia. Demand red box bearing Mr. Hill's portrait. All druggists. Price 30c. ’ASCARA&QUiNiNE Vr.M.wu.ea^g^k o«nK»T.Mic». jj. . --e=as3Bi Negroes; and there is not a dollar fa? the tubercular, for the feeble-minded, for the blind, or for the derelict Negro youth, though millions are spent on whites. I The complaints made by the Negroes rf Mississippi are typical of the com plaints made by Negroes In other Southern States. They are all too true. And yet one seldom hears mention of the Ku Klux Klnn by the Negro. Thn Kluckers are the least of his troubles. The fact of organized mobs arrayed in uight-shirts and pillowcases makes lit lie difference to him. He was lynched, before the nightshirt and the pillow case were thought of. Only the better class of Negroes are particularly alarm ed over the Ku Klux. The better clags of Negroes see In the organization a sinister agency further to estrange the whites and the blacks in the South and prevent racia: adjustments. I.may ((Continued on Page 6.) ' "FT P TO CAIN FREEDOM FOR THE HOUSTON MARTYRS ' ■ t PETITION To tbe President of the United States: WE, the undersigned citizens of the United States, do respectfully petition that by exercise of the power of "Executive Clemency you pardon and restore to citizenship the members of the 24th U. S. Infantry now serving life and long-term sentences In the Federal Prison at Leavenworth, Kansas, convicted in connection wHh the riots at Houston, Texas, in August, 1917. We so petition because of * 1. The excellent previous record for discipline, service sad soldierly conduct of the 24th Infantry. 2. The provocation of local animosity against these man because of their race and color which was mdaifestad In intuits, threats and acts of violence against theae colored soldiers wearing the uniform of the United States Army and waiting to he sent to France to fight A The heavy punishment meted out to members of the 24th Infantry, of whom nineteen were hanged, thirteen of them eummarily and without right of appeal to tbe Secretary of War or to the President, their Commander-In-Chief. Fifty four of them remain in prison, having already served nearly six years. 4. The exemplary conduct of the men as prisoners. City and State.__ - ADDRESS RiMI ADD RMS WSTROCTIOlfS Any church, lodge or othor fraternal organization, woman’s dab, civic or other dab which wishes to aid in gathering sig nature* to the petition has fail permission to print copies of the form here given sad hast them signed by their members That all petitions may be uniform we urge yon take this form to your printer as a model and have them printed oo sheets 14 by 14 inches in size, tearing out, of count, thetc inttructumt. When Ailed by bona Ada signatures mail petitions to the If. A. A. C. P., 69 Fifth Avenue, Raw York City, where they will be arranged by states sad in uniform lots, sad aA other necessary clerical work dona that the pleas for pardon may make the most impressive showing when presented to President Cootidge. This should be done promptly. Remember, every signature wiA be one more aid towards freeing these men who for elz year* have been uejustly imprisoned Do your pert towards - /■ restoring them to (boit lowed ones and to freedom. Individuals may help by clipping *0 above form, signing it with nineteen others and malting it te (he If. A.'A. C. P. WOTE-Wb— ntttmary mm —dwtb fcr id<w*i