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The papers formerly known as The Statesman and The Independent, have been merged into The Denver Star TWENTY-SIXTH YEAR Number 41 The Negro Race As Recorded In History. Excellent Portrayal of Acts and Deeds of Negroes. Things You Ought To Know. For the purposes of a cursory review of the History of the Negro Race in its relation to modern civilization, it is not necessary to begin with a dogmatic interpretation of the poetic imagery of a Hebrew myth, nor to indulge in pseudo scientific speculations about the place of the black man in the scheme of evolution or the effect of the rays of the sun on on skin color. Whatever may have been ' his origin or the cause of his 1 physical characteristics, the ' Negro has been known as a ' part of the human family from the dawn of the civilization ' which is the heritage of the Western world. Although there is no evidence to show that the Negro, the black man as the Spanish and Portuguese traders and navigators redis covered him in the fifteenth century, was ever the exclu sive or dominant occupant of the only Africa known to the ancients, it cannot be doubted shat rtw-enee - *< whose principal habitat is now and seems always within his torical times to have been south of the Sahara, did exert a tremendous influence on the civilization of all northern Africa and constituted an in> portant element in the make up of that ethnic rebus, the Egyptian of old. What is true of Egypt is es sentially true of every nation that had to do with the found ers of our civilization. It was in Egypt that the Israelite met the Negro as fellow slave and if the monuments of the culture of the Pharaohs are worth anything, as master. I-rom the region of the Nile the adventurous children of Abraham pushed their way southward toward the sources of this mighty current, leaving the indelible imprint of their sojourn upon the country which is n6w called Abyssinia and upon various groups of the people of Eastern Africa. Westward across of the great desert and toward the Niger some of the members of the lost tribes wandered and, when a Negro visitor of the nation of the Yoloffs related at the court of King John of Portu gal that not far from the con fines of his own state there dwelt a nation of Jews of great antiquity, the sacerdotal at tendants of his Christian Ma jesty began to think that there must have been some motive a just God which had led to the dispersion of the Jews so many centuries before the crucifixion and the subsequent destruction of Jerusalem by the legions of Titus. The Portuguese have since had ample opportunity to verify the statement of the Yoloff The Denver Star “READ AND BE INSPIRED” visitor and, to the New York er who has not the time to take a trip to West Africa nor to delve into anthropological research, it will be sufficient to look at the native of Da homey who recently attracted much attention in this city, and whose perfect Semitic features, coupled with a skin that might be called black and hair like what is set down in the books as characteristic'of the Negro, attest to the plant ing of the seed of Abraham on “Terra Nigritarum" long before the meeting of the P.ifnpMn Gen tile. As the Jews have gone into the country of the Negroes so also, when they crossed the Red Sea, they took with them not only as "hewers of wood anddiawersof water" but as integral parts of their very being, specimens of the stranger people whose pecu liar color had aroused the scientific curiosity of the stran gers in Egypt and given rise among them to the tradition which Moses has so graphi cally set forth to account for the origin of the Negro in ac cordance with the Hebrew theory of the creation. The one fact of paramount impor tance in the History of the Negro is the wide diffusion not only of alien blood in the country proper of the Neg roes, but the spread of black blood among peoples who are today arbitrarily classified as of unadulterated white races. Continuously from the decline of Rome, the same influences which led to the presence of Hebrew stock in Negro Afri ca have carried the Arab, the Persian, the Indian and the to Negroland, and taken the inhabitance thereof to East ern lands. In the days of Imperial Rome, the Negro or Negroid was found side by side with the Briton and the German in the slave marts and in the legions of the Caesars. In those days , bar barian was barbarian and sav age was savage, and the oc casional reference in extant Roman literature to some man of black skin, thick lips and coarse did not mean that the individual possessing those qualities was to be regarded as necessarily and inevitably inferior to those of his fellows DENVER, COLORADO, SATURDAY, JUNE 6, 1914 who, like the fair haired Brit ish slaves whom Gregory call ed “non Angli sed Angeli,” presented such a striking phys ical contrast not only to the Romans themselves, but to most of the people from whom their army and their laborers were recruited. In the Unit ed States at the present time a man who is ancestrally one half Chinese, one-fourth Scan dinavian, one-eighth Hindu, one sixthteenth Cherokee and the rest Mandingo would in a large number of states be leg ally, and in all states accord ing to custom and popular stupidity, made to fit in with the spelling book description of a Negro. To some mod erns, the science of anthropo logy consists exclusively in arbitrary numbering and clas sifying of the varieties of mankind and in spurious analyses of the blood of indi duals in the effort to assign it to one or other of the ortho dox sources, but to the Ro mans it appears that the main interest in man was the strength of the arm of an indi - vidnal on the field of battle or in the pursuits' of peace. With this fact in mind, the most superficial student of history of Roman matrons and maidens over the brave sold iers who took consorts from among the peoples whom they had subjugated and never more returned to Indian soil, that not a little Negro blood is represented in the hyphen of four or five centuries be tween the Roman Conquest of Britian and the time when the Saxon came to meet the Angle in the Anglo-Saxon. To many this will seem an unwarranted and sacrilegious assault upon a cherished image, but truth is always an iconoclast, and the over whelming probabilities are that under the Roman em pire, if not indeed since the time the Phoenicians brought tin from Cornwall in exchange for the products of the Modi terran countries, the Negro and the Negroid were well diffused over the greater por tion of Europe then inhabited and particularly in that part which would be most anxious to deny this assertion. With the fall of Roman and the de struction of its system of civ Rising contact between peo ples by means of a magnifi cent military government, the flow of black blood into the veins of Europe was checked until the coming of the Sara cen into Southern and Eastern Europe. To the Mohamme danj the only system of classi fication of human, beings is thejfaithful and the infidel, as wit|i the Roman it was the citizen and the barbarian and, cotfeequently. there was no let ormindrance to the coming of Iro, either as slave, or, witti more Of less admixture, as master. into the countries dominated by the followers of the Prophet until the Goth am Gauls checked the Moors in heir-' advance toward the Py enees and ultimately re puked them from Spain. The current.of Negro and Negroid slat res or slave-traders was thtpi turned eastward from Sidily with the other elements in the nondescript Mussul man, and it was from Turkey that, several centuries later, Peter the Great obtained the Nag ro attendant who was destined to become the fore bear of Alexander Puskin, thh father of Russian litera ture. Put the lull in relations be tween Africa and Spain which resulted froth the expulsion of : the Moon and Negroes from the latter country was opt long to last. In 1474 there wss in Seville a large and of genuine NfgrgDijlmd mulatoes, well ttfeatflippythe King and peo- immediate i/oßroraTi mayoral or judge of their own, who was ap pointed by the King. Fiom these, a generation later, the first Negroes in America were drawn. There presence in Se ville, according to the chron - icles of the time, dated from theend of the fourteenth cen tury, when some Negroes were brought thither as slaves At this time, however, the Negro of the more extreme type could not have been a familiar figure in the south ern portion of the Peninsula, for we are told that when, in ' 1442, Antao Goncalves brougt ,to Portugal a party of ten of ! t hese whom he had received in exchange for some Moorish j slaves captured by him in the ! previous year, their color ex isted wonderment among the inhabitants of Lisbon, but the Portuguese were not long to be strangers to the Negroes, for, what was at first a thirst for discovery and ad venture, coupled with an earn est desire to bring all the heathen into the true faith, soon degenerated into the most revolting system of self aggrandizement the world has ever known. At the time of the discovery of America, the Portuguese had already discovered and explored the whole of the western coast of Africa, had formed settlements at Ma uerii and at various places on tlie mainland and established a modest but growing trade with the Negroes and Moors in the products of their coun try and, to a limited extent, in slaves. Slavery had exist ed among the Negroes, as among all primitive peoples, as a means of disposing of the enemy captured in war or of lightening the burden to the community of the presence of its weaker and inefficient members. As such it had existed among the Romans and had continued in Europe, not merely in the milder forms of serfdom and vassalage, which saw their finish only in the nineteenth century, but actual chattel slavery was still prevalent all along and on both sides of the Mediterran ean long after the Portuguese began the purchase of Negroes from Negroes. Arabs, and Moors. The development of this trade depended on the demand for this commodity, which was very limited in Eu rope. On the other hand, the country of the Negroes offer ed many fields of mutually beneficial intercourse to the Portuguese and their black friends, so that in these early days their relationship was one of respect and co-opera tion. VVe find, for instance, that an aspirant to the throne of the throne of the Yoloff nation went to Portugal and obtained the assistance of King [ohn, who placed at his disposal twenty Portuguese caravels with which tc make war against the powers that were in Yoloff. Before Colum bus saw San Salvador a King of the Congo had sent his children and grandchildren with large retinues of attend ant to Portugal to be educated in the Portuguese and Latin languages, and it is said that two of his descendants return ed to their country as bishop. The influence of their training and calling might haye had a more enduring effect upon their people, had not the dom inant motive in European in tercourse with these people been changed from one of mutual respect for mutual benefit, to one of degradation of the simple, confiding Neg ro, anxious to get away from the isolation of countless ages, only to become she prey of the cupidity of the white man. The Portuguese, the first chris tain nation to come in contact with the Negroes of West Af rica, were the last to abandon the lucrative slave trade made possible by the discovery of America. The facts of the history of the Negro in America are too well-known to receive any but the briefest mention here. More than a century before the Enlish brought Negroes to Virginia in i6iq, the Span iard had introduced black slavesin their possessions from Hispaniola to Peru, and from Florida to what is now Argen tina, in order to supply the demand tor labor which could not be filled by the intractable Indians or by those whose docility had led to their speedy extinction un der the arduoustasks imposed upon them by their greedy and exacting masters. Through out America Netro slavery was identical in its essential features. Primarily an econ omic institution, it became deeper and deeper ingrained in the social and government al fabric of the countries of the New World according as it became increasingly profita ble. (Continued next week.V Five Cents a Copy. FEDERATION OF WOMEN’S CLUBS Story of .How a Virginia Schoolgirl Won Hor Laurols Through Own Energies— Founder and Organizer of Home For Wayward Girla —Educa- tor, Author and Business Woman. Roanoke. Va.—The Virginia State Federation of Women's Clubs, of which Miss Maud Reynolds of this city is the organizer, is one of the most helpful organizations in the state for work among young women and girls. Its activities, however, are not confined to the female portion of the race alone, but are exerted in the best interest of the people generally in the various communities. Miss Reynolds has worked her way to the front and desires to spend a life of usefulness for her people. She is one of the busiest women in the coun try. She was born in Petersburg. Va., but at a very early age her parents moved to this city, where she received her early public school training and where she is now conducting a hair dressing parlor. She finished the public school course in 1000 and graduated from the Virginia Normal and Indus trial Institute in 1902. She taught school for five years, making a reputa- MISS MAUD REYNOLDS. tion as one of the best teachers in the t entire school system in Virginia. She ! was loved by both pupils aud their par i ents. 1 In her business establishment she ! uses the most modern methods and keeps on hand a fresh stock of all nec essary material for the accommodation , of her patrons. Her parlors are on High School street, and she numbers among her customers some of the lead ing people of both races. She is ener getic and endeavors to render the very best service to her patrons. As busy as Miss Reynolds is with her many business cares she devotes considerable time to uplift work among the people. She organized a city federation of women’s clubs con sisting of a Civic Betterment club. Mothers’ club and Charity association, each of which is doing its work well and bringing good results to the race. It is the first time in the history of Roanoke that the playground system for children of the race has been in troduced. She is president of the City Federa tion of Colored Women's Clubs, the state organizer, and at the game time she Is state organizer for the W. C. T. U. In those positions she has the confidence of the women throughout the state. She is doing a great work for the development of womanhood. Miss Reyuolds has writteu a booklet on “How to Organize and Conduct Women’s Clubs.” This has been plac ed in many hands and has been of great assistance to the women. She his made a special study of the work. In educational movements she Is to be found in the frout rauk doing any thing lu her power for the advance ment of the young people in an edu cational way. She Is secretory of the State Alumni association of the Vir ginia Normal and Industrial college at Petersburg. Va.. and treasurer of the City Alumni association. Her special effort Is centered in a state homo school fur wayward colored girls, and In this movement she has luvtted all the women of the state to Join. Within four years they have pur chased a farm of 147 acres at a cost of $5,400, about $1,500 of which Is yet to be paid on It. For the homo the state has appropriated $1,200, and Just as soon as the people can convince the state that mean business other appropriations will be made au(| the Institution put on a iieriimnent busts. The work of building will *oou be started, and then more will join in the work. Several men of wealth have promised to contribute to the erectlua of the building.