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VOL. 36.--NO. 54.
PROGRESS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA MAGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY AND AT POMONA. The present issue of the Herald is largely taken up with facts concerning the remarkable development of the re sources of Southern California, especial ly of those of San Bernardino county and a portion of Los Angeles county which adjoins San Bernardino. There has been something phenome nal in this movement in production, population and wealth. The ratio of increase there in all lines has never been surpassed, if it has been approached,.in the United States. The causes for the rapid growth of the San Bernardino val ley are not far from the seeker. To begin with, the natural resources of this incomparable region, which, for convenience, we shall take to include Riverside and South Riverside, are al most illimitable, and made so by a geo graphical position unique and admir able, by a soil of remarkable richness and by water supplies that are practi cally inexhaustible. In the cultivation of the citrus fruits water is, if not indis pensable, highly desirable, and in the San Bernardino valley and at Pomona it is poured out in unstinted abundance. The water-shed of the San Bernardino valley is one of the most extensive in the state. The immense mountain ranges, comprising on one side Mount San Bernardino and old Grayback, and on the other the San Jacinto, discharge many streams which make the water supply of the San Ber nardino valley proper ever redun dant. Such streams as the Santa Ana river, Mill creek, Plunge creek, Warm creek and Lytle creek, render the proposition of irrigation one of great facility. The famous city of Riverside is irrigated by water obtained from the Santa Ana river, which is carried there in great canals, and which has created a scene of magical beauty from the point at which it enters the settlement to and including South River side. All Of these streams are peren nial, and their flow'of water fed from the snow-clad mountains to the north and east, never seems to know any diminu tion, however scant the fainfall may be. In addition to the running streams, the San Bernardino valley is a great arte sian belt. Appreciating this fact, Mr. Mftithew Gage, an enterprising citizen, conceived the idea of going up into the San Bernardino valley proper and sinking artesian wells there, and conveying their waters, for purposes of irrigation, on an extensive tract to the northeast of Riverside. The scheme was ;i brilliant success, and' the results have been the Gage canal and the sale of the tract to an English syndicate who possess large means, and who are operating on a scale of great magnitude, availing themselves of the experiences of the brilliant Riverside original. Plans are on foot for the development of water on every hand. A Cincinnati company has made arrangements to build an immense reservoir on Mt. San Bernardino, whose waters will be carried, by the aid of a tunnel, from the north to the south side of that mountain, making them available for the irrigation of immense tracts of valuable lands on what was formerly known as the Cuca monga plain. Plans have also been perfected to carry water from the San Jacinto mountain to the plains lying toward the south. All these projects are in capable hands. They will be car ried out with the energy and sagacity which seem to characterize every pro ject in San Bernardino county, and their success means an enormous addition to the wealth, prosperity and population of that whole section. "The San Bernaidino valley is also ad mirably situated with regard to its rail way advantages. Nature has been very liberal to it in the configuration of the country. The San Gorgonio Pass, which is a great break in the Sierras—which is a valley rather than a pass—and which is led up to by the San Timoteo canon, is the natural highway for any railroad whicli shall seek to traverse the country below the thirty-fifth par allel of latitude. The Sunset route, the branch of the Southern Pacific rail way between Los Angeles and New Or leans, goes through this splendid open ing in the majestic chain of mountains . which hems in the Colorado desert. Further to the south the great Cajon Pass is another clearly defined national highway leading up from the San Ber nardino valley, and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railway have al ready occupied it with their tracks, as suring to this richly endowed land an other transcontinental railway. A mo tor road which ruus to Redlands on one aide and to Colton and Riverside on the other proves a great convenience, and the Santa Fe has in course of construc tion and in contemplation a number of local roads, one of them, partially built, leading to the new insane asylum." It is understood that the Southern Pacific people design building into San Bernar dino and to construct a line leading from Pomona or some adjacent town to River LOS ANGELES HERALD. SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. side. To these roads, which secure am ple transportation facilities to the val ley in all directions, ought to be added the splendid Belt Elec tric service of the Southern California road, by which one can be whirled from Los Angeles to San Bernardino and Riverside and return via Orange and Santa Ana. The local service of the Southern Pacific between Col ton and Los Angeles is also a much appreciated convenience. Take it for all in all, there are few regions in the' United States bet ter supplied with railway facilities than this specially favored valley. It is not to be wondered at that, with such exceptional advantages, San Ber nardino county generally should report marvelous progress. Ab the center of the citrus fruit interest of Southern California (which practically means of the whole state) the fu ture of the valley would be assured, but it has a most interest ing and valuable variety of minerals, ranging from the tin mines of Temescal to the treasure deposits of the Calico and Oro Grande and half a dozen dis tricts. Every species of wealth seems to be poured out on San Bernardino from nature's riph cornucopia. The million aires who are already being developed and who will develop there in the future have at hand a handsome and varie gated marble with which to erect the palaces that will adorn the picturesque sites which are so numerous all over that vast expanse of majestic mountain and lovely valleys. , The growth which has been witnessed in the San Bernardino valley in the last two decades is something really extraord inary. The old city of San Bernardino —the county seat—has lately (extended its limits,and it now embraces a popula tion approaching ten thousand souls. J.t is noted for the richness of the soil which surrounds it and' rejoices in the possession of tho work shops of the Santa Fe railway. During the past five or six years a spirit of enterprise has developed in the place and many fine buildings have been erected. A beautiful hall of records has just been finished and the projec* A building a large and expensive court house is being mooted. The city is cer tain to maintain and increase its solid prosperity now that its people have en listed under the banners of progress. Riverside has a history of a notably interesting character. The city was laid out by Judge North some twenty years ago, and it now contains a population of upwards of six thousand souls. It has been extended of late, so that its pras-1 ent area covers about five thousand acres. It has every feature of a modern and progressive city. Its business and public edifices are of a high grade of ele gance and solidity, and many of the pri vate residences are absolutely palatial and surrounded by grounds which areas ornamental and enlivening as the orange, lemon and the other, subtropical fruits and flowers can make them. The cele brated Magnolia avenue which runs through Arlington is probably the hand somest drive in the United States, and it is made poetic by double rows of the pepper, palm, eucalyptus and other trees rare in any climate but a sub tropical one, and the whole prospect is made enchanting by interminable vistas of orange and - non groves. \VT_DNESDAY MORNING, JUNE 10, 1891. South Riverside possesses all the at tractions of her bigger neighbor, al though the town is but the growth of the other day. She can boast of the Vitrified Pipe Works of the California Clay Manufacturing company. The cub tivation of the citrus fruits is pursued here with the success which has at tended the like pursuit in Riverside. The neighborhood of the Temescal tin mines will contribute to the business prosperity of South Riverside, and Tem escal creek has been made serviceable for purposes of irrigation. In reviewing the' miracles of growth in San Bernardino county it would be an unpardonable omission not to give due prominence to Redlands.' This beautiful and progressive city is really the creation of the other day—'its his tory not dating back more than four or five years. The development which has taken place there began after the wild A SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ORCHARD AND VINEYARD. speculative excitement which was known as the "boom" had subsided. In the fall of 1887 lands could be purchased in what is now the town of Redlands for trifling prices. Now they command from $360 to $1000 and upwards an acre, according to the value of the improvements. No good orange lands can be bought in the town proper for less than $360 an acre, even when unimproved. These immense en hancements are due to the fertility of the soil and to the abundant supply of water which a number of enterprising gentlemen have stored in Bear valley and carried in ditches to Redlands and Alessandro,the latter a new colony which promises to be a great success. Red lands is already one of the handsomest little cities in California, or anywhere, in fact. Its success is due directly to brains and enterprise. Fruits of all kinds grow there to great perfection, and the Redlands orange already has a reputation wherever known.' In addition to the names of the places referred to above there are a number of other promising and lively cities and settlements in San Bernardino county, amonget.them Colton, Rialto and Chino. At the latter place a great beet sugar plant has been erected, and the making of beet sugar on a large scale will be undertaken during the current summer. This promises to be a great industry, the government bounty of two cents a pound being a great stimulus to the venture. San Bernardino, Riverside, Colton and Redlands have all street railways, com fortable hotels, fine schools, perfect sys tems of water and illumination and all the other characteristics of modern civ ilization. Pomona, which is located in Los An geles county, near the San Bernardino line, is another of the famous cities of Southern California whose rate of growth rivals that of Jonah's gourd. It shares with Riverside and San Bernardino the splendid advantages of a magnificent mountain water-shed, which assures ample facilities for irrigation. Like the San Bernardino valley, Pomona also possesses a great abundance of artesian springs which can supply an inexhaust ible store of the precious fluid. Pomona is. much younger than Riverside, but already wonders have been achieved there, and the spectacle of the waters welling from the earth near the old Palomarea ranch house with marvelous spontaneity is a sight worth traveling far to see. About every delicious fruit known to the scriptural or classical nar rative is cultivated successfully at Pomona, of course, including the citrus specialties. The olive has been made a great source of profit there, and it yields a handsome revenue at a very early day. Pomona is a remarkably bright and progressive city, its people are en terprising and ambitious and the pro ducts of the soil are rapidly making its people wealthy. Canneries and fruit drying establishments make the people measurably independent of the fluctua tions of the market. Pomona made a gallant fight for a separate county at the last election, and very nearly suc ceeded in having one created, of which she would have been the county seat. Of course the great and overshadow ing interest of this whole region has been the cultivation of the orange, but its products have been mul tiform and remunerative. There are orchards of seedling oranges in River side that have yielded two thousand dol lars an acre, and upwards. These are, of course, extreme figures. There are lemon orchards in Riverside whose pro duct, cured by Mr. Garcelon, whose method seems to be perfect, have netted $1800 an acre. Though these are excep tional figures, $1000 an acre is a frequent return to the orange grower. Great pecuniary returns await the intelligent culture of the deciduous fruits. There is much money in apricots, peaches, nectarines and other fruits in that line — not so much as in oranges, perhaps, but a reliable and ample return. Last year the orchards of the deciduous iruits at Pomona and, all over San Bernar dino county netted their proprie tors from $150 an acre upwards. En glish walnuts did much better than that. We do not think it necesßary to go into minute details in this general review, because they will be found in abundance elsewhere. It is not possible to exaggerate the future of the lovely country to which this and the succeeding pages are de voted. It comprises the cream of the region which will, in the coming years, supply the greater portion of the United States with its early vegetables, citrus fruits, nuts, raisins, canned and dry fruits, wines and bran dies, and an endless line of spe cialties which can be grown there to the greatest advantage. There is, as was to be expected, a steady rush of the moat desirable immigration there. Cap ital is pouring in to back enterprises whose fruition is in the immediate fu ture and the returns upon which cannot fail to be immense. There is no portion ot the American continent with a fairer outlook than Southern California, and the great things accomplished in the past are certain to be discounted by the achievements of the future. If Herodotus was right in saying "Egypt is the gift of the Nile," we are justified in saying the orange belt of Southern California is the gift of the mountain streams. B$ means of irriga tion the orange has quickly transformed the desert into orchards of such mar velous beauty and great profit, that the most conservative statement of the simple truth runs the risk, with the un informed, of passing for idle boasting. The "Golden State" in eighteen forty-nine Took name and wealth from gulch and mine; The streams then washing for grains of gold Now grow golden grain, of wealth untold, And luscious fruits on orchards and vines, Outranking in value her wealth in mines. 'Tis claimed of all fruits of the "Golden West," In beauty and profit the orange is best: If, in these pages, true story is told, The "Blue Ribbon" goes to the apples of gold. Of all the fruits of earth the orange is queen. Its history is full of poetry, and its culture in Southern California is full of profit. Whether the beauty of its evergreen tree, or the fragrance of its blos soms, or the delicious taste of the fruit, or its apple shape and color of gold, or all these combined, made it the Hespe rian fable in Milton's Paradise Lost, we cannot tell. The orange must have had a poetic side, else its early history would not have been the sto ries of gods and heroes. The eleventh great "Labor of Her cules" was to pluck some of the golden apples from the "Garden of the Hes perides." HISTORY OF THE ORANGE. When the orange emerges from the realm of mythology its history is still romantic. Its seed was carried long distances by wandering Arab and Crus ader. Following the tides of conquest and civilization, it has been planted in all the warm and congenial soils of the earth. It has been petted by the kings and queens of Europe in houses of glass, and in this way we learn that a single tree will live and bear fruit for four hundred years. The seed of the vener able tree at Versailles is said to have been planted by Leonora, wife of Charles 111., king of France. There is an or ange tree at Nice said to be over six hundred years old. The Spanish padres planted the or ange near the missions in the counties of Southern California a hundred years ago. Some of the trees near the old mission in the San Gabriel valley are still living, thus proving that the climate is so kindly the tree will live in spite of the neglect of whole decades. It took about fifty years for the people to learn that the orange would thrive outside the hearing of the silver bells of the old mis sions. Today the solid facts as to the profits of orange culture in Southern California still keep the golden apples in the realm of fiction, for the story seems too large to be true. A writer in the Overland Monthly in 1874 shows the net profit on the orange at that time to be $1,187 per acre. It should be no less now. There were sufficient illustrations of profit in orange culture somewhere in Southern California twenty years ago to nerve the pioneers of Riverside to put their fortunes and hardest labor into what then seemed to others the wildest of schemes. Soon after the pioneer orchardista at Riverside, catoe the Indiana colony and the planting of the orange groves of Pasadena. It was the planting of the orange that so quickly transtormed the sheep pasture of the San Pascual rancho into a scene of beauty, giving us a city with magnificent churches, hotels, opera houses, libraries, schools and all the accompaniments of an advanced and refined civilization in an incredibly short space of time. FIVE CENTS The great beauty and profit of he orange orchards was one of the leading; causes that led to the recent long con tinued rise in land values over so wide an area in Southern California. It was not all climate, scenery, nor the build ing of railroads, although these were factors in the combination, especially the coming of the great Santa Fe rail way ; but it was chiefly what the peo ple saw when they arrived. Recall or imagine the transforma tion scene, seemingly magical, which actually occurs to the trav eler as he passes from the drifting snows and biting cold of the north, in a Pullman or tourist car, down among the beautiful orange groves and into the perpetual summer of the great San Ber nardino and San Gabriel valleys. Stand ing in an orange grove at Riverside, On tario, Pomona or Pasadena in Feb ruary, let the stranger, while medi tating on the story he may hear of the profits of a ten-acre orchard, look over the landscape and take in, with the perfume of orange blossoms, the grandeur of the scenery, the beautiful valley dotted with homes, the green hills, the mighty range of mountains which acts as a barrier against the north winds of winter, and in summer a reservoir to store up the melting snows and send them down to him to grow these apples of gold in liv ing green ! Amid such surroundings, it is a pleasant thing for the eye to rest upon the "beautiful snow"—at a dis tance, and to see winter a perpetual prisoner on the mountain tops. A harvest richer than that of gold awaits those who shall skillfully plant and cultivate California's orchards. They not only produce wealth but add moral and physical health. "Many a mis chievous city lad could be turned from a downward to an upward course, if he could have all for his very own, art orange orchard, his to plant, cultivate and enjoy the fruit." No vocation has in itself more refining and elevating tendencies. A Pretty Garden Ornament. A very pretty piece of ornamental gar dening, not too difficult for beginners, can be done with an old umbrella or parasol and some plants of cypress vines, maurandia, sweet pea or anything -that is not of too aspiring a nature. Such climbers as the morning glory, canary bird vine and other twenty footers, are better left for unsightly fences and build ings. Plants are better than seed, be cause more certain, and they do not take so long to catch the knack of twining and spreading. Umbrella ribs are not decorative, and to see such an object standing there week after week, waiting for its clothes, does not give people a pleasant impression of a garden. But first find your umbrella; and this may not easy, for "retired" um brellas that are no longer fit for use are seldom seen. Some member of the fam ily, however, may be able to produce one, and then it should be immediately stripped of the few tatters left to it. The next step is to paint the frame and handle brown, and when quite.dry plant the end of the handle firmly in the ground, with the frame fully opened. If the handle is rather short it will be an improvement to add a piece of wood to it. It is now ready for the vines, which should have made some progress in growing; and when they once begin to do their best the old umbrella frame makes such a lovely green bower stud ded with blossoms of red or purple or white—or all together if the vines are mixed —that every one exclaims over its beauty. A parasol with the same treatment is equally pretty on a smaller scale, and it would be very ornamental in the center of a round bed edged with bright colored phlox or candytuft. With a long spout ed watering pot the vines could have a daily drenching in warm weather, when the sun is not shining on them, from their roots to their highest green tips, and this would keep them fresh.—Har per's Young People. New Uses for an Old Material. Peat, used for fuel from the earliest times, and long known to be of great value as a fertilizer, now finds so many other applications that its preparation has developed into an industry. Peat powder is serviceable, not only about stables but elsewhere, on account of its absorbent and somewhat antiseptic prop erties and low cost. A French surgeon introduced this powder, treated with an tiseptic solutions and contained in a cloth bag, as a dressing for wounds. The idea, said to be a very old one among the work ing people of some places, was improved upon by another medical man of Paris, Dr. Redon, who made a soft and pliable wadding of peat. Other dressings have since crowded these out of hospitals, though the peat applications are coming into use and gaming in favor among vet erinary snrgeons. Dr. Redon's wadding has yielded important results by leading to many efforts to produce woven fab riog, so that peat is now made into mat tresses, coverings, carpets, etc, which are esteemed on account of their power of absorption.—lron.