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Los Angeles herald. [volume] (Los Angeles [Calif.]) 1890-1893, November 06, 1892, Image 11

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Judge S. It. Davis, or lowa, Gives Some
Personal Observations on the Origin,
Progress und Prospects of the Order oi
Uncommercial Travelers.
[Special Correspondence.]
| Cheston, la., Oct. 18.—The future his
torian who attempts to write an accurate
history of the American tramp from gene
sis to exodus will find many obstacles
across tho path of his desire.
From tho timo of the formation of the
federal government until 1873, while there
were occasional vagabonds who would go
from village to village on begging excur
sions, there was no distinctive class of per
sons recognized iv the English vocabulary
or recorded in contemporaneous newspaper
history as "tramps." The word "tramp,"
when used as a noun, according to Web
ster, signified a foot journey. "Traniper"
was the word used by Webster to define ft
vagrant or it vagabond.
ln 1873 the great banking house of Jay
Cooko & Co. suspended, and timid depos
itors nil over the country withdrew their
deposits from other banks, and this preeip-
itatcd a panic. The withholding of these
large sums of money from active circula
tion, together with the shrinkage of the
paper currency in preparing for the re
sumption of specie payment,caused the
value of all commodities and the price of
wages to decline, and not only were hun
dreds of banks compelled to suspend, but
many manufactorh sand other business en
terprises employing labor were forced to
close their (loot s. The result was to com
pel large numbers of mechanics and nil
classes of laborers of the cast to turn their
faces to the new west. So in 1873, in my
opinion may date the genesis of this dis
tinctive order of knights of tbe read of i he
United States of America, and the exodus
seems to be in the distant future.
It la not my purpose to give a speculative
dissertation on the causes which have pro
duced the tramp or propose any method
of remedy. That is the especial province
at the philosopher and statesman, In my
opinion the number of so called "profes
sional" tramps isgreatly exaggerated. The
professional tramp is simply a restless
vagabond who does not desire employment
or a place in society, but who wanders from
placo to placo only to gratify a love of
change aud a chance of adventure. Aa a
general thing even the professional tramp,
when he began his first ruarch in the path
of idleness, did not do so from choice. The
seeds of vagabondage were sown gradually
by idle and vicious habits and associations,
ami tho culmination is a fixed disease
which seems well nigh incurable.
In my own experience on the police court
bench for several years I have met the
same member of the tramp fraternity at
several different times, I have seen hun
dreds of tramps of every type arraigned in
court, and have been visited at home by a
goodly number of the fraternity, but I
havo not yet seen a single tramp who bore
tho slightest resemblance to the caricatures
in certain illustrated comic papers. These
pictures protray him as a walking scare
crow, with ragged and tattered garments,
his hair unkempt and his person filthy, and
his face fierce and malignant.
These pictures tend to make all tramps
outlaws in the minds of the people, and
probably cause the withholding of deserv
ing charity to many unfortunate men who
arc out of work. Not a great while ago, in
thia city, I heard Mr. Ralph Beaumont,
now a lecturer and journalist of Washing
ton city, narrate with much bitterness his
arraignment as a criminal in a police court
while ho was tramping through a New
York town looking for work. Mr. Beau
mont was afterward a candidate for con
gress in tho same district in which he was
arrested, and, though defeated received
thousands of votes.
There have been a few cases where large
bodies of tramps have gathered together
and have terrorized railroadmen into haul
ing them from placo to place, and such
gangs have occasionally made riotousdem
onstrations in small villages which have
alarmed the inhabitants. There have also
been other cases where individual tramps
have terrorized women into feeding them,
and have occasionally committed capital
crimes. But the number of crimes actual
ly committed by these traveling vagabonds
is astonishingly small in comparison with
the aggregate committed by general crim
inal classes.
In the spring, summer and early autumn,
if the world really does not owe the tramp
a living, it in fact supports him with a
fairly liberal ration of food and castoff
clothing. But in tho winter tramps swarm
into the towns and seek the warmth of tho
police station and the county jail,
j Right hero may be noted the utter in
sufficiency of state or municipal laws to
Suppress the tramp nuisance. All the
states have laws more or less severe for the
correction of vagrancy and the punishment
of tramps, and the lowa legislature in
May, 18U0, passed a tramp law so severe in
its provisions as to excite much adverse
comment in the press because of its appar
ent inhumanity. But, like some other
lowa criminal statutes, it has only proved
effective in spots.
The lowa law punishes a convicted tramp
with "imprisonment at hard labor in the
county jail not exceeding ten days, or by
imprisonment in such jail in solitary con
finement not exceeding five days." The
law further makes the jailer liable to a
fine of not less than twenty-five dollars nor
more than ouo hundred dollars if he per
mits a convicted tramp to have any tobac
co, liquors, sporting or illustrated news
papers, cards or other articles of amuse
ment, or to be fed otherwise than as stated
in the commitment. If the tramp refuses
to work the sheriff is required to place him
in solitary confinement on a diet of bread
and water for a period not exceeding ten
This lowa statute has proved wholly in
effective because there are few, if any,
county jails in the state which are fitted
with solitary cells and jailyards Where
convicted tramps could be confined or put
to work. One of the principal cause s why
the tramp's life in jail is not a hard one is
because of this reason, which more than
one, jailer has giveti me: As a general
thing in midwinter mid early spring
tramps travel from town to town in pairs
or groups, and are so committed until the
jail is crowded beyond its proper capacity.
This means bad Sanitation and the devel
opment of ugly and vicious temperament,
which at times makes the bravest jailer
apprehensive when he enters the jail. On
such occasions a liberal supply of solid
food causes the herd of tramps to gorge
themselves, and when not, dreaming the
happy hours away they aro quite good
nattired pending the advent of the next
There is a provision in the law tbat, con
victed tramps can be turned over to the
city authorities to labor on streets. It is
astonishing ho\v little common senso is
used by municipalities In dealing witli the
tramp nuisance. It costs every town and
county of lowa a goodly sum to feed ami
house, tho straggling army of tramps from
the Ist day of December until tho Qrst
Warm days of April, and for this service
tho tramps render no equivalent what
Ah a usual thing tin; ordinary town cala
boose, which serves for a police station, is
ll small shanty, narrow ami crumped, with
out, sanitation, and pestilential in all of its
appointments. It should bo n large and
commodious structure, surrounded by an
ample yard, with open sheds, where the
tramp fraternity, among whom are often
found worthy, but unfortunate men, could
have the opportunity of earning their food
and lodging by labor. Not one tramp iv
twenty is possessed of an overcoat or pair
of gloves. In the winter time the city
should furnish these necessary supplies
for the temporary use of these men daring
their employment. The sidewalks and
streets could be cleaned of snow, and in
the station yards stone could be prepared
for macadamizing si reels, nnd in other
ways this labor could be Utilized by the
city at a profit wit hout tiie necessity of
treating them as criminals and outlaws.
It, is true there are a great many incorri
gible cases who .ire unwilling to work, but
even with this class arbitrary but humane
measures could be devised to bring them to
t this. The average cost for the trial of a
single tram]) or a group of tramps in
court tmd officers' fees is ?-!.7.->, exclusive of
cost for feeding and lodging. If courts
nnd officers choose to connive together to
arrest nnd try t hem singly the court costs
alone are enormous, as often a largo num
ber of (ramps are arrested in a single day.
I recall five days of March, 1881, when
fifteen tramps were arraigned, nnd during
this period I jotted down memoranda of
the story of each tramp. As they were
tried separately, in groups of three, I was
curious to ascertain how their stories
would compare. To my surprise nearly
every one related a similar experience, and
I was convinced that their stories were
true in the main. The average ago of
each was twenty-three year.-, though
among them were many boys under twenty
years. All used tobacco and fully one
half confessed to the drink habit. Not
more than one-third had acquired trades.
Two-thirds were ordinary "day laborers."
Each of them averaged two meals a day.
As a general thing the very poorest people
cheerfully divided with them of their
meager stores, and frequently invited them
to sit at their tables and often treated
them as guests. The well to do classes —
persons who livid iv comfortable and mod
est houses—seldom turned them away with
out food, but at these places they were
rarely invited indoors.
Uninitiated novices on the road, taking
their first tramp, made one mistake, and
that was applying to a wealthy man's
house for food. This mistake was seldom
repeated, for there was not one rich man
in fifty who would give a tramp a bite—
except that of a bulldog—and rich women
nnd their servants invariably slammed tho
door in their faces. Several of them testi
fied that they had been driven from the
doors of rich men's houses with clubs, aud
a number of them, when questioned as to
the reasons assigned *by their wealthy
brethren for their refusal to supply them
with food, said tho invariable reason as
signed was that they could not nlford it.
I have had some experience at the bar
and on tbe bench in weighing and analyz
ing evidence, and this testimony of these
wandering brothers of mine, which seems
to be the universal testimony of the whole
fraternity, told on different occasions,
without collusion with each other, in a
modest and respectful manner, with
out the slightest evidence of ill will to
anybody, with no reproaches for any un
kiriduess, and with grateful acknowledg
ment of every benefaction, impressed me
as the words of soberness and truth.
And I have often wondered if after all it
isn't easier work to feed a tramp occasion
ally than to weary yourself throwing him
over the fence or pursuing him with aclub.
And wouldn't it be cheaper to feed an oc
casional tramp than a continual bulldog,
or to pay policemen, judges and jailers for
arresting, sentencing and feeding him?
Aud then I conjure up Bishop Myrie'.
and Jean Valjcan, and whatever others
may think I cannot help but he glad that
the spirit of the good bishop lives and
glows iv the cottages of America among
the poor and lowly. S. R. DAVI3.
Curious Revolutionary Relies.
[Special Correspouucnco.]
Piii!.ai>::lpiiia, Oct. 17. —Among the nu
merous Revolutionary relics to be found in
this old city are two huge bulldogs carved
in blue marble by some pioneer sculptor
103 years ago.
The dogs were made for Robert Morris,
secretary of the treasury under Washing
ton, ami were intended to ornament the
grounds about, his mansion, erected on
Chestnut street between Seventh and
Eighth streets, aud known as "Morris'
Polly," tho financier having become in
volved so that he was unable to complete
his project.
They were cut by Alexander Farquhar,
and bought by Christopher Hocker, who
exhibited them for many years at Seventh
and Kace streets. They then passed into
the hands of Peter Fritz, a nephew of Mr.
Hocker, and came into the possession of
Mr. William E. Cunningham in l&9fi.
They now stand on weather stained pedes
tals in Mr. Cunningham's marble yard at
903 North Eighth street. Since a local pa
per published a paragraph about these
dogs a few weeks ago Mr. Cunningham's
marble yard has been visited by many peo
ple anxious to view the relics.
Fall to Do Our Duty
Everybody haß at times failed to do their
dnty toward themselves. Hundred! of lady
readers suffer from sick headache.nervousness,
sl< eplossness and female troubles, let them
follow the example of Mrs. H. Hertenhter,
Stevens Point, Wis., who for five years suffered
greatly from Nervous Prostration and sleepless
ness, tried physicians and different medicines
without success But one bottle of Dr Miles'
Nervine caused sound sleep every night «nd
she is feeling like a new person. Mrs. Eliza
beth Wheeler, Laramie City, Wyoming, who
tried all >ther remedies, declared that after
three weeks' use of the Nervine for Headache,
Nervous Prostration, etc. she was en irely
relieved. Sold by 0. H. Hance. Trial bottle
California Vinegar Work!,
555 Banning street, opposite soap factory,
uear Alameda and First streets, one-half block
from electric liirht works.
Oar Prominent Physlciaus Recommend
John Wieland'a and Fredericksburg Beer,
Both unequaled for quality, strength and purity
Congressman Caroming* Details the Ar
bitrary Methods l>y Which It Was
Forced Through the House —Unparal-
leled Tyranny unit lifTi-ontery.
(Special Correspondence.]
Nlw Your, Oct. 10.—In this city the
campaign of Adlai Stevenson in North
Carotins) has been watched with much
interest. Senator David B. Hill speaks
of it in the warmest terms. Mr. Steven
son made tho force bill a vital issue. The
character of this bill was surpassed by
the violence of tho measures adopted in
tho house of representatives to pass it.
It was not until after tho campaign of
1888 that the Republicans showed their
hand. They know that by the official
returns they had three majority in the
next house. Tho second session of the
Fiftieth congress, which was Democratic,
met in December following the election.
On Feb. 18, 1887, tho Smalls-Elliott con
tested election caso came before the
house. Henry Cabot Lodge, in a speech
on behalf of Robert Smalls, openly an
nounced that tho Republicans in the
next house intended to pass a force bill.
They would have Control of both houses
and the executive, (department of the
government for tho first time in years.
Mr. Crisp, of Georgia, asked Lodge if
the Republican party claimed the right
to put troops at the polls under the pre
bense that they were wanted to secure a
fair election. He replied that they did.
Mr. Harrison foreshadowed the force
bill ill his inaugural message in less than
three weeks afterward. He also advised
tho passage of such a measure in hia first
message to Tom Reed's congress, which
met in December, 1889. The Republican
majority in that congress meantime had
been increased to eight by the admission
of North and South Dakota, Montana
and Washington into the Union. The
forco bill conspirators were not satisfied
with this majority. It was too small
for them to pass the bill desired. There
were Confederate soldiers among the
Republican members who would not
vote for it. To insure the passage of the
bill they determined to increase their
majority in the house by throwing out
Democratic members and placing Re
publicans in their seats. To do this the
most tyrannical measures were adopted.
On Jan. 35, 1890, before the house had
adopted any rules, tho contested elec
tion case of Smith against Jackson was
called. Judge Jackson had been re
turned from West Virginia by forty
four official majority. The instant the
case was called Up Mr. Crisp, of Geor
gia, raised tho question of considera
tion. When the voto was taken the
Democratic members, seeing that the
Republicans had no quorum, refused to
vote. Thereupon Tom Reed, acting, as
he claimed, under "general parliamen
tary law," counted enough Democrats
present and not voting to secure a
quorum. This was in violation of prece
dents set by Speaker Blame and others.
It was the first time that a speaker had
assumed this power since the foundation
of the government.
Mr. Crisp appealed from the action ot
tho speaker, and Mr. Reed, acting still, as
he claimed, under general parliamentary
law, refused to entertain the appeal. He
also refused to entertain a motion to ad
journ, claiming that it was a dilatory
motion, and that under parliamentary
lav.- he had a right to do so.
Thus, by the tyrannical and unconsti
tutional ruling of the speaker, the Jack
son case was forced before the house.
Judge Jackson was ousted from his
seat, but the Republicans furnished a
quorum of 1(57 votes to oust him. They
were afraid to do it by counting Demo
crats present and not voting, because
this would give tho judge an opportunity
to appeal to tho supreme court upon Tom
Reed's rulings under general parliamen
tary law.
By the ousting of Judge Jackson the
Republican majority in the house was
increased to ten.
Fearing tbat tbey would be unable to
obtain a voting quorum iv the other con
tested election case the Republicans
were forced to adopt rules for the gov
ernment of the house. One of these
rules gave the speaker the power to
count those present and not voting to
make a quorum. But this very rule
was adopted under the ruling of the
speaker that he had a right under par
liamentary law to count such a quorum.
The rules were adopted on Feb. 14.
On Feb. 27 Mr. Pendleton, another Dem
ocrat from West Virginia, was turned
out of his seat by four votes less than a
quorum, Reed counting enough Demo
crats present and not voting to make a
quorum. Pendleton's official majority
was 19. Tho Republican majority in
the house was thus increased to 12.
On March 5 Mr. Uate, of Arkansas,
was unseated. His official majority was
1,348. The affirmative vote showed 21
less than a quorum. The Republican
majority in the house was thus increased
to 14.
On March 20 Barues Compton, a Dem
ocratic member from Maryland, was un
seated. His official majority was 181.
The affirmative vote was 8 less than a
quorum. The Republican majority in
the house was increased to 16.
On April 11 George D. Wise, a Dem
ocratic member from Virginia, was un
seated. His official majority was 861,
The affirmative vote was 43 less than a
quorum. The Republican majority was
thus increased to 18.
On June 4 Louis W. Turpiu, a Demo
crat from Alabama, was unseated. His
official majority was 13,153. The affirm
ative vote was thirty-seven less than a
quorum. The Republican majority had
thus been increased from three to
With these stolen votes the Republic
ans felt themselves able to pass a force
bill. As a foundation for the passage of
such a bill, on April 15, by the strong
arm of the coniiftittee on rules, they bad
passed within an hour and a half a bill
giving the president of the United States
tbe appointment of seventeen United
States circuit judges for life. There are
Ui.io oiicuiw iii u.t» united States. The
eight supreme court judges, with ten
circuit judges, were doing the work.
The bill relieved the eight court judges
from circuit work, and left that work to
the ten circuit judges already in office
and the seventeen circuit judges to be
appointed by the president. As the cir
cuit stood, five of the seventeen judges
were. Democratic. As the circuit would
stand after tho passage of tbe bill,
twenty-five of the twenty-seven judges
would be Republican. As there would
be three judges in each circuit, the Re
publicans would thus havoabsolute con
trol of each circuit. '
The object of this bill was shown
When tho Lodge bill came before the
horn c. That bill gave tho judges in
each circuit tho power to appoint a chief
supervisor of elections in each circuit
for life. This supervisor was to appoint
the supervisors and canvassers in each
voting precinct in each circuit, with the
power of transfer and removal. The
circuit judges also had tho power to ap
point a board of canvassers in each
state, who were to hold office for life.
Th( so canvassers acted in the place of
the state hoard of canvassers and were
to return certificates of election to the
clerk of tho house of representatives.
Ho was to place tho names of those
whom the canvassers declared elected
upon the rolls of the house under a pen
alty of $5,000 fine and five years' im
Thus the character of the bill passed
on April IS was fully exposed
Here are the states composing the
judicial circuits of the United States:
First, Circuit Maine, New Hampshire, Mas
sachusetts and Rhode Island.
Second Circuit—Vermont, Connecticut aud
Now York.
Third Circuit—New Jersey, Pennsylvania
and Delaware.
fourth Circuit—Maryland, West Virginia,
Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina.
Fifth Circuit —Georgia, Florida, Alabama,
Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas.
Sixth Circuit—Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky and
Tennessee, *
Seventh Circuit - Illinois, Indiana and Wis
Eighth Circuit—.Minnesota, lowa, Missouri
Arkansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New
Mexico, Oklahoma and Utah.
Ninth Circuit-California, Oregon, Nevada
Alaska and Arizona.
These circuits show what could have
been done under the Lodge bill and the
Cannon judicial bill. A Republican
judge sitting in Vermont would have
the power to appoint state boards of
canvassers in the great state of New
York for life. A Republican judge sit
ting in Michigan would also have the
power to appoint boards of canvassers
for the Democratic states of Kentucky
and Tennessee to hold office for life. A
Republican judge sitting in Minnesota
would also have the power to appoint
canvassers for the Democratic states of
Missouri and Arkansas to hold office foi
Now let US see how closely the Repub
licans in tho house figured as to the ma
jority required to pass the force bill.
It was passed by—yeas, 155; nays, 149,
exactly six majority.
The votes of the six Republicans whe
were placed in the seats of the six Dem
ocrats elected by the people passed the
bill. Without the ousting of these Dem
ocrats the bill could not have been
Seeing the small leverage upon whieli
they were acting, and fearing tho result
when the bill came back from the sen
ate, if it ever came back, Tom Reed*s
congress immediately ousted three more
Democrats—Clifton R. Breckinridge,
with an official majority of 846; William
H. Venable, of Virginia, and William
Elliott, of South Carolina. This in
creased their majority in the house tc
twenty-five, and with this majority they
felt safe. If necessary, they would have
turned out ten more Democrats to have
accomplished their purpose. The affirm
ative vote in Breckinridge's case was
sixty-two less than a quorum. Venable
and Elliott were ousted within throe
minutes by a viva voce vote while the
Democrats were absent from the house
in an effort to compel the Republicans
to furnish their own quorum.
With such bills laws the conspirators
could have retained control of the house
for fifty years. Alios J. Cummings.
Wool Prices Under McKinlcj'isin.
The McKinley wool duties were im
posed under the pretense that they would
raise the prices of wool produced by the
American farmers. What effect they
have had may be seen from the follow
ing comparison of prices in the Boston
Aug., 1800. Sept., 1802.
Cts. per lb. Cts. per lb.
Ohio and Pens, XX aud
above 32,W'®33 28©29
Ohio X and above ®H% 27©28
Ohio No. 1 37 (5.37H 32@33
Michigan X 28 «'(S»K 2u@2sfci
Michigan No. 1 3li ©3(% 81@32
Ohio, delaine 85 ©36 33R8S^
Michigan, delaine 33 ©34 28@20
Ohio line, unwashed £1 ©22 19@20
Ohio, unmerchantable... 23 ©24 20@22
Michigan line, unwashed 20 ©21 17@18
Michigan, unmerchant
able 22 ©23 19@20
Ohio No. 1 combing,
washed 39 ©40 34@35
Michigan No. 1 combing,
washed 38 ©39 33@34
Why Gresham Supports Cleveland.
Judge Gresham's declaration that he
will vote for Cleveland has affected the
Republican organs with an attack of
profound silence. They do not even try
to explain why that eminent jurist has
deserted his party. Meanwhile the ex
planation given by Judge Lambert Tree,
of Chicago, who is an intimate friend of
Judge Gresham, may be accepted as
authoritative. Judge Tree says that
Gresham "supports Mr. Cleveland be-'
cause for a long time his convictions
have led him to be a firm believer in the
correctness of the principle of tariff re
form, and because he is opposed to the
doctrine of protection as now maintained
by the Republican party."
The Philadelphia Ledger is one of the
few Republican papers of prominence
which oppose the force bill. In com
menting on Senator Hill's Brooklyn
speech The Ledger says, "Senator Hill's
denunciation of the force bill and of the
controlling principles of it will be gener
ally regarded favorably by public spirit
ed Republicans as well as by Demo
Fell Dead.
These words are very familiar to our readers,
as not a day passes without the report of the
sudden death of some prominent citizen. The
explanation is "Heart Dt-ease." Therefore,
beware If yon have any of the following symp
toms, Short Breath, Pain in Side, Smothering
Spells, Swollen Ankles, Asthmatic Breathlne,
Weak and Hungry Spells, Tenderness iv Shoul
der or Arm, Fluttering of Heart or Irregular
Pulse. ThOße symptoms mean heart dttease
The most reliable remedy Is Dr. Miles's New
Heart Cure, which has saved thousands of
lives. Book of testimonials free at C. H.
Hnnne. who also sella the New Hewrt Core.
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this simple remedy. 1 will mail the recipe of
this unfailing self cure (sealed) FKEE to any
sufferer Address, with stamp, D. B. KMMET,
Topeka, Kan. 10-11 lm
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"T. B."
18 UBED.—
fold ln 2 oz. Bptinkle-top tins, M lb, % lb, 1 lb
and 6 lb cans.
At all druggists and grocers.
Quickly destroyed and easily prevented
by using
i,:£f~A\, all drug stoics.
T. W. BBAUN & CO..
6-22 lyr Wholesale Aeents.
311 S. Spring St., Near Third,
Removed from 160 N„ Main st.
A compete stock of Drug?, Chemicals, Toilet
Articles, Druwgists' Sundries and Electrical In
struments »1 ways on band.
Prescriptions carefully prepared at modem
prices. 6-30 6m
MRS. M COniK, 219 South Spring street.
Mil I I rpifn OPTICIAN Eves flttc,,
. 11. AL I till;, accurately with HPECTA
the latest methods. Fine lenses a spe- fatty
Microscopes, telescopes, hydrometers,
ters. thermometers, co p.i *es microscopic ob
jects, lantern slides, etc. Glasses ground o
order. Repairs promptly done.
No. 126 South Rpriug st., Los Angeles,
e-29 3m
l'/.4.\i Spring street, root" 1.
Branch office at Lancaster, ln the center of
the valley. Wo take people to every part of
the valley, and have some excellent locations
of government land and relinquishments cheap.
Fine wheat land with jroci title, cheap home*
for teople iv n odera c circumstances. It. R.
land", felionl land*,, etc Head offio in charge
ofS H. BUTTKRKIELD and A. M')HR Branch
office conducted and location" ma o by AN
man spoken in hoth > fliees. 7-31 1 yr
* # ACME! $ #
Dental on Parlors,
■MM S. Spring St., I os Angeles.
( Between Second and Third.)
All work Warranted. Charges reasonable.
Gas ttiven. Oneu evening".
9 283mdw A. I). GI jet VHP, D. Tl. 3., Mer.
Painless Dentistry.
Fine Gold Filling ,
Crown and Bridge
All operations pain-
SET TEETH, $8.00.
V\T» Rooms 18 and 19.
UAMiI *VL hAmW 107 N. Spring at.

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