Henry Ju tV.sous, Jr., -
THURSDAY, DEO 8,1881.
Kntkbid at tkb PoaT-ornoH at
BlDOWAT, PA., AS fiBCOXD CLA.3
af Alb KATTKB.
The annual revenue of the United
States from applejack alona Is la the
neighborhood of 150,000 a year, and
about two-thirds of that cornea from
Braaet count;, New Jersey.
Of 2S4 sample of victual lately
analysed by the Berlin authorities,
Xorty-fonr proved adulterated. Green
tea was mle-l with flowers of hay,
cocoa with potato and corn flour.
There will be more rigorous penalties.
A son of the late Rev. Dr. Nebe-
mla'i Adams, of Boston, a highly
orthodox divine, has become a speaker
and write; against Christianity. On
the other hand, It Is said that one of
Col. Ingersoll's daughters is a convert
The Cincinnati Commercial hopes
President Arthnr will call the ntten
ticn of Congress to the necessity of
legislation that will protect the public
forests and provide for the increase ot
forest area. And farmers should be
Urged to preserve a portion of their
forests and to plant forest trees if they
Illinois was admitted Into the
Union as a State sixty-throe years ago
last Saturday, It now ranks fourth
in population, and has the fourth city,
and is on the top wave of material
prosperity, with a proportionate in
crease in wealth unsurpassed by that
of any other State east of the Mississ
Postmaster General James soys:
"What is needed in the south to per
fect the fast mail service is about
twenty-live thousaud dollars more per
annum. The six thousand dollars
Baved at Atlanta, is nearly one-fourth
of the amount, and I want to see if
there is any plan to save the balance.
If there is not then Congress should
make up the deficiency."
State Senator Isaac Hereter died
at his residence near Gettysburg on
the night of Dec. 1st of pneumonia.
He was born in Adams county, this
state, in 1827; was a farmer by occupa-
tion and represented Adams county in
the lower house of the legislature in
1870 and 1801. He was elected to the
State Senate in November, 1878, from
the Thirty-second district composed of
the counties of Adams and Cumber
land. Isaac C. Royce, of Alliston, On
tario, deserted the girl who had been
his affianced wife seven years, and
was about to marry auother. His first
love went into the store where he was
employed, talked pleasantly about his
change of sweethearts, declared that
she bore him no enmity, and laugh
ingly invited him, in token of good
will, to eat some of the lozengers
which she held in her hand. He com
plied, and thereby swallowed an
almost fatal dose of strychine.
Frankibrd, Ky., Dec. 1. A iolnt
caucus of the Democrats of .the Senate
and House was held to-night, to nom
inate a candidate for United States
Senator, to succeed the Hon. James
BV Beck. There were 97 members
present. Senator Beck's name was
the only one presented. After two or
throe speeches eulogizing him, he received-
tuo unanimous vote of the
caucus. He was notified of its action,
and made a Bpeech of thanks. The
action of the caucus makes his elec
tion a mere formality.
A' traveller bought an excursion
tloket from Washington to Toledo,
and owing to detention of trains, for
which he was not responsible, its
limit of time expired while lie was
still- oa the way. The conductor of
the terminal road demanded regular
fare, and put him off the train when
he refused to pay. Ho sued the com
pany whose agent sold him the ticket,
on the ground that the contract was
made with that official for the entire
Journey, and the jury, on the direc
tion of the Court, gave him a verdict
A Marriage and a Death Notice.
New York Sun, Nov. 27.
The funeral of Walter H. Backus
took place yesterday from the resi
dence of his mother, 227 Warren
street, Jersey City. Notice of his
death was published on Friday. In
the same paper appeared the an
nouneeraent of his marriage to Miss
Hortense I. Creede, of 628 Jersey
avenue. Mr. Backus died suddenly
in Altoona, Pa., on Tuesday, from
erysipelas, the result of a cold. He
was traveling for a tobacco bouse. He
had known Miss Creede for many
years, and was to have been married
during the later part of October. Ow
ing to the illness of the lady's gmnd
mother he.- relatives decided that the
wedding should be postponed. The
Invalid died on November 1 and was
buried on the following day. On the
3d Backus and Miss Cretde, accom
pan led by the letter's cousin and a
mutual friend, came to this city and
were married by the Rev. Dr. Hough
ton, of the Little Church Around the
Corner.. Tbey resolved to keep the
marriage a secret until after the Christ
mas holidays, when they intended to
announce it and give a reception. The
groom was to take bis bride with hlrn
en his business tour for a wedding
trip. A week later he left the city, to
be- gone six weeks. He caught cold in
his eye in Altoona, which turned Into
erysipelas an4 caused his death.
Largrt Tannery In the World.
TBS GREAT ESTABLISHMENT OF HOTT
BROTHBR8 NOW TBElNO ERECTED ON
SiBB'g CREEK EXTENT .OF, TBJC
The Wellsboro AgUator says:
Messrs. Hoyt Brothers, who are
building the Woodland tannery In
Morris, are the heaviest tanners in the
TJnUed States. They own and oper
ate flvo other good oized tanneries in
this state, besides as many more In
New York. While many other estab
lishments tan hides tpon commission,
this flrrrf buy all their hides and sell
their Own leather. The firm consists
of Messrs. Oliver Hoyt aud William
Hoyt, who reside at Stamford, Ct.,and
Mr. Mark Hoyt, of Brooklyn, N. Y.
But little more than six months ago
the site of the now tannery on Babb'a
creek was as wild and barren as can be
imagined. Only two or three houses
were to be seen in the narrow valley
at that point, and the denizens of Mor
ris were almost without hope regard
ing the opening up of the wilderness
by the march of improvement This
was the condition of affairs when
Messrs. Hoyt Brothers came here and
bought land and made contracts for all
the hemlock bark on about 40,000 acres
of land belonging to other parties, and
decided to erect the largest tannery in
the world on Babb's creek, about a
mile below the 'old hotel famillary
known as "Babb's."
Durlntr the past summer the build
ings have been constructed. The saw
mill, the boiler house, engine rooms,
leach houses, beam house, sweat pit,
bark mills, the company's store and
over eighty dwellings houses are now
complete, and the large dry house will
soon be finished.
The boiler house is a beautiful spec!
men of masonary. Ten 82-foot cylin
drical boilers, without flues, are set
over 24 arches, which form the fire
pots. A sufficient draft is gained to
consume the wet bark, which is used
for fuel, by a brick stack 120 feet in
height. From these boilers the steam
is carried to the three engines in the
adjacent buildings the beam house,
bark mills aud dry house.
. There are six bark mills, which
grind 100 cords of bark a day. As the
ground bark comes from the mills It is
floated in hot water, which is heated
by the exhaust steam, through a large
trough to the leaches. It takes 900
gallons of water a miuute to carry the
bark in this manner. There are forty
leaches, each holding from ten to
twelve cords of bark. The process of
leaching occupies from four to five
days. Then the liquor is drawn off
and the spent bark is shoveled out of
the leach vat Into another trough, In
which runs an endless chain carrying
cross pieces or scrapers about three
feet apart. By this means the refuse
bark is carried to the boiler rooms and
dumped, ready to be fed into the furn
ace pits as fuel. All the water aud
liquors are handled by the aid of nine
large rotary pumps,. each one of which
has a capacity of raising 300 gallons a
In the beam house there are 1,200
vats in which there are now upward
of 30,000 sides in the various stages
of tanning. Fifty men are employed
in this building in working on the
beams and attending the vats. The
sweat rooms are part of the same
structure, and are heated by steam
pipes. About 8,000 sides are contained
in the fourteen rooms. The process of
sweating is now commonly used in all
large tanneries, and it is the quickest
mode of loosening fhe hair. The new
hide after being softened with water,
is subjected to the high temperature of
the sweat room, where putrefaction to
a certain extent is allowed to take
place. This loosenes the hair suffici
ently for the operations of the work
men at the beams.
HIDES AND BARK.
The dry house, which is not yet
complete, is a two-story building 1,000
feet in length. It will hold 40,000
bides, besides affording room for
twelve large rollers and other work of
finishing the leather for market.
The operation of tauuiug leather
now takes about four months from the
time the hard, dry, rusty hide is put
in until it comes out a finished piece of
sole leather. Oueyearwasoncethought
to be little enough time in which
leather could be properly made.
Then the period was reduced to six
months, and of late years the tanners
have concluded that three stocks can
be turned out in a year. Some people
claim that the leather is not so good
because of its rapid handling; but how
that may be we leave others to decide,
None but foreign hides are tanned at
Woodland, and they are mostly
brought from South America. These
skins are chiefly noticeable for the
short and thin coat of hair, which
pobably facilitates the rapid tanning.
It is said that good hemlock lands
will average about ten cords of bark to
the acre. Takiug this for a basis the
new tannery is assured of over 500,000
, cords of bark, or enough to keep the
establishment running at its full capa
city for about twenty years. Messrs.
Hoyt Brothers have contracted the
bark on 80,000 acres of land belonging
to the Blossburg coal company, and as
much of their lands lie along the route
of the new railroad, the work of get
ting the bark in will be comparatively
The new railroad will be finished
from Arnot to the tannery early next
spring. The main track will pass
through the stock house, and the raw
hides will be unloaded from either
side of the cars Into the store rooms.
Upon a switch the bark which is
brought in by the new road will be
unloaded at the bark mill. A serpen
tine track will be laid among the bark
piles in the yard, and the work of get
ting the bark to the mills will be
made comparatiuely easy by using
truck ears drawn by horses. -
A well has just been drilled at the
new tannery something over 200 feet
in- depth, and its capacity seems to be
ample for the supply of the establish
ment. The water la raised by a large
Over two hundred workmen are em
ployed In and about the new tannery.
-. "Subj In Exile.
An extract from Ndiby'i letter In the Toledo
Cork, Ireland, $ept. , 1881. .
To write of Ireland and Irish affairs
is simply to put upon record grinding
oppression on the one hand, and pas
sive submission, with occasional
flashes of resistance, on the other. It
Is a h'story In each case of one family
receiving land from a king which the
king never owned, and leasing it to
the real owners, tor a, moderate rent
to begin with, and Increasing the rent
mercilessly as the dfeposessed 'oWner,
now tenant, made it valuable by the
labor of his own hands. .
A SAMPLE BRICK.
To know something of what land
lordism really is, and how it all came
about, read the following little history
of the Barony of Farney:
In 1606 Lord Essex, who had "ob
tained'' a grant of the Barony of Far
ney, leased it to Evar McMahon at a
yearly rent of '250. And this was
doubtless a mighty comfortable rent,
for understand, under crown grants
the grantee was only charged for
arable laud, the bog and mountain
laud adjacent, then esteemed worth'
less, being thrown in.
McMahon sublet it to poorer men,
and they so improved it that fourteen
years later the same land was let for
1,600, and in 1C36 thirty-eight ten
ants were compelled to pay a rental of
Under the strong hands of the orig
inal owners, the robbed peasantry,
who found themselves tenants on
their own lands, this piece of property
was mounting up in value very rap-
The Earl of Essex died In 1686, A.
D. "His" estate went to his sisters.
There is lu English families always
somebody to inherit, and in case there
should not be the Crown steps in aud
takes it, that the proceeds of the rob
bery may not go out of the race. The
two sisters married and bad children,
of course, aud in 1690, when the two
came together to divide their plunder,
it was found that the rentals had risen
to 2,626. Then the rentals began to
be put up so as to produce something
The two daughters had children to
be educated and provided for, marriages
were getting to be common in the
family, and the debts of the young
sters had to be paid. And so in . 1769
this estate, which started so modestly
at 260, yielded 8,000.
How? Easily enough. The land
in this stolen estate, as I said, was
nine-tenths of it, bog and stone, and
only the arable laud, some 2,600 acres,
was set dowu in the lease, all the bog
and mountains adjacent, for miles
around, being thrown in. By judi
ciously evicting the tenants from the
arable land and converting it into
cattle and sheep walks, and compell
ing the tenants to go upon the bog
and stone land, which they were com
pelled to reclaim and drain, the origi
nal 2,600 acres of arable land silently
grew iuto 24,600 acres, and 57 families
bad multiplied to a population of 23,-
Can there be any way of making a
great estate so delightful as this? ' It is
a pleasant thing to have a Govern
ment steal laud and give it to you
and then protect you with bayonets
while you are compelling the original
owners to improve it for you.
Bear in mind this fact. The plun
derers never put a penny upon this
land. They never dug a ditch, dug
out a stoneor cut a square foot of bog
The cabins the tenantry lived in they
built themselves, and every improve
ment, great and small, they made
And this process of swindling, rob
bing,confisication, spoliation aud plun
der went on until this estate which
commenced at 260, 1606, now yields
the enormous revenue of 60,000, or
(300,000 per annum!
Which is to say the laborers on this
estate have been yearly robbed of their
labor, and starved and frozen, that
one family in England may live in
wasteful luxury. This is all there is
ANOTHER INSTANCE OF ROBBERY.
About the same time that Essex got
his grant of 42,000 acres (exclusive of
bog and waste) from the plunder of
the Earl of Desmond's estates. There
lived in London at the time a young
lawyer named Boyle, who was prob
ably the worst man then living. He
had been a horse thief, a forger, and
murder had been charged to him
Raleigh was in prison and wanted
money, and Boyle offered him 1,500
for his grant, which Raleigh accepted
Boyle paid him 500 on account, and
promptly swindled him out of the
. Boyle being serviceable to the Court,
(such men always are), was created
Earl of Cork, and got from James I
patents for his plunder. Then he pro
ceeded to marry bis children into no
ble English families, the Duke of
Devon hi re being one of his descend
ants. One small portion of this estate
now yields His Grace an annual in
come of 30,000, being only a part of
the land for which his ancestor, the
horse-thief, forger and murderer paid
His Grace, the Duke, is not content
with the land. Under some clause in
the patent by the pedantic James to
the criminal Boyle, he claims the
right to the fisheries in the Black
water, and the Irish Appellate Court,
an English landlord's institution, as
are all the courts, sustain the claim
and be levies tribute upon every fish
drawn from the waters.
If it were very certain that there is
no hereafter, and if a man bad no
more heart than an exploded bomb
shell, it would be a very good thing to
be Sv-Duke, with a forger and horse-
thief for an ancestor. The Duke was
very Judicious in "the selectidn of ft
, , THE FAMINE YEAR.
In 1846 the famine struck Ireland.
Now, a loss of a crop in any other
country of the world is not so serious
a matter, for there is always the accu
mulations of prevlousprosperous years
to fallback upon. It Is simply an in
convenience, and that is all.
But in Ireland it is quite another
thing, for there are no accumulations.
The landlord keeps the, tenant down
to his two meats of potatoes per day,
and when the'crop falkvjt is simply
starvation bf'Tivlngf tfpbii, ;charity.
And the charity Ireland has to depend
upon from. England, where the pro
ceeds of the labor o'f the country goes,
may be judged from the fact that Vic
toria, Queen and Empress of more
force and. fraud than any royal nuis
ance who. ever wore a crown, sub
scribed to the last Irish famine fund,
exactly 1001 or In American money
$481! Just think of that! (481 for
6,000,000 starving people! A Queen
with enormous estates, with a revenue
a thousand times more than she could
possibly spend were she not the most
penurious of women, with an estate
and an enormous appropriation for
every child she bore; which gave her
a premium for breeding. By the way,
with true English thrift, she made
the most of her opportunities in this
America has given more to Ireland
in her famine seasons than all Eng
land, and mauy.a merchant in this
country has sent ten times the amount
to the starving 'Irish than has the
Queen who assists in robbing them,
and shares in the plunder.
From the first ofJauuary to the mid
die of April, 1847, the numberof deaths
in the Cork work-house was 2,130
all from starvation, aud Cork is only
one of many Cities nnd country dis
tricts with work-houses.
In Cork alone there were 5,000
homeless people from the country beg
ging for something to eat, any
thing. They filled their stomachs
with cabbage . leaves, turnip-tops,
everything, and when this was not
attainable they crawled to the work
house to die.
EVICTIONS AND CONSOLIDATIONS.
The English landlord found after
a while that sheep and cattle raising
was more profitable than diversified
farming, and with that calm, sublime
disregard for the rights of the people
which is chnracteriHtio of the ruling
classes in England, eviction became
fashionable. The policy pretty much
all over Ireland was to clean out the
population and consolidate a thousand
small farms into one large one.
Between the years 1841 and 1861
twenty years, there were destroyed in
Ireland 270.0(H) cabins, representing a
population of 1,300,000, all driven to
the work-house, to exile or death.
The process was a very simple one
A process of eviction was served, the
tenant and his family would be pitched
out iuto the roud,. and the cottage be
leveled to the grouud. This was
originally done with crowbars, but
crowbars were too slow. A mechani
cal genius, who was a landlord and
had a great deal of eviction to do, in
vented a macniue to facilitate the pro
cess. It was an elaborate arrangement
of ropes, and pulleys, and iron dogs.
aud all that sort of thing, which could
be run up beside a cabin aud tear the
miserable structure down in a few
minutes aud save a greut deal in the
way of labor. .
This is the only labor saving
machine Irish landlordism has ever
MONEY FROM AMERICA.
- In my last I mentioned the fact
that America was paying the rent to
the English landlords. Between the
years of 1849 aud 18(14, the Irish In
America sent to their friends in Ire
land the enormous som of 13,000,000,
or, in American money, cos.noo.nuo!
This, however, is what was sent in
drafts. Probably there was as much
more sent in money and other ways
that cannot be traced.
With a fair system of governing
the lands Irelund would be self sup
porting, and this enormous drain
upon the resources of America would
be checked. If it all went to the relief
of the people for whom it was de
signed; I should not so much care, but,
when a landlord's pimp discovers
that a tenant is receiving American
letters he immediately goes to the
postoffice and bank and ascertains
how much he or she is receiving, and
the rent is raised to just to that
amount. So you see all the money
sent by the Irish in America to the
Irish in Ireland is absorbed by the
landlords, whose; yachts and castles,
and town-houses aud mistresses and
gambling tables are so frightfully ex-
Eensive. America has contributed
undreds of millions of dollars to the
support of these excrescencies, these
miners and sappers of industry.
Get oat Doors.
The close confinement of all factory
work, give the operatives pallid faces,
poor appetite, languid, miserable feel
ing, poor blood, Inactive liver, kidneys
aud urinary troubles, and all the
physicians and medicine In the world
caunot help them unless they get out
of doors or use Hop Bitters, the purest
and best remedy, especially for such
cases, having abundance of health,
sunshine and rosy cheeks in them.
They cost but a trifle. ee another
column. ChrMlan Recorder,
Christmas cards! Christmas cards!!
Christmas cards!!! fifty different styles
and prices. The largest display ever
seen In Ridgway at The Advocate
The Philadelphia Weekly Presa.
By a favorable arrangement with
the publishers of The Preu we are en
abled to send The Philadelphia Week
ly iYe and The Advocate for ODe
year for (2.60, all postage paid.
Came to the premises of P. W
Hays, in Fox Township, Elk Co. Pa
on or about the 4th day of October
881, a black cow mixed with white
and supposed to be about 12 years old.
The owner is requested to come fotward
and prove property, or she will be dis
posed of according to law.
P. W. Hays.
Kersey, Nov. 0, 1881.
No. 42 Main St.
A FULL LINE BUILD
GOODS At POPULAR
W. S. Service, Ag't.
AT T HE
The Grand Central Powell 4
Klines are Headquarters for Blankets,
Bed Comfortres, Cotton Balls, Shirt
ing aud Prints, the best five centprint
No one can be healthy with a
torpid liver and constipation. Take
Peruna is a wonder In itself. It
cures the most hopeless eases of con
THE ELK. CO. ADVOCATE
DEVOTED TO THE INTEREST
OF THE PEOPLE OF
Having an extended circulation it is
the best advertising medium.
THE OLDEST PAPER IN THE
ESTABLISHED in 1S50,
TERMS, m m $2 A YEAR.
Cheaper than the cheapest,
and on shortest notice.
Orders by maift promply
Henri A. Parsons, Jr.
Ridgway - Pa.
NEW YORK, 1882.
The Sim for 1882 will make its flff -
eenth annual revolution under the -
present management, shining, as '
always, for all big and little, mean and
gracious, contented and unhappy, Rep
ublican and Democratic, depraved and
vituous, intelligent and obtuse. Thb
Sun's light is for mankind and
womankind of every sort; but its genial
warmth is for the good, while it pours . -hot
discomfort on the blistering backs .'
bf the persistently wicked. .
The Sun of 1808 was a newspaper of . v
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Address I. W. ENGLAND,
Publisher of The Sun, New York
Bm been la const
use by the publl
for over twenty y
and U the best preparation
erer lnrente4 for RESTOR
ING OKAY HAIR TO ITS
YOUTHFUL COLOR AND
It supplies the natural
food and color to the hair
glands without staining turn
akin. It will increase and
thicken the growth of the
hair, prevent Ita blanchfog
and falling off, and thus
It cures Itching, Erup
tions and Dandruff. As
HAIR DRESSING It Is very
desirable, giving the hair a
liken softness which all
admire. It keeps the head
dean, sweet and healthy.
will change the beard to a BROWN or
BLACK at discretion. Being la one
preparation it Is easily applied, and
produeea a permanent color that will
not wash off.
R. P. HALL & CO., NASHUA, N.H.
Sold bir til Osalsra I Msdickis.
Marble and slate mantles fur
nished and set by
W. S. Service, Agt.
Note paper and envelopes at the
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