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THE SClt ANTON TRIBUNE-WUD AY. DECEMBER 23. 1898.
0e cnmfon CttBune I'liblliliefl Dully, Kxcept Hundnr. bv tlis Trlbanel'iibllslilnz Company, nt Kitty Cnti Month. New York Olllee.' J no Nnwui t, s. S. VHKKl.ANU b'ole Agent for Koroljn Ailverllilnj. IMTKrtkl) AT TUB POSTOFHCK AT SfnASTOMi TA; AS Ur.COtitCl.AR MAM. UATTCR. TEN PAGES. 8CUANTON. DWUlMIMIt 23, IMS. The Uomocratlc members of con tn'PSH liave dccltlfd not to oppose a rntl Jlcatlon of the t'nrls ponce treaty. Tliey evidently do not il"sln? to provoke the consequences that will make the ratlll catlon of a peace treaty with their con stituents necessary. The Only Fnir View. We liavp already called attention to the Htronp argument which secretary of the commonwealth David Martin made In his annual report for a sim plification of the ballot In Pennsyl vania, tils condemnation wan es pecially directed npalnst the present facility with which political parties claiming a separate column on the bal lot set up state tickets limited In fact to one county or section, thus Impos ing upon the taxpayers in other coun ties who are In no wl"e interested: but on other and perhaps broader gruuncla Mr. Martin Is opposed to the blanket ballot and In the next legisla ture, as a senator from Philadelphia, will move for its amendment. II" Fays: "The blanket foim of ballot now in use is also objectlonahle bceituve it lends to confuse the voter who docs not desire to mark in the elrel and vote a straight party ticket, ruder the present law permitting nil sorts of nomination by nomination papers it frequently happens that a column ap pears upon thi- ballot containing but one name, .10 nominations beliiK m.ulo for the other ofllccs to be filled. It may be that a great many citizens desire to vote for this one candidate, but lor all the others of their re.p"ctive parties and attempt to do .o by marking in the circle at the top of each of the two columns, with the remit that their ballots are thrown out and their pur pose defeated. The voter should bo furnished with such foim of ballot as affords him the full'-M opportunity for the exercise of his rlslit of suffrage and If for any reason ho desires to vote for one or more candidates who are not of his own political party, he should be permitted to do so without Incurring the risk of having his entire ballot thrown out." It Is something of a r.ovdty to have expressions like these eonif from one who Is professedly a practical politi cian, possibly as practlral in Ills adap tation of means to ends as any politi cian in the United States. Neverthe less It Is an evidence of Mr. Martin's capacity for leadership that ho v.-es the futility'of transparent thlmble-rlnglng in the mechanism of elections and rec ognizes that thf time has arrive 1 when there must be every semblance of fair play. The present ballot is not fair, among other things for the roaron that It tries to take undue ndvantacre of the timid voter by scaring him Jrto straight party voting. It would lie much cheaper as well as easier to have party tickets which will attract straight voting. General Shatter seems to be one of the living proofs that It is better for army commanders to have foresight than hindsight. Disbandment of the Cuban Junta. The formal dissolution of the Cuban 1 evolutionary junta, which Is oiliclally announced by its sagacious chief, Tomns Kstrada l'alma, makes IL op portune to say a word in commenda tion of the energy, perseverance and skill with which this famous organiza tion has conducted its finally triumph ant campaign against Spain. Prom tho American point of view the word "Junta" is invested with a sus picious significance, and the Cuban body of this name has suffered In pub lic opinion from this Instinctive Ameri can repugnance to the Idea of mystery jind secrecy in campaign management. Yet it Is necessary to bear in mind that only by stealth and artifice and shrewd diplomacy could a successful contest ngalnst Spsin bo carried on by these men. The father of the present 1untn, Jose Marti, who yielded up his life in one of the llrst skirmishes of the recent revolution, was a man of intense pa triotism, almost fanatical in his devo tion to the Ideal of a liberated Cuba. Ilevlewing his work dispassionately, we may feel Inclined to think that he was more of a dreamer than a man with a practical, constructive grasp on af fairs. An with all patriots fiom Kos ciusko and Kossuth down, he lived In n sphere peopled by Ideal creations of the imagination and underestimated tho dldlcultles of real life. Yet It Is not for" Americans to think the less of him for this. What such brave dreamers dream there are other men to make Into realities. Marti saw that If Cuba was ever to be rid of Spnln it must be by force of a revolutionary movement planned and sustained chiefly from tho outside. He therefore set to work to organize into local clubs the Cuban exiles In this country, central nnd South America, and In Europe. "Wherever ten or n dozen Cubans or Cuban sympathizers could bo found, they were persuaded to form themselves into an association, elect officers and pledge the continuous payment of a designated sum Into tho treasury of the revolutionary move ment. At one time there were more than 160 of these clubs, all tributary to thu "Junta" or revolutionary delega tion In Now York. In addition, Marti enlisted in tho cause wealthy individual Cubans, some of whom paid Into the Junta's hands sums as large as a quar ter of a million dollars. lCvery con tribution, great or small, was publicly acknowledged In a weekly paper print ed In the Spanish language, nnd every club had a vote In the election of tho delegates who supervised tlift expendi ture of this money. Whatever may be true of the internal conditions In Cuba at the present time the. fact cannot be denied that no people have ever given more In proportion to their means or Buffered more In person al hardship and In the yielding of pri vate Interests and of life Itself than tliene thousands of Cuban exiles scat tered throughout this hemisphere and In Kuropc. Millions upon millions or property belonging to these e.xlleJ famllloH were confiscated, burned or sacked In consequence of the revolution, nevertheless they did not falter. Out of every largo family some member, often ninny, fell In lighting, by disease or in prison, yet the light went on. Not even the awful slaughter of the recon ccntradoes dissuaded these sworn op ponents of Spanish tyranny from con tinuing a battle which they continually proclaimed should be until victory or death. They withstood espionage, pros ecution and persecution In this country; they dared the perils of the sea In 1111 buster expeditions and they underwent all the hardships of a seemingly hope less struggle In the Jungles, spurning bribes, refusing compromises anil yielding not an Inch. Marti fell: Mnceo fell; Huls lilvera was captured and sen tenced to death; Arangureii was be trayed and shot; a thousand tragedies shaded the somber record of tills re markable uprising, but the quest of liberation was not abandoned. Such perseverance is entitled to the world's respect, whatever the short comings at tendant upon It. Part of the Incentive which kept this light tiphatred of Spain Is now to cease with the withdrawal of the Spanish ling. Can there be found among these men sulllelent practical sagacity, prudence, self control and constructive energy to upbuild a stable Independent state? Time nlono can give a definite answer. Hut let lis, In all fairness, regardless of I he future, give them now the ctedlt which Is justly llieif due. Of course it would be better If the people of t'uba wc uld repress their joy until the last armed Spaniard had de patted from their Island. Hut we must make allowances for human nature, even In Cuba. For Reference Purposes. The New York Sun explains in few words the existing facts with refer ence to the Nicaragua canal when It says: "The time limit for the comple tion of the canal under the concession!) from Nicaragua and Costa nica held by the Maritime Canal company ex pires on the Itli of next October. Fi nancially as far as that corporation is concerned, and physically as fur as the task Itself is concerned, the. work can not be completed during the life of the present concession. A new contract or concession, known as the Kyre Cragln concession, was obtained from Nicaragua by another party of pro moters, of whom the Hon. William K. Oraee is the principal, on Oct. 31, 1&3S, one day before the former government of Nicaragua dissolved or was merged into tho probably short-lived federa tion with Honduras and Salvador known as the United States of Central America. Tho Eyre-Cragln or Grace concession grants in perpetuity the ex clusive right to construct and operate an interoceanle canal through the ter ritory of Nicaragua after the 10th of next October, or sooner than that If tho holders of this concession shall mean while acquire tho residue of the rights of the Maritime Canal company under the old concession. This new associa tion has no contract with Costa Hica, whose territory touches part of the route of the proposed canal. "The Maiitimo Canal company wants to dispose of the controlling Interest of Its stock to the 1'nlteil Stales, prac tically turning over the canal to the government under the present conces sion and receiving compensation for past investments and services to the amount of about $11,000,000. According to the plan proposed by the advocates of thu Morgan bill, now before the senate, the United States government would proceed to build the canal as the controlling power in the Maritime Canal company, and to exercise the rights of that company hereafter during the ninety-nine years and renewal period of another ninety-nine years covered by the old concession: provided, we suppose, that the goverment succeeded In showing that the concession does net expire next year, or in procuring an ex tension beyond the time limit now fixed at the Mil of next October. Mr. Grace and his friends want the government to guarantee SM.OOO.OOO of bonds for the construction of the canal, taking In ex change a second mortgage on tho prop erty, one-quarter of the stock of tho company they propose to organize, and the right to appoint live out of fifteen directors, the control remaining In pri vate hands. "Crushing aside speculative schemes and private attempts to profit by the Intention of this nation to put a canal through tho isthmus of Nicaragua, the alternative course for the government would be to let the old Cardcnns-Meno- eal contract, owned by the Maritime Canal company, lapse by Its own limi tation, to treat the so-called Eyre Cragln contract as nil, and to proceed to direct negotiations with the Central American governments, based on the treaty of 1SC8 with Nicaragua, for the construction of the cnnal without any Intervening corporation. That treaty of IS6S Is yet valid. It is tho foundation of tho Cardenas-Menocnl concession, as of the so-called Eyre-Cragln conces sion; and it does not lapse with the tlmellmltof any concession whatsoever to private parties. This treaty of iSfiff, negotiated with Nicaragua by President Johnson, and ratified by both govern ments, grants to the United States tho right of transit between the oceans by any route which may hereafter be con structed; It devolves upon the United States the duty of protecting the route of communication and guaranteeing its neutrality: nnd it permits the United States to protect the lives nnd property of American citizens along tho canal by armed force, in case of unforeseen or Imminent danger, even without the consent of Nicaragua." This concise summary of the existing conditions will bo worth keeping In mind during the progress of the pend ing debate In congress. Frank Knaack, the American citizen, who was In danger of a long sentence, for making insulting references to tlm iKmperor of Oermany, has been ac quitted, as It was shown that the man wnn In a high state of exhilaration at the time and not responsible for his nctlons. Uvldence also demonstrated that hu called tho Kmperor a block head Instead of a sheepahead, as was first alleged. This doubtless had much to do In bringing to a peaceful close what mlcht have been a painful Inci dent, for Knnack at least. The fact has been disclosed thnt tho contribution of $5,010 which formed the first response to the president's popular appeal of one yeat ago for funds for the relief of suffering nnd ntnrvlng Cubans came from tho chief executive himself. U was the largest slnglo contribution received, the other re sponses not coming up to his expecta tions. William McKlnley has no money except his salary; but It every Ameri can would give to the cause of hu manity a tenth part of his Income this world would soon become appreciably better. Hx-Scnator Kdmunds, perhaps our foremost constitutional lawyer, con firms the opinion that congress can not lawfully expel a polygamous member, the validity of whose election Is not questioned on other grounds. It might, perhaps, for the sake of morals, be wished that this were otherwise; nut since congress cannot set up a censorship upon the domestic relations of the gontlemun from Utah, the next step to take Is to try to Improve the consciences of that Individual's con stituents. Wo fancy there will be general satis faction over the news that Secretary Long has no present Intention of re signing. Illghtly or wrongly and wv think lightly public opinion has reached the conclusion that the gentle man from lllngham Is just about tho shrewdest, fairest nnd most efliclcnt member of tho present cabinet, the other incmbeis. of course, excepted. His retirement wou.d be regarded as a leal public misfortune. Ofllcials in charge of the Kefiy motor stock company nllege that they have Keely's secret. As Keely's secret ap pears to have consisted in the ability to persuade people of means to invest their cash In something out of sight, the future of the stock company will determine whether anyone has fallen heir to Keely's trick. Hobson's recent exploit at Chicago has aroused adverse comment nil over tho country. All seemed to be willing that Hobson should enjoy the glory for the sinking of the Merrimac, but the bravery exhibited In kissing 13 Chicago girls at one session is something that has caused oven the naval officers to become Jealous. The man who was good enough to be sent as our ambassador to Itussla will be plenty good enough for tho secre taryship of the interior. m Hull Calne did not find Americans so gushing as he expected. Hall forgets that tho United States has at last cut Its eye teeth. Mr. Carnegie, it Is announced, will support Bryan for president in 1900. On an anti-monopoly platform? TOLD BY THE STARS. Dally Horoscope Drawn by Ajacchus, The Tribune Astrologer. Astrolabe Cast: 4.18 a. m.. for Friday, December '23, lV.'S. 55; "& A child born on this clay wilV account for the surplus of Idle cash bv the fact that people who are able to borrow money do not borrow. Newspaper writers who are electing railroad presidents promiscuously on pa per, would do well to study the time tables in some instances and llnd out who runs the lines. Visions of the cotton-batting Santa triaus now appear before the small boy who has attended Sunday school regularly for tho past month. liase ball enthusiasts arc awaiting with pleasant anticipations the llrst appear ance of Jack Neat. lllanco has arrived In Spain all right, but nothing has been heard irom the bones of Columbus. Breakfast Chat. Smart Hoy Papa, why is the Ilusslan luan like the Maria Teresa? I'apa I am unable to answer. S. 15. IJtcauso it cannot be floated. NEWS AND COMMENT The offenco of being successful hns its penalties as well In tho south as In the north, judging from a elrcumstanco nar rated In tho Chicago lierord by W. E. Curtis. Ho savs: "S. M. lnmann, tho foremost und most progrtssive men in (lie south and tho largest cotton factor In the world, who handles about one-thud of the entire exports of that staple, has been taxed out of town. His residence, which is tho tines I In Atlanta, 1h closed, ile did not appear during tho president's re ception, und wo weie told that he had gone to New York to live. In explanation it was tuld that Mr. lnmann objecth to thu taxes which have been Imposed upon his properly and tho liiKraiitude which has been shown by tho citizens ot the place lor his efforts to promote their wel fare und prosperity. When the recent ex position was on the verge ot colljpso from financial dimcullles Mr. lnmann stepped forward and placed $50,000 In cash In the hands of treasurer with the under standing that ho would bo reimbursed to the extent of $13,000 by public subscrip tions, tho remaining $3,000 being his con tribution to tho relief fund. For some icason or another the understanding was not fulfilled, and tho entlro lots fell upon his shoulders. It is ulso said that when tho street car service ot Atlanta was de nounced as Inadequate and a dlsgraco to the community Mr. lnmann Btepped forward, reorganized tho company, changed the motlvo power from mules to electricity, and with his great business ability placed tho company upon Its leet and extended tho tracks Into tho su burbs, where a line could not bo sclf-sus. tabling for years. As long as ho lo.it money he was eulogized us u publio ueue. factor, but tho moment his Investment began to pay und ho received some re turns for Ids puhllc-splrltedncsH every, body pitched upon him nnd ho had to light tho common council, the county commissioners und even tho stato legis lature to prevent the confiscation of hla property. This made him so ulsgusted that ho removed his residence to New York, although ho still letatus his bust ness olllco In Atlanta." The commercial argument for expansion so far as tho Philippines aro concerned Is well stntcd by Chief Engineer John D. Ford, tho fleet cmrlncer of the l'aclllo station, when. In tits recently published book, "An American Cruiser In tho East." ho snys, referring to tho Filipinos: "These peoplo ncd steamships of from one hundred to five, hundred tons to trade nmmin ttin lain,..... ,1.1.1, Mnn1 ill nnmalllrw ..r ..." ....(,,, it.-, uiuj nwv. o... .- K of from thrco thousand to five thousand ions to irnue wltli tho United states ana oher parts of the world; they need rail- tv'itVa Innntnnfli'nd .....I ..,.. f.. Inlnnint triillle; thej' need thin dress goods, all rurm 01 mm wane gooils, insertions ami laces, lilnck and white prints of thin cot- lllfl. till,, U'mtnli .....I 1...I, nnmld fiiMn.. nhil ...., ...... I.w.lll tlllU IVIIIk fjt'VfUO, JIIIIVJ .1,1., staple hardware, tinware, groceries, guinea goons and flours, steam enRiues, pump, sugar mills, agricultural Imple ments, furniture, books and stationery, nnd our public school system. They can pay for theso with sugar, tobacco, hemp, camphor, rice (which nro produced In great quantities), coal, gold, and mitiy varieties of beautiful hard woods. Why should our pcoplo not have this trade?" William Dudley Kntilkc. of ltlchmond, Iiul., thus pricks koitio of tho bubble ar guments of the nntl-expanslonlsts who nrsuo that tho United States has no war rant In law or history to acquire new ter ritory: "Thomas Jefferson thought at llrst that wc had no rlRht to ncqulro tho terri tory Included la the Louisiana purchase, but ho waB educated by events, lie did not possess that Immediate and unaltera ble knowledge of absolute truth which is tho precious Inheritance of the modern Mugwump. Ho did not even ask whether tho citizens of New Orleans approved of the cession by Napoleon. It was a good thing, ho thougiht, for America to t'c quire that territory, and so he bought it. When we purchased Florida from Spain, did we Inquire whether the Seminole ap proved of the transfer? Texas and the California tract were nrqulrcd in the In terest of slavery, yet California was 'ho means by which the balance of power lie- tU'rell KlnVn at.,.-, .mil frnn utntnti wns fhinllv broken mill frfrvlnnl lipi'iltnn tltv. dominant. Would we willingly return this vast domain to McnIch? Would we consign Florida to Spain or Louisiana 10 rrnncuY .And wiipii, in opposition to tho Same, Itlnil nf unntlmnlit wlilch mil. nintcs tho present opposition to expan sion, .iwnsKii was pumiascii ovairussia they calkd It In tlioso days) 'history' and 'principles' and ull soils of things wero ltpnllirlit fnrtf.i r.1 M,r.it..c, iliM f.lli. if mill ing our banner to the North Polo; but wao now tnitiKs that air. scwntil made ,t mistake? Our own history vindicates our efforts toward expansion.' Ciu.IrS mill rfr-.'il'nl ! hit Mcvwliprrt 111 Porto lllco. They are pheuornencilly cheap. Clg.irettes In packs of fifteen sell for about ?t cents. The ordinary cigar ran be bought three for a cent, better ones at a cent apiece, and a n-ient cigar is 11 luxury smoked only by merchants, lnnk rs and tourlslH, the. mere expensive brands nro to be had only la lurgc towns. SLANDERING OUR EXPORTS. From the New Yoik Sun. Tho proposed Inspection at our ports rt Gel man piodncts sent to this country, .. provided for in Senator -Mason's resolu tion, would bo salutary If it, luuught to tht.ir senses tho Ger11.an public men nnd iiewi papers that for icvcrul years havo aimed to hamper our trade with tho cin plrn by misrepresentation and unjust leg islation. No ono is wronged when a na tion, by all honorable means, seek.: to safeguard tho business Interests of Its pc 1. pie Hut attacks upon foicigu cummer .e are baso when they sloop to deliberate misrepresentation of the goods which for eign merchants offer for sale. The I idled States is ent'tlcd to fair play In Its ci m morcinl relations. Wo have no grievance If wc fall, to meet honorable competition In tho markets, but misrepresentation 1 as no part 111 fair business rivalry, and if It becomes a national or a pally pollcj it Is likely to provo a boomerang. CARNEGIE ON CARNEGIE. From the New York Sun, A few years ago a little pamphlet called "A Look Ahead" was in circulation. It had been reprinted from the magazine In which It llrst appeared, and subsequently, wo believe, it was Included In a boolc. Horo aro two sentences from "A Look Ahead" which are still Interesting: "Tho American peoplo are favorable to tho ex tension of national boundaries. No evil but great good has come from every suc ceeding addition to their Union." Tho author of "A Look Ahead"' was and is Mr. Andrew Carnegie. Ho Is scared when he looks ahead now, but the American peoplo are not. They are still favorablo to tho extension of their national boun daries and they have not forgotten that great good has come from each addition to their territory. As. Mr. Carnegie said. "They are used to territorial expansion." SPLENDID ASSOKTSIEN'T OF HOLIDAY . . BOOK Booklets, Calendars, Cards, Diaries: MMJiAiTS ? HOLIDAY HOOK STOKE, H03 W ASJ I I.NUTO.V A VEN V B. ilelow Tribune Ofllce. Holiday Goods . o o TM are goosl all tie year airotiii G. W. Fritz has the best and largest assortment in his line. All suitable for presents. Among them will be found the follow ing: Harness $6 to $250. Fur Robes $3 to $50. Plush Robes $2 to $65. Sleigh Bells 35c to $4. 50. Trunks $1.25 to $40. Traveling Bags.... 40c to $50. Shopping Bags.... 75c to $12. Chatelaine Bugs.. .25c to $13. Dress Suit Cases. 1.65 to $25. Telescopes 25c to $10. Ladies' and Gent's Traveling Cases, Mani cure Sets, Writing Cases, Music Rolls, Cuff and Col lar Boxes, Pocketbooks, Card Cases, Purses and a host of useful and orna mental goods too numer ous to mention. 410 Lackawanna Avenue G0LBS1 mm A Great Batch of Hyers For CI A 4- 7 Indian Work Hatch Safes, Pin Cushions and Match Pockets, Hand D) Mirrors, Card Trays, Hairpin Boxes, Glove and Handkerchief Sets, Glass Pepper and Salts, Etc., Etc. MnifptT 5ilver and China Pin Trays, Silver Mugs, Celluloid Novelties A-d- TTgr u Glass and Silver Inkstands, Venetian Vases, Glove Boxes, IL 11) Handkerchief Boxes, Necktie Cases, Etc., Etc. All giT Cigar Jars, Smoking Sets, Silver and Bronze Ink Wells, fletal tL ) jjc Puff Boxes, Celluloid Novelties, Bon Bonneire Boxes, Chil dren's Silver Sets of Knife, Fork, Spoon and lYiug in Boxes, and a great line of riedallions. These are bargains rare and ripe ; handy to get; at Hain Floor; near front door: ALWAYS BUSY Is Ceiling S Is Santa Clans His little friends, and big ones too, will be happy in our slioes. Lewis, Rely k Bavies, 11 1 AND 116 WYOMING AVENUE. When Yoe Are Out looking around for your Christmas Gifts 0000 remember our stock of Fine China, Cut Glass, Brie a Brae, Dinner, Tea, and Toilet Sets. TEE CLEMMS, IFEiMR, WALLEY CO. 422 Lackawanna Avenua THC MODERN HARDWARE STORE. 1'ixrunEs Kort THE J1ATH ROOM Hickel-Flatcd Towel Eaefe, Spige Cases We bave a nice line of tlie above goods. EOOTE k SHEAR CO. Ill) WASHINGTON AVE. 4 WOLF & WENZEL, 2-10 Adams Ave., Opp. Court Houi:. Eolt AEts (or Klcliardson-lSoynton'J Furuacss ami ltaagoi. Christmas fJi s ristiiis uit b Prices Halved aed Qmartered For Christmas Hill & Connell, J 21 Washington Avenue, Havo an unuunl largo assortment of Chairs and Rockers Seswipfion Ladies Desks mautueiToodi, Parlor Cabinets and Music Cabinets lu Mahogany and VernisOIarttn. A FEW CHOICE Pieces of Bric-a-Brac, Tabourettes, a large selection : Tables, in endless variety. H ill & Connell 123 Washington Ave. Caleedan s, s, Leather CaM Cases, in Fens aid a Handsome Assortment Of 1899 Marie: c a, In fancy bindings, suit able for Christmas Gifts. All holiday books at cost. Reynolds Bro STATIONERS and ENGRAVERS, THE IUHT k CORNELL CO, Heating, Plumbing, Gas Fitting, Electric Light Wiring, Gas and Electric Fixtures, Bu31ders Hardware; BAZAAH irars HNLEY'S Holiday AonioMece meet 0000 We are prepared t show a finer assorted stock of ia than on any previous occasion. We make special mention of thq following lines, viz. Real Lace Handker chiefs, Scarfs, Collars, Jackets and Collarettes, also Laces by the yard. 5panish Lace Fichus and Scarfs. Fine Silk Petticoats. Ladies' and gentlemen's Fine 5ilk Umbrellas. Kid Gloves and Mittens for men, women and children, Gentlemen's Fine Silk Mufflers, Neckwear and Suspenders. Fine Table Linens.Table Setts and fancy Centre Pieces. Fine line of high grade Perfumeries, etc. 510 and 512 LACKAWANNA AVENUE HENRY BEL1N, JR., General Acent for ths Wyotntnj District for HffMT Jllulnj, Wnstlnc.Bpot'lnZ' SruokelMl and Ilia ltepmino Cbcmloai Company's HIGH EXPLOSIVES, tufety Iruse, Capi and Kxploilori ituoiu 101 Conuoll Batldlac, ticruatua. AUENC1E tii os, roni), JOHN 11. SMITH & dOJf, V. E. MULL1UAN, rntt riymoutti WUkeBurr Christ Graft POfDEBL r