Newspaper Page Text
H)cu0tcJr to 3oiitics, literature, Agriculture 0ricncc, JHorqJitij, anb (Enteral Intciligcrfcc.
VOL. 14. STROUDSBURG, MONROE COUNTY, PA. DECEMBER 15, 1853. NO.r7. FIRST AHNUAL MESSAGE OF PRESIDENT PIERCE. Head in the two Houses of Congress, Dec. 6, 1853. ' ' TPcllow-citizens of the Senate and House of Representatives: The interest, with which the people of the Hepublic anticipate the assembling of Con gress, and the fulfilment, on that occasion, of the duty imposed upon a new President, is one of the best evidence of their capacity to realize the hopes of the founders of a politi cal system, at once complex and symmetrical. "While the different branches of the govern ment arc, to a certain extent, independent of of each other, the duties or all, alike, have direct reference to the source of power. For tunately, under this system no man is so high, and none so humble, in the scale' of public station as to escape from the scrutiny or to be exempt from the responsibility, with all official functions imply. Upon the justice and intelligence of the masses, in a government thus organized, is the sole reliance of the confederacy, and the J only security for honest ami earnest devotion to its iritersests, against the usurpations and encroachments of power on the one hand and the assaults of personal ambition on the other. The interest, of which I have spoken, is inseperable from an inquiring, self-governing community, but stimulated, doubtless, at the present time, by the unsettled condition of our relations with several foreign powers; by the new obligations resulting from a sudden extension of the field of enterprise; by the spirit with which that field has been entered, and the amazing energy with which its re sources fdr meeting the demands of humanity have been developed. Although disease assuming at one time the characteristics of a wide-spread and devasta ting pestilence, has left its sad traces upon some portions of our country, we have still the most abundant cause for reverent thank fulness to God for an accumulation of signal mercies- showered upon us as a nation. It is well that a consciousness of rapid advance ment and increasing strength be habitually associated with an abiding sense of depend ence npon Hin who holds in his hands the des tiny of men and of nations. Recognising the wisdom of the broad.prin ciple of absolute religious toleration proclaim ed in our fundamental law, and rejoicing in benign influence which it has exerted upon our social and political institutions, I should shrink fiom a clear duty, did I fail to express my deepest conviction, that we can place no secure reliances upon any apparent progress, if it be not sustained by national integrity, resting upon the great truths affirmed and illustrated by divine revelation. In the midst of our sorrow for the afflicted and suffering, it has been consoling to see how promptly disaster made true neighbors of districts and cities scperatcd widely from each other and cheering to watch the strength of that common bond of brother hood, which unites all hearts, in all parts of this Union, when danger threatens from abroad or calamity impends over us at home. Our Diplomatic relations with foreign pow er havendergone no essential change since the adjournment of the last Congress. With some of them, questions of a disturbing char acter are still pending, but there are good reasons to belcive that these may all be ami cable adjusted. For some years past, Great Britain has so construed the first article of the convention of the 20th of April, 1818, in "regard to the fisheries on the northeastern coast, as to ex clude our citizens from some of the fishing grounds to which they freely resorted for nearly a quarter of a century subsequent to the date of that treat'. The United States have never acquiesed in this construc f.tion but have always claimed for their fisher men all the rights which they had so long en joyed without molestation. With a view to remove all difficulties on the subject, to ex-' tend the rights of our fishermen leyond the 1 limits fixed by the convention" of- ISIS, and J to regulate trade between the United States j anrt thfi nntiRh !nrrh A mpnrn nrnvinpps a negotiation has been opened, with a fair j prospect of a favorable result. To nrotect our fishermenin the enjoymentof their rights, and prevent collision between them aud Brit ish fishermen, I deemed it expedient to sta tion a naval force in that quarter during the fishing season. A . i f 1 . il r . jcimuarrassing questions nave -also arisen between the two governments in regard to ! A. Central America. Great. Britaiu has pro posed to settle them by an amicable arrange ment, and our minister at Loudon is instruc ted to enter into negotiations on that sub ject. A commission .for adjusting the cla.ims of our citizens agaiust Great Britain, and those of British subjects against4he United.States, organized under the convention of the 8th of February last is now sitting in London for commissioner io inai country wno nas oeen the transaction of business. i cenOy appointed, is instructed to avail him- Itis in many respects .disirabie that the !self on a? occasions to open and extend our boundary line between the United States and I commercial relations not only with the empire the British provinces in the northwest, as . of ,hut with other Asiatic nations, desisted m the convention of the 15th of I lf2 au expedition was sent to.Tapan, tIJ 186 am? facially that part, which .nnathe command of Commodore Perry, !f the icrT'toiy of Washington from r th purpose of opening commercial inter geperates.uie tcuulJ & course with that island. Intelligence has been the British possession oi, J'e - a t rccicved ofIjis arrival there aud of his hav- u& ifulcu wtu uiarMJu. j- wieiy i- . thesnbject to your notice. ' jruufruuwuui cmwu is cuuuuuu uu iu - most friendly Tooting. The .extensive .corn merce between the United States r -1.., nMcMr i.Aofrif;rt,,0 rt i,Q ; lroin some unnecessary Tcsuncuons, xo ine i mutual advantage of both parties. With a view to this object, some .progress has been made in negotiating a treaty of commerce and navigation. Independently of our valuable trade with Spain, we have important political relations with her, grp.wjn to the islauds of OssPJ"' -S -,r. " ;.'l nliiin . A fnniry n itmnrr, An i i n -.1 TjlU nA ' C hU If.U wlftMl if II O snMlCOll f mill (triit X1( PL, nf&j A am happy to announce, that since the last Congress no attempts have been made, by unauthorized expeditions within the United States, ajgainst either of these colonies. Should any movement be manifested within our limits, all the means at my command will be vigerously exerted to repress it. sever - 'al annqying occurrences have taken place at xiavana, or in the vicinity or tne island oi; Cuba, between our citizens and Spanish au thorities. Considering the proximity of that island to our shores lying, as jt does, in the track of trade between some of our prin cipal cities and the suspecious vigilance with which foreign, intercoursej particularly that with the United States, is there guarded a repetition of such occurrences may well be apprehended. As no diplomatic intercourse is allowed between our counsul at Havana and the Captain-General of Cuba, ready ex planation cannot be made, or prompt redress afforded, where injury has resulted. All com plaint on the part of our citizens, under the present arrangement, must be, in the first place, presented to this government, and then refcred to Spain. Spain again refers it to her local authori- ! ties in Cuba for investigation, and postpones I an answer till she has heard from those au j tborities. To avoid these irriating and vex atious delays, a proposition has been made to provide for a direct appeal for redress to the Captain General by Our consul, in behalf of our injurjed!citizens. Hitherto,the government of Spain has declined to enter into such an arrangment. This course on her part is deeply regretted; for, without some arrangement of this kind, the good understanding between the two countries may be exposed to occa sional interruption. Our minister at Madrid is instructed to renew the proposition, and to press it again upon the consideration of her Catholic Majesty's government. For several years Spain has been calling the attention of this government to a claim for losses, by some of her subjects, in the case of the schooner Amistad. This claim is be lieved to rest on the obligation imposed by our existing treaty with that country. Its justice was admitted, in our diplomatic cor respondence with the Spanish government, as early as March, 1847; and one of my pre decessors in his annual message of that vear, reccommended that provission should be made for its payment. In January last it was a gaiu submitted to congress bv the Executive It has received a favorable sonsideratiou by committees of both branches, but as yet there lias been no nnal action upon it. 1 conceive that good faith requires its prompt adjust ment, and I present it to your early and fa vorable consideration. Marftn Koszta a Hungarian by birth, came to this country in 1850. and declared his intention in due form of law, to become a citizen of the United States. After remain ing here nearly two years, he visited Turkey. While at Smyrna, he was forcibly seized, ta ken on board an Austrian brig of war, then lying in the harbor of that place, and there confined m irons with the avowed design to take him into the dominions of Austra. Our consul at Smyrna and legatiom at Constanti nople interposed for his release, but their efforts were ineffectual. hue thus imprisen ed, Commander Ingraham with the United States ship of war St. Louis, arrived at Smyr na, and after inquiring into the circumstances of the case, came to the conclusion that Kos zta was entitled to the protection of this gov ernment, and took energetic and prompt measures for his release under an arrange ment between the agents of the United States and of Austria, he was transferred to the custody of the French consul-general at Smy rna, there to remain until he should be dis posed of by the mutual agreement of the con suls of the respective government at that place. , Pursuant to that agreement he has been released and is now on his way to the United States. The Emperor of Austria has made the conduct of our officers who took part in this transaction a subject of grave complaint. Regarding Koszta as still his subject, and claiming a right to seize him within the limits of the Turkish empire, he has demanded ofthis government its consent l surrender of the prisoner, a disavowal of tbe acts of lts agents, and satisfaction for tne alleged outrage. Alter a carelul con: elusion that Koszta was seized without legal authority at Smyrna; that he was wrongfully detained on board of the Austrian brig of war, that, at the time of his seizure, he was clothed with the nationality of the United ti i j 1 r ,1 i - " nr states; and tnat tne act oi our oincers, un- der the circumstances of the case, were iusti ! liable, and their conduct has been fully ap- I proved by me, and the compliance with the several demands of the Emperior of Austria has beeiL.declincd. The condition of Chiua,at this time,renders it probable that some important changes will occur in that vast empire, which will lead to a m0P unrestricted intercourse with it. The made known to the .Emperor of Japan the . - viiect of this visit; but it is not yet ascertain-' rlY the Emperor will bo disposed to ave .com- abandoll jjjg restrictive policy, and open that j versaljy seen and admitted to hare been wise and that lous c0.jntry to a commercial intercourse jjn policy, jhsfe in character, aud a great ele released 1-1-. i . -. m . I. i,n -. a -.. t .... with the United estates th the United fctates. It has been my earnest desire to maintain With Mexico, a dispute has arisen as to the true boundary bne between pur territory or inenoiy intercourse wilu me guvuiiuum.ijwii uvm, . jiuoyvn.j, nun i uHijhumo, ii i j T J.1- - r,4-r mvrr 1 Iaiii hi' nVAunnvilt' riitsl i Itinmnncp this continent, and to aid them in preserving Thirteen btates iiave grown to. thirty-. Aw- ArRTipnHivriitnjMftvinnri Rtnfp of ( n m- uam deopiyscnsii) oioMhe immenscirespon-. ant tojthe treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,made a serious mistake in determiding the initial poiut on the Rio Grande; but inasmuch as his decision was clearly a departure from the directions for tracing the boundary contained in the treat, and was not concurred in by the j surveyor appointed on the part of the United States, whose concurrence was necessary to give validity to that decision, this govern- ment is not concluded thereby: but that of Mexico takes a different view of the subject. There arc also other questions of considerable magnitude pending between the two repub lics. Our minister in Mexico has ample in structions to adjust them. Negotiations have been opened, but sufficient progress has not been made therein to enable meto speak of the probable result. Impressed with the impor tance or maintaining amicable relations with that republic, and of yielding with liberality to all her just claims, it is reasonable to ex pect that an arrangement mutually satisfac tory to both countries may be concluded, and a lasting friendship between them confirmed and perpetuated. Congress having provided for a full mission to the States of Central America, a minister was sent thither in July last. As yet he has had time to visit only one of these States, (Nicaragua,) where lie was received in the most friendly manner. It is hoped that his presence and good offices will have a benign effect in composing thedissensions which pre vail among them, and in establishing still more intimate and friendly relations between them respectively, and between each of them and the United States. Considering the vast regions of this conti nent, and the number of States which would be made accessible by the free navigation of the river Amazon, particular attention has been given to this subject. Brazil, throngh whose territories it passes into the ocean, has hitherto persisted in a policy so restrictive, in regard to the use of this river, as to ob- struct and nearly exclude, foreigu commer cial intercourse with the States which lie up on its tributaries and upper branches. Our minister to that country is instructed to ob tain a relation of that policy, and to use his efforts to induce the Brazilian government to open to common use, under proper safeguards, this great natural highway for international trade. Several of the South American States are deeply interested in this attempt to secure the tree navigation of the Amazon, ! Neither as to the sources of the public trca and it is reasonable to expect their co-cpera-' snre, nor as to the manner of keeping and tion in the measure. As the advantages of managing it, does any grave controversy free commercial intercourse among nations ; now prevail, there being a general acquies are better understood, more liberal views are ' encc in the wisdom of the present system, generally entertained as to the common rights The report of the Secretary of the Treasury of all to the free use of those means which will exhibit in detail, the state of the public nature has provided for internal communica- J finances, and the condition of the various tion; To these more liberal and enlightened branches of the public service administered views, it is hoped that Brazil will conform ner poncy, and remove all unnecessary re i i? -i ii strictions upon the free use of a river, which traverses so many states and so large a part of the continent. I am happy to inform vou that the republic of Paraguay and the Ar gentine Confederation have yeilded to the, liberal policy still resisted by Brazil, in re gard to the navigable rivers within their re spective territories. Treaties embracing tills subject among others have been negotiated with these governments, which will.be sub mitted to the seuate at the present session. A new branch of commerce, important to the agricultural iuterests of the U. S., has, ' from customs, and two millions four hundred wilhiu a few years past, l)cen opened with j and five thousand seven hundred and eight Perue. Notwithstanding the inexhaustible J dollars from public lands and other niiscella deposits of guano upon the island of that : neous sources, amounting together to sixty couutry considerable difficulties are experi-; one millions three hundred and thirty-seven euced in obtaining the requisite supply. Mca- ; thousand five hundred and seventy-four dol sures have been taken to remove these diffi- ' lars: while the public expenditures for the culties, aud secure a more abundant impor- tation ot the article. Unfortunately, there has been a serious collissiou between our cit izens, who have resorted to the Chincha island for it,-and the Paruvian authorities stationed there. Redress for the outrages, committed by the latter, was promptly de manded by our minister at Lima. This sub ject is now under consideration, and there is reason to believe that Peru is disposed to of fer adequate indemnity to the aggrieved parties. , We are thus not only at peace with all fo reign countries, but in regard to political af fairs; are exempt from any cause of serious disquietude in domestic relations. The controversies, winch have agitated ll. i- I. i f . "it me uouiiu) nereioiore, are passing away wun the causes which produced ' them and the passions which they had awakened; or, if any trace of then; remains, it may be reason- ably hoped that it. will only be pcrceived-in the zealous rivalry of all good citizens to testify their respect for the rights of the States, their devotion to the Union, aiid their common determination that each one of the States, its institutions, its domestic peace shall be held alike- secure under the sacred aigis of the constitution. This new league of amity and of mutual confidence and support, into which the peo ple of the republic, have entered, happily af fords inducement and opportunity for the a doptioh of a more comprehensive said unem barrassed line of policy and action, as to the great material interests of the country whether regarded in themselves or in con nexion with the powers of the civilized world. The Uk States have continved gradually and steadily to expand, thrpugh acquisitions of territory, which, how much soever some of them mayiiave been questioned, are now uili jnent in the advancement ot our country, in free- and, with it, of the human race, one, one side, and on the other to the distant realms oi i.sia. themselves. with relations reaching to Europe on the of its interests, devolves upon me: the alle- viation of which, so far as relates to the im- mediate conduct ot the public business is, first, in my reliance on the wisdom and pat riotism of the two Houses of Congress; and, secondly, in the directions afforded me bv the principles of public polity, affirmed by our sums ot outstanding arrears due to tue govern fathers of the epoch of 1798, sanctioned by ment, and .of other reforms in the administra Iong experience, and consecrated anew by tive action of his department, which are indi the overwhelming voice of the people of the catcjd by the Secretary; as also to the pro- united States. Recurring to these principles, which con stitute the organic basis of union, we per ceive that, vast as are-the functions and du ties of the federal government, vested in, or entrusted to, its. three great dep'artments, the legislative, executive and judicial, yet the substantive power, the popular force, and the popular force, and the large capacities for social and material developement, exist in the respective States, which all being of themselves well constituted republics, as they preceded, so they alone are capable of main taining and perpetuating the American U nion. The federal government has its ap propriate line of action in the specific and limited powers conferred on it by the consti tution, chiejly as to those things in which the States have a common interest in their rela tions to one another? and to foreign govern ments; while the great mass of interests which t . . t..- ,1 " 1 I belong to cultivated men,, the ordinary busi- ness of life, the springs of industry, all the modihcation, to adapt it to the present extcn divcrsificd personal and domestic affairs of ded limits k frontier relations of the country, society, rest securely upon the general reser- ved powers ot the people ot the several Stales. There is the effective democracy of the nation, aud the vital essence of its being and its greatness. Of the practical conseqnences "which flow from the nature of the federal government, the primary one is the duty of administering with integrity and hdelitv the high trust re posed in it by the constitution, especially the people, and appropriated to specific objects by Congress, nappily I have no occasion to suggest any radical changes in the finan cial policy of the government. Ours is al most, if not absolutely, the solitary power ! of Christendom having a surplus revenue. j drawn immediately from imports on com mercc, and therefore measured by an indi rcct relation to agriculture, manufactures, and the products of the earth and sea, as to violate no coiistitutionol doctrine, and yet . vigorously promote the general welfare. ! by that department of the government. The revenue of the country levied almost insensibly to the tax payer, goes on from ' year to year increasing beyond either the the interests or government the prospective wants of At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1852, there remained in the Treasury a balance of fourteen millions six hundred and thirty-two thousand one hundred and thirty six dollars. The public revenue for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1853, amounted to fifty eight millions nine hundred and thirtv-onn thousand eight hundred and sixty-five dollars same period, exclusive of payments on account of the public debt, amounted to forty-three millions five hundred aud fifty-four thousand two hundred and sixty-two dollars; leaving a ballance of thirty-two millions four hundred and twenty-five thousand four hundred aud forty-seven dollars of receipts above expendi tures. This fact, of increasing surplus in the trea sury, became the subject of anxious consider ations at a very early period of my adminis tration, and the path of duty in regard to it seemed to me obvious and clear, namely: first, to apply the surplus revenue to the discharge, of the public debt, so far as it could judicious-" ly be done; and.secondly, to devise means for ! the gradual reduction of the revenue to the i i -I T -P il 11" i f standard oi me puuuc exigencies Of these obiects, the first has beea in the course of accomplishment in a manner and to a degree highly satisfactory. The amount of the public debts of all classes, was, on the 4th .of March, 1853, sixty-nine million one hun dred and ninety thousand and thirty-seven dollars; payments on account of which have been-made, since that period, to the amount! of twelve million seven hundred and three thousand three hundred and twenty-nine dollars, leaving unpaid, and4h the continuous course of liquidation, the sum of fifty-six mil lion four hundred and., eicrhtv-six thousand seven hundred and eight dollars. These pay- ments, although made at the market price of 1 the respective classes of stocks, have been J effected readily, and to the general advantage of the treasury, and have at the same time proved Of signal utility in the relief they have incidentally afforded to the money market and to the industrial and commercial pursuits off the country, The second of the above-mentioned objects,, that-of the reduction of the turiff, is of great? importance, and the plan suggested bv tho Secretary of the Treasury, which is to reduce! tho duties on certain articles, and to add to the free list many articles now taxed, audi especially such as enter into manufactures, and are not largely, or at all, produced in the country, is commended to your candid uml careful consideration. You will find in the report qfitlieecretary ofthe Treasury;, also nbundauKprjpolff of tho entirjQadequaoy. of the.prescntlfis.c'alystoni loiiiicet'iliatliefrjcqinfcmenta ot thefublie service, and that, while properly administer- eel, it operates to the advantage 01 tne com- munuy m ordinary business relations. I respectfully -ask your attention to sundry suggestions of improvements in the settlement i 1 1 of accounts, especially as regards the large gress made is the construction of marine hos- pitais, custom-nouses, and ot a new mint in California and assay office in the city of New York, heretofore provided for bv Congress; and also to the eminently successful progress of the Coast Survey, and of the Light-house Board. Among the objects meriting your attention will be important recommendations from the Secretaries of War and Navy. I am fully satisfied that, the navy of the United Ssates is not in a condition of strength and effici ency commensurate with the magnitude of our commercial aud other interests; and commend to your especial attention the suggestions on this subject, made by the Secretary of the Navy. I respectfully sub mit that the army, which, under our system, must always be regarded with the highest interest, as a nucleus around which the volunteer forces of the nation gather in the hour ol danger, requires augmentation or j . - , . ... and tne condition ot the. Jndian tribes m the interior of. .the continent: the necessity of which will appear in the communications of the Secretaries of War and the Interior. In the administration of the Post Office' Department for the fiscal year ending June 30, 18s3, the gross expenditure was $7,982, 156 00; and the gross receipts, during the same period, $5,942,734: 00; showing that the current revenue failed to meet the cur rent expenses of the department by the sum of $2,042,032. The causes which, under the present postal system and laws, led inevita bly to this result, are fully explained by the r.eport of the Postmaster General; one great cause being the cnormons rates the depart ment has been compelled to pay for mail ser vice rendered by railroad companies. The exhibit in the report of the Postmas ter General of the income and expenditures by mail steamers will be found peculiarly in teresting, and-of a character to demand the immediate action of Congress. Numerous and flagrant frauds upon the Pension Bureau have been brought to light the last year, and, in some instances, merited the punishments inflicted; but, unfortunate ly, in others, guilty parties have escaped, not through the want of sufficient evidence to warrant a conviction, but in consequence of the provision of limitation m the existing law. From the nature of these claims, the re- moteness of the tribunals tf pass them, aud which have been devised, with the largo the mode in which the proof is, of necessity, experience furnished within the last few furnished, temptations to crime have been i years in relation to the nature and treat greatly stimulated by the obvious difficulties j ment of the disease, that it will prove an of dection. The defects in the law upon this ' asylum indeed to this most helpless and subject are so apparent, and so fatal to the j afflicted class of sufferers, and stand as a ends of justice, that your early action relat- i. nolle monument of wisdom and mercy, ing to it is most desirable. " Under the acts of Congress of August During the last fiscal year, 9,819,411 acres 31, 1852, and of March 3, 1853, designed of the public lands have been surveyed, and ' to secure for the cities of Washington and 10,363,891 acres brought into market . Georgetown an abundant supply of good Within the'same period, the sales by public and wholesome water, it became my duty purchase and private e'ntry amoniited to 1,- ' to examine the report and plans of the 083,495 acres; located under military boun-1 engineer who had charce of tbe surveys Lji Hum MUHillU--, U,.,OUU U CI US', iUCUlCU under other certificates, 9,427 acres; ceded to the States as -swamp lands, 10,084,253 acres; selected for railroad and other objects, under acts of Congress, 1,447, 45G acres. Total amount of lands disposed of within the fiscal year, 25,345,992 acres; which is an increase in quantity sold, and located under land warrants and grants, of 12,231, SI 8 acres over the fiscal year immediately pre ceding. The quantity of land sold during the 4 ... i .. A n i io onn 1 i second and third quarters of 1852, was 334,- 451 acres. The amouut received ther Tior, was $023,GS7. The quantity sold the second and third nuarters ot t in vonr is.v? wns i 1,609,919 arrcs; and the amount received therefor, $2,22fi,8 7 6. j MM"ifl r i i v K-.. -." 1 1 ! 1 j-xic h uui uumuui ui liuiu wun anus issued niifW-nvicHm.- Wo i, n. onn, temberlast. wis 266 0 1-2. nrwIuVhtlVnu-L outstanding, at that date, 60,947. Thequau- - ' J 1 J - 1 w waawavs 1 J tity ot land required to satisfy these outstan ding warrants, is 4,778,120 acres. Warrants have been issued to 30th Sep nber last, under the act of 11th February 1847, calling for 12,S79,280 acres; under acts of Sept ember 29,JS50, and March 2S, 1852, calling for 12,505,001) acres; making a total of 25,3S4,640 acres. ' It is believed that experience has verified the wisdom and justice of the present 'system with regard to the public domain, in .most essential particulars. You will perceive, from the report of the Secretary of the Interior, the opinions, which have often been expressed in relation to the operation of the land system, as not being a source of rovenne to the federal treasury, were erroneous. The net profits' from the sale of the public lands to June 30 1853, amounted to the sum of $53,289,465. 1 recommend the extension of the land i r t y t i .system over the TcrritbricVof Utah aud New Mexico, with' such mo'dications as their pc culiaritics may require. llegarding our public domain as chiefly valuable to provide homes for the industri ous aiuLen'teprisintr. I am not : prepared to recommend any essential change m tho land I i. i system, except by modifications in fnyor of I the actual settler, and an extension of the 'pre - emption principles in certain cases, for .reasons, and on grounds which will be fully aeveiopcu in i.uiii, tu uuniui ueiorc you. -t i .n ; .. - i.,. i i. i . i i Congress, representing the proprietors oi tne territorial domain, and oharceuc$- , iected peciauy witn-power to disposer territory 'ijione: bQloumng"totlroj:Unit6dv- States! -haf, for BCitted ' a-lcfcoupsc'j5f yojtrbflSirininV.htird',?l 5 ' administration of Mr. Jefferson, exercised the power to construct, roads within the territories; and there are so many and obvious distinctions between this exercise of power and that of making road3 with in the States, that the former has never been considered subject to such objections as apply to the latter, and such may now be considered the settled construction of the power of the federal government up on the subject. Numerous applications have been, and no doubt will continue to be, made for grants of land, in aid of the construction of railways. It is not believed to bo within the intent and meaning of the Constitution, that the power to dispose of il 11 T l 1 .1 tne puttiic cioraain, snouia do usca otner wiBe than might be expected from a pru dent proprietor, and, therefore, that grants of land to aid in the construction of roads should be restricted to cases where it would be for the interest of a proprietor under like circumstances, thus to contrib ute to the construction of these works. For the practical operation of such grants thus far, in advancing the interests of the States in which the works are located, and at the same time the substantial in terests of all the other States, by en hancing the value and promoting the rap id sale of the public domain, I refer you to the report of the Secretary of the In terior. A careful examination, however, will show that this experience is the re sult of a just discrimination, and will be far from affording encouragement to a reckless or indiscriminate extension of the principle. I commend to your favorable consid eration the men of genius of our country, who, by their inventions and discoveries in science and art, have contributed largely to the improvements of the age, without, in many intances, securing for themselves anything like an adequate re ward. . For many interesting details upon this subject I refer you to the appropriate reports, and especially urge upon your early attention . the apparently slight, but really important, modifications of exist ing laws therein suggested. The liberal spirit which has so long marked the action of Congress in rela tion to the District of Columbia will, I have no doubt, continue to be manifested. The erection of an asylum for the in sane of the District of Columbia, and of the army and navy of the Unted States, has been somewhat retarded, by the great demand for materials and labor during the past summer; but full preparation for the reception of patients, before the re turn of another winter, is anticipatedjand there is the best reason to believe, from the plan and contemplated arrangements " . under the act first named. The best, if i not the only plan, calculated to secure ! permanently the object sought, was that which contemplates takingtho water j from the Great Falls of the Potomac,and, consequently, I gave to it my approval, j For the progress and present condition j of this important work, and for its de i mands, so far as appropriations are con cerned, I refer you to the report of the . Secretary of War. ; The present judicial system of the Uni ! ted States has now been in operation for" so long a period ot time and has in ita j general theory and much of its details, become so iamiliar to the country, and acquired so entirely the public Confidence, lua6 " muumeu m any ru-pci,, it suoum ii. . .T?r?j ; i ii onl? be ln tboso Particulars which may f "1 i - , adapt it to the increased extent, popula- tion, and legal business of the United otates. in tnis relation tne orcaniza- In this relation the tion of the courts is now confessedly in adequate tothe duties to be performed' by' them; inconsequence of which the; States of Florida, "Wisconsin, Iowa,Texa3E and California, and districts of othe States, are in efFect excluded from tho tun benefits ot the general system, by the; functions of the circuit court beiug devol ved on the district judges in all thosb States, or parts of States. The spirit of the constitution and ynjf duo regard to justice require that all tnov J States of the Union should be placed on the same footing m regard to the judicial tribunals. I thereforo commend to your consideration this important- subject, which, in my judgment, demands tho speedy action of Congross. I will pre- 1 sent to you, if deemed desirafble, a plan which I am prepared to recommend, for tho enlargement of tho present judicial . system. The act of Congress establishing tho t Smithsonian Institution provided that the -President of tho United States, and oth er persons therein designated, should con- ) stitutc an "establishment" by that name, and that the members should hold stated j and special meetings for the supervision j of the n-ffairs of the Institution. The or- 1 . . ... .. ganization not having taken place, it seemed to me proper that it should bo of- i without delay,. This lias beea1 and an occasion was hereby nro trtn-inpnnnfini thfl''nAnHii . V ll,,- jvnviusioii on jourin i fourth page.")