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H. B. MASSER, E. WILVERT. Editors. : SUNBURY, MARCH 6, 1874. The postal bill reported by Mr. Packer, chairman of the committee, was lost by a majority of two votes, but came up for re consideration on Thursday, and will no doubt be passed. The defeat of the bill was caused by the tactics of lien, Butler, who is in favor of restoring the old frank ing privilege without any restrictions. Mr. Packer's bill permits the free circu lation in the mails of newspapers published in the county, and also allows the free dis tribution of certain documents, which is a boon claimed by the South, where few pa pers are published. Mr. Packer's bill guards against the abuses practiced under the old system, aud will no doubt unite a majority in its favor. Forney's Press regrets very much Scu ator Sutaner's opposition to the Centennial at Philadelphia, which might naturally have besn expected from a man not only inpracticable but selfish, envious and vain glorious in the extreme. His dislike of Gt-n. Catnerou alone would have been enough to excite his opposition to the State he represents, to s.iy nothing of General Grant's recommendation of that enterprise. The postal telegraph is gaining friends in Congress. Its introduction is only a question of time. We are surprised to Cud a few country editors, tak'1115 their cue from city papers, opposed to it It is of course the interest of city papers to mo nopolize the news, hence we find them all favoring the monopoly of the Western Union Telegraph Company. The postal telegraph and letter system are almost one and the same in principle, and should both bo in the hands of the government. The Gibbons-Sanders Bask .Swin dle, The committee appointed to exam ine into the authorship of the circular at tempting to levy blackmail n the banks of the State, made a report to the House of Representatives on Wednesday. A great deal of evidence has been taken on the subject, all of which has been properly re ferred to in their report. The committee declare most emphatically that William II. Dimmick, late a member of the House, Lewis B. Richtmyer and J. M. Kreiter, of Ilarrisburg, have bceu guilty of attempting lo extort monev from the banks. The committee say that so far as they can as certain Win. II. Dimmick is the originator of the scheme, and that the E. L. Sauders is a lady said to reside in New York, aud who had been frequently stopping at the house of W. II. Dimmick. Since the Court House Ring was broken un we notice everv once in a while some poor pet howling through their favorite or gan, the Democrat. Last week we had another specimen in a communication in that paper. The writer evidently roust have been a pet of the Ring clerk, and in his delirium imagines that somebody has an interest in running the Treasurer's office. We would advise Mr. McEliece to hunt up the correspondent, for if he did not steal from him he will make an excel lent witness, provided he is willing to tell the truth. Judging, however, from his assertion that the blank registry books had been ordered from us by the clerk, we are inclined to think he exaggerates, for we. know that no orders have been given for the prinliug of them by anybody, and that none are yet being printed. Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The sixth annual report of this society has been issued and exhibits very favora ble results from the society during the past year. The membership is also rapidly on the increase. At a monthly meeting held in Philadelphia on the 20th ult., the secre tary reported receipts for the month, $1, 424.5') ; membership subscriptions col lected, $1,055 ; life membership, $100 ; do nations, $230 ; Hues $39.50 ; expenditures, salaries, rewards, aud other expenses inci dent to the enforcement of the laws, 426.41; publication, $140.3(5; number of complaints registered at the office, 117; arrested and fined, 4 ; acquitted, 3 ; held to answer, 1 ; new members, 15. A drawing of a patent horseshoe for icy weather, with caulks to be screwed in or out, was exhibited. The secretary reported the forwarding of documents to Richmond, Ind., with a view to organizing a State society. Numerous letters were received in oppo sition to the proposed extension of time for the confinement of cattle in trausil. Reports having been made tif the use of iron clamps or fetters on cattle which are driven to market, the secretary issued a warning against the practice. Some steps have been taken towards or ganizing a branch society in Luzerne oounty. The increasing number of articles in the Sunday school papers on the humane treat ment of animals was referred to as an en couraging evidence of the increasing influ ence of the society. The annual report, which lias been dis tributed to members and others, gives a list of CI honorary vice presidents and 157 representatives in various portions of the Stale. The annual report of the Quebec S. P. C. A. was received. .1 protest was received from the Brandy- wine Farmers1 Club against the practice of bleeding calves before slaughtering, accom panied by a recommendation to refuse to sell calves to batchers who pursue the ob jectionable practice. At a meeting of the Board of Managers lield on the 10th ult., Em'l Wilvert was appointed an Honorary Vice President for Northumberland county. Any informa tion in regard to cruelty to cattle, &c, if communicated to him, will receive prompt attention. Farmers and others are also solicited to give us tlieir views upon acts of cruelty to animals, which will be reported to the society. The temperance crusade is approaching lis with the steady advance of fate. From Ohio, the starting point, it is inarching on ward East, West and South. Kentucky, Tennessee and other States in that diiec tion are now feeling the force of women's prayers; and in New York and Philadel phia there are indications that the cam paign is opening. In the latter city, on Friday, a female meeting numbering about m thousand, was held iu a Baptist church, corner of Susquehauna avenue and Seventh street, aud forming in line visited some of the saloons in the vicinity. "In nearly every case," says the Ledger, "the keepers of the saloons closed their windows and promised to cease selling liquors from their lra " The entire amount of railroad taxation a the State is $16,229,5J3, of whjob. more than one-third is made by the united rail road and canal companies leased ly the 5 VnnlonM .Railroad company. Daring Jail Delivery. A few weeks since four notorious villains werecouvictcd at New Castle, Delaware, of an attempt to rob a bank at Wilmington, aud were pil loried and whipped, and sentenced to prison for a term f year. On Tuesday night of last week, three unknown outside friends of the convicts appeared at the prison, scaled the wails by means of a ladder and reached the yard. The warden, healing a uoi&e in the yard, unwisely opened the prison door to investigate the disturbance, (the YV ilmingtou Commercial intimites that the warden was in the sc heme for lib erating the prisoners,) when ho was seized by the iutruders, gagged and bound, aud laid to one side, while the keys of the prison were taken from him, the four bank rob bers released from then cells, and with another prisoner, who was serving out a life sentence for murder, the whole part' left, and the rest of the world was in ignor ance of what had transpired until morning, when some of the officials discovered the prison open aud the prisoners gone. Noth ing has since been heard of any of the es caped prisoners except one "Big Frauk." On Thursday of last week, a gentleman from Delaware, who had been present at the trial of the bank robbcis, was riding iu a street car ou Master street, Philadelphia, when he recognized "Big Frank" walking on the pavement. He alighted, got au offi cer, and followed his game. Frank en tered a beer saloon, when he was ap proached aud arrested. He declined to give any information in regard to the others, and altogether was very reticent relative to the escape. On Friday officers came on from New Castle aud conducted Frank back to his old quarters. . . . , - A legislative reunion of the members and officers of the Assembly prior to 1850 was held at Ilarrisburg on Thursday of last week. Sixty-three persons were pres ent. Letters were received from twenty others between the ages of SO and 00 years who were unable to attend. Also a letter from Walter Craig, who was a member iu 1817 and is now 15 years old. II. B. Wright, of Luzerne, was President, aud D. Fleming, of Dauphin, Vice President ; S. Shcrk, of Columbia, chief clerk, aud D. Kane, J. Zcigler, A. L. Russell and W. Jack, assistants ; J. Pratt was sergeant-at-arms, aud J. Crousc doorkeeper, George II. Morgan, messenger, aud J. A. Small, page. The proceedings were opened with a prayer by Rev. O. II. Miller, Slate Libra rian, and sjieeches were delivered by Wright, of Luzerne ; T. J. Bigham, of Al legheny ; J. Williams, of Huntingdon ; S. P. Oliphaut, of Washington ; J. Pearson, of Dauphin ; A. V. Parsons, of Philadel phia, and T. Cochran, of York. A resolution was adopted to meet again on February 22, 1870, and to invite all officers and members of the Assembly prior to 1852. A reception was held at the Kirkwood House, in the evening, termi nating with a reunion supper. The only invited guest who was present at the meet ing was Governor Ilartranft, who was seated at the post of honor on the riiht hand of the Speaker. Ox Tuesday last Mr. Rutan, from the Legislate Appropriation Committee, in the Senate at Ilarrisburg, reported a bill to apportion the. State into Senatorial and Representative districts, as provided in the new Constitution. The Twenty-seventh Senatorial District is composed of the coun ties of Union, Snyder and Northumber land. Two Representatives arj allotted to Northumberland county. TriE national debt was decreased Two million ani a half last month, not withstanding the bowlings of the opposi tion press about the straightened condition of the Treasury. And besides the Secre tary of the Treasury declares his ability to meet all demands without further use of the legal tender reserve. The Ilarrisburg Teleyrojik made its ap pearance last week In an entire new dress, and now looks neat and tast'ful. The Tthgro.jih is a good and interesting news paper. It is an invaluable vehicle for news during the sessions of the Legislature, and stands up manfully for Republican princi ples. ;i:.m:kai, m:v.n items. Chief Justice Waite is being banqueted by admirers, whose appreciation of him has been wonderfully enlarged since his ele vation to the head of the Supreme Bench. During the past four years the Metho dists have built and enlarged twenty-two churchs within the bounds of Williameport district, and there have bceu over 4,000 conversions during the same period. Dur ing the conference year, just about to close, 1,400 conversions are reported, of which over 200 have been in the city of Williams port. A lecture on "Brains and Mouey" is to be delivered at Jlarriaurg on the evening of March 12. The members of the Legisla ture, familiar with the last half of the theme, ought to attend in a body aud see how the other may be obtained. Nine women were chosen as school direc tors at the township elections recently held in Chester county, and several were elected in Delaware county. In the interior of the State the nunilx r was small. The Catholics of Philadelphia made a grand temperance demonstration in that city on Wednesday evening last. The gathering assembled at the Academy of Music, and the streets adjacent thereto were crowded. Many Catholic dignitaries participated. There seems to lc a very earnest movement iu the Catholic Church on the side of temperance. The present Legislature contemplates submitting to the people, for their consid eration, a numl)er of amendments to the new Constitution. Tlui New Jersey House of Representa tives has passed the hill appropriating $100,000 to the Centennial Expoesiii'in by a vote of 40 to 20. In his will the late l". S. District At torney, II. Bucher Swoope, requested, among other things, that his wife should not marry again, he haviug always enter tained strong convictions against second marriages. He bequeathed all his property to his wife, and appointed hercxecutiix. The imports of pig iron from England dup ing January last were 1J275 tons, one-third less than such imports for January, 187.", and the imports of railroad iron of all kinds were only about one-fourth as much last January, as in January, 1873. There are probably a hundred or more persons in this and neighboring towns, who daily suffer from the distressing effects of kidney troubles, who do not know that Johnoou's Anodyne Liniment is almost a cerlaiu cure. In severe caees, great relief may be obtained, if not a perfect cure. We notice that the Agricultural papers all over Uu country recommend the use of Sheridan's Cavalry Cosdi,'n' Powders. Exchange. Farmers and others iu this section have long known and appreciated the advantage of ttipso powder over aH tiling. SPF.I.4 EI OF IIOX. J. It. l'ACKEIt 2ii the House of IleprcucntKthr.i, Wednesday, February 18, 1S74. Con tin tied from I"iis.t I'agi'. Indian inspectors, 4 superintendents of lu diun a Hairs, and 77 Indian agents. In letteis written to persons not con nected with t!io Bureau, asking for infor mation, it is customary to inclose official stamps for return postage. In the Bureau of Education the chief clerk has charge of all matters pcrtaiuing to postage and the sending ut of official mail. Iu this Bureau it is customary, when the correspondence renders a reply important for the information of the office, to inclose official stamps for return postage. In tho Patent Office the liuancial clerk has custody Of the official stamps, but is not allowed to use them himself. A lady clerk has charge of stamping all the official mail, with the exception of letters written and mailed after office hours, which are stamped by either the Commissioner, Assistant Commissioner, or chief clerk. In the General I And Office one clerk has the eutire charge of the official stamps, and, for the stamping of the official mail, they are issued by him daily to the chief niesseuger of the Bureau, who affixes them to said mail. The clerk referred to also furnishes stamps quarterly to the follow iug officers, upon their requisition : To 17 surveyors-general ; 10 registers of the local land offices, and 00 receivers of the local land offices. The deputy commissioner of pensions in the Pension Office is the custodian of the official stamps. They are issued by him to one clerk in the office, whose duty it is to stamp all official mail. The deputy commissioner of pensions also issues official stamps to 1,400 examining surgeons for the payment of postage of certificates of examination of pensioners. It is the custom of this Bureau, when official letters are addressed to persons not interested in the contents thereof, to iu close official stamps for return postage. Mr. Albright. Will my colleague from Pennsylvania allow me tu ask him a ques tion ? Mr. Parker. t'ertniniv. Mr. AU'iiulit. What I wish li know is, whether itii th perst'ii w)m are Mipi'liod with offieitil stamps, nnd authorized to nsu them :ie cordhiK lo tin' pMitleinun'g statement, were en dowed wit li the frankinz privilege prior to the Ifllthof.Tuiie, mar Mr. Packer. No, tir. The franking privi lege was limited to the President, the Vice President, the chief of the several Kxec-u-tire Departments, Senator, Representative,!, and Delegatus in Conjjiees, and the Secretary of the Senate and Clerk of the House, of Representa tives, to cover their corie.-poiidence, all printed malttr issued by t tie authority of Congress, and all speeches, proceedings, and debates in Con irres ; 6uch principal officers of tiie Executive Departments, bi iiiK heads of Bureaus or chief clerks, as the Postmaster Uenrral tnitjlit by regu lation prescribe, to cover official communica tions only ; poi-tmstcrs, to cover official com munications to other postmasters only, anil as sessors and collectors and tlieir assistants and deputies, for the interchange of official communi Tatioiif only. And then it was exjiresslv provided, by the revised act ol as a protection uirainst fraud, and as a guarantee of the official character of the paper or correspondence sent, that No itt-rsoii eiitilK-d t.y liiv.- to til- fronting jirivil'-jre hall iwi'ciMt K.id lrr lieo iMbri-wis! thau l.y bin wri: teu u:jU'1j biUa:ut'e uu tli Metier lr.u:k-d. Thus, Mr. Speaker, it will lie seen that under i the present system ii bus hi-en found necessary, iu fie operation e-1 the cxieusivcar.d complicated machinery ol the (iovcrnmetit, to sc;ittrr the olliciai stamps almost broadcast, in every; quar ter, and J - ''unit. sir. if all thesn thousands of officers, Hiid lens of thousands of clerks and subordinates all over the country, can lie and are entrusted with the custody and use of tle se stamps, (and I do not for a moment believe they make an improper or unauthorized useoftliem.) why may we not entru-t l he Secretary oi the Senate and the l.'ierk of the House with the care and use of the stamp or stamped envelope for public documents ;is provide! for and auMioiir.ed ! by this bill I Several Mi-m .eis. Why tic-.t ciw the stamps to the member themselves I Mr. Packer. I w'iii tell l!ie irentVmeii why I would not hate tin in furnish'.',! liireet'y to the Senators and member themselves. F.vei v un'tn ber recciviniT them would expose himself to the charge of making su improper Use of them, just as we hear staled now, tli.it I he official postage stamps of the Pep iitment are applied to private or unofficial mail matter, a:id ja-t as member of Congress were charged, over and ovr anain, without the slie'iiieM evidence, with mak'niir an illegal use ol the ir frank under I he old syem. The old chaises of ii re'iihii it ies and ahi:cs would be revived, and a it would be difficult to prove a negative it minht be impossible to meet the charge. These stamp and wrappers aie in tended for the iiem-lit of our constituent and not ourselves ; and our best and surest protec tion against all ucrusations am; assaults will br, not to take them into our custody or posies-ion. but leave llicm iu the bauds of the. officer d"H.r 11.it l-J, whose duty it will be to attach them only to such public documents, or printed matter, or seeds, as tuny be authorized to be distributed by congressional enact mint. In view also of the object ion frequently utged again! the former nystem of flunking, whether well-founded or not. that oilier parlies could counterfeit or fraudulently u-e the frank of a member of Congress, more especially in former years wlieu (he use of engravediir iiUe stamps or dies was permitted, the connviitee have placed around the plan submitted by them such checks am! guards air must, it is believed, cllectua'ly and certainly prevent every attempt to abuse it. And it may be it la. uk d, iu passing, sir, that a great, if not the major, part of the opposition to the franking privilege, grew out of its supposed or alleged abuse ; tor the privilege, when proper ly and honestly and legally exercised, wa un doubtedly the piivilcge of the. people themselves, iate'ided for their betielil. in facilitating their communications with their agents nr representa tives Um the questions coining before Congress alfectuig their rights and interest, or the wel fare and prospeiity o! tin- country. liy the second section of tl.is hill is provided Tint ile Seere:.'i i-l il.s Seu't1 mitt l"k if tee Hells? (.f M c 'Hi." r. s t f llir I'mle-l We shnll c nsf 1 l ere)i::el lor tlieir isi-IAv Houses, a HJ Ol'li 1 or -1 envfjoj-e or wrj;; ev, i.f MltrU form iiel -e.r:i .. sli ill 1 ;liree'eil tud roved ly th l"OH".l!ii s.l I' lit-Lie:.:!, Iu lie null tiie h.illl SiTlc- tiiry a.'-! r I ;.' s..e'i . cs'-t: i.ls 11: ty 1-e Hj oinl- rri iy e:ii;.T e l';ir 'heir ij e-';iw iio'ise, only uj-ou such i rii.;.'.l ei ite- or il.-t .uh uIk or ji. ek- utf of seeilp. CJltiTI.e, li)'.-!, slat sej..lH 1 111'- l-l'ltl, as 111:- V.re i'l ci.ieat, tin Si-j i!.'-!. Ke; tel. -...- !n "-, mal Iele:.lel! :i: 'ni- tli riiVH;iry o! t lie Senile ul.'I Cieikof lli Jl 'If' ol Kt aeeu:n:i;eM ul ty, ly the:r rcii-c'.iv,- witu-.i :. it - r.: i i iiitu.-H, lmlarscil iq.ii the wrhi-J'C-s .T.i'i'jj -s t.'ierr"!, i':ec. to I; so sl.t by lniii1, i.1- i.i-o.:e.t hi tjif lorcei-g ".ecilon of this act. Thus the matter lliat may bo sent free of charge is, in the tht place, limited to the public documents published by direction of Congress, aud to tiie seeds, A;e., furnished by the Agricul tural Department, under authority of law, as before stated, and doe-; not include the official, much less the private, correspondence- of mem bers. In the nexl place, it can o:ily b sent un der a special stamp, or stamped envelope, or wrapper, of such form and design us shall be ap proved by the. Podmaster deneral. to be at tached, or used, only by thi proper offieer of the Iloune. Aud then, us an additional measure of protec tion, and to prevent the officer designated, or anyone else, from making an impiopcr or un authorized use of lb-' stamp, it is required that the person aut horized to send the package, the Vice President, Senator, He preventative, or Dele gate hi Congress, or the Secretary of the Senate, or the Clerk of the II.hul, shall also indorse his signature upor. the wrapper or envelope, in his own handwriting. Again, as a further security against Improper practices, the committee have provided in the fourth section of the hill 1'iiat any ijKon who stiall kr.ouii.gli, -n ,1 wirh In tent to defraud ll; liuverlilliei.t of IhPl'uitrl Sfutis, use, or onus t I uid, way ol the siod stani) s, staijii'fd eiivil'.qpy, or raj -J fit-, herein roeltoiied to 1 I'rej artsl and used, for ou o'her n,-- 4,;. i)r in any other tnumier than up is lieieitti-e.-oie :.ti:J'oii.cd, or who shall cou!iteriit the nam1 i.r "ice tin-e ol h'iv er ou herein uuthoi 17-J to iu(j:i-r lus iojU.ih; li sjjrti:i ture uj ou the wrjiij ers or e-.veloj ulore. i'i, or who ahull wililully utler or use tiny sucii c-mi;criV't inl-TH'--meitt, with tiie intent to avoid tne ) ; iuerit oi' os'i'pe, hall, ou conviction thereof. Ii (' iind u:i;y ot n h,.k denieanor, and lie T'Hiiishe 1 hy :i tie.- of not lr th .11 $l(jo nor uioie thau JlJiMt. or l.y imj j-lsontnt'iii nui lers thau three mouths nor inorfl lli-in twi Ive uionihs, t r l.y liotli Mae trid iniprisoiirneat, in ihe d;se:i t.oi' of tiie rouil. J o Hicci also lilts uppioiir.ijiui, 01 l lie iciy u;;ie, energetic and vigilant head of the Post Oilice 1 Department, who hus inaugurated so many ac- I knowledged improvements, and. willi the aid of bis faithful ami intelligent assistant, has sue- 1 ceeded in establishing and maintaining the most ! complete, efficient, and admirable postal system ) iu the world, and recognizing the force of hi objection that there might, at times, he difficulty In providing immediate means for the expedi tious transmission of these official documents, along with, tin; oilier mall matter, upon a few of the trunk lines, ami particularly thoioi leading from the city of Washington, the cnioiuilti e have inserted in the bill a provision autlioiizing the Postmaster General, if the welfare or exigen cies of the service shall require, 10 make rub s and regulations delaying in whole or in part the transmission of these documents and packages for any jieriod not exceeding thirty days from the time of delivery for mailing. Mr. Ilurlbut. If the gentleman will allow me, I desire to ask him wheth'-r the contracts of the Post Oilice Department for carrying the mail6 have been in any respect reduced by the abolition of the franking privilege 1 Mr. Packer. I n m not aware that any of the rates of compensation have been reduced up to this time; whether a reduction shall be made iu the future, 011 this account, cannot tic abso lutely determined, but I shall presently submit eome statistics from. ivLieh gentlemen can have no difficulty In drawing their ow n coiieltisioi6. Mr. Kasson With the leave of the gentleman from Pennsylvania I will answer the gentleman. No new contract have been made since the franhti.a privilege, was abolished. But the Post master Ceneriil huajrins rqe that there has been a reduction in the cost on peenutii of Hie mails heiDir carried by yeighi. Mr. Packer. That, I fear, u rather the ex pie.aiuu of a hope than a realization spon tin part of the Department. Upon at least three fourths of the 'J."irt,000 miles of mail service, and upon .1 very large proportion of the Gli,457 miles of transportation by railroad, the difference in the amount of mail matter would be small, and scarcely uppr. eiablc, ami i: is only upou the lead ing lines o railway that ii is claimed there will be lower i:.'e upon account u!' t);e absence of public documents from the mails. On these there has mi yet 1 cell any reduction from the maximum rates bereloi'oie claimed aud allowed, and I venture tin; opinion that any saviug there may tic in the future wii! eo:ne from competi tion between rival lines, and will uot be ill conse quenee oft'.e exclusion of these documents from the mail, in looking through the official esti mates ot the probable future expenditures I do not Hud any place hi which this claimed reduc tion asserts itself. Without troubling the house with a reference, nt this moment, to the gross amount of the re ceipts am! expenditure of the Department, I prefer lo call alien! ion to what seems to me a more legitimatc.subp-pi of inqtiirv in this eon- liection the cost of the mails. It amounted in the June 'SO, IMS, to .... June oO, 18(111, to llie inland transport ion of fiscal vear ending ." :.1-,C47.UW (il 13,4S;i,4u( 15 13,a.r0,2)t So ll,52,..:;,.i5 00 12,.rti.wa ou June o'J, 1S,j, to June :;o, 1871, to June MO, 1S72, to June o0, 1.S7U, to For the cm rent fiscal year ending June o'J, 1S74, there were appio priated, on official estimates And fer readjustment of pay on railroad routes, tinder act of Hi March, is;;! Making total amount appro priated for current year.. In llu estimate for thy De partment sets do'-vn the estima li(,(i:ir.3ll w M.sb'.'-.' ) Oil .VHUKV oil l.i.l.l'l.dlj . (Hi ted cost, of this service at.. .. l.i.s7N,X.'l 00 Aud the increase of e:mei:"a;ion ou railroad routes, under act of March S. 1S7H ."iiMi.t.ioO 00 Making the estimated cost for the li.cal vear 16,413.n'.M Oil The whole cost, t hen, it will be seen, of inland transportation of the mails ior the year ended June SO, 1S:1 the iast year of the franking privilege, and iiielu ling the unusual -.mount of free matter thrown 11; on the mails during the last three mouths of its existence was l:t, 635,311, while the sum appropriated for the current fiscal year ending on the 30th day of June next, npon the estimates of the Depart ment, and including the $." MI.OOO appropriated for readjustment of pay on railroul routes under the act of March, lS7li, amounted to $l",340,0'Jil. Aud the amount Congress is now aked to appro priate for the next tiseai vear for the .ame pur pose is ? l(,413,y.'1 . Of course a very large proportion of this in crease is chargeable to the establishment of new post offices, ihe extension of mail route, and of the improved mail facilities afforded, and no one who will take the trouble to examine the subject. wi:h any degree of care can doubt it is entirely legitimate and proper. But it is just as evident, that the abolition of the franking ,'rivilege has not produced the benefits predicted by the frien Is of the measure, and that the increased revenue which was expected I.) result from it repeal has not been sufficient to dispense with or diminish the usual appropriations lor the deficiencies in the levenues of the Department. And I an: entirely free to admit, sir, that I cannot comprehend the line of argument, which taking the w hole number of documents formerly sent to the people of the country under the frank of members of Congress, -i. computing the total amount of the postage that would be chargeable upon tluui if sent by mail a! tic present rates. asuiii"s that such snm reprcrr.t the amount the Post OOiee Department would Sjain by tin-, aboliti an of the privilege. If the same numbi r of books and documents should be sent by the mail, nt the same rate, of course the Conclusion would be correct, and the teve nucs weiild be increased by the amount paid thereon : but if they are not put in the mail, ami are forwarded by express, it is difficult to under stand how the receipt of the Depai tmenl wiil be augmented, or how any person will fie bene fited, but tiie stockholders of the express com panies. It was not, sir, because I believed the Govern ment would derive any very substauti.il pecuni ary advantage from the abolition ol the franking privilege that I uniformly vote ! as 1 did in the last Congress in favor of its repeal, but because, many persons hail come to regard It as a pei-oua: privilege of members of Co::grer, and b -litvcd, whether properly or not, thai il wit rot only liable lo abuse, but that it was abused l.y those entitle.', to its exercise, as well as by others. For the same le-ison 1 should now vol- uLM'nst it re-enactmcot. iu its original objection aide fona. and w 011 id opp.c its n-t. nation -.ilih a-r. lec ture that colli, 1 i.gaihd an eoulei r.ng a privilege ina.o:ia! to the member hi:;. veil', ia any sense or deri e. or as graining pr'niieges which could in any manuei be abused or pertcrl'.'-l to iniMoj" r 01 nu aiuiea 17. d pin pose-. Mr. Miiaii. Will th" gentleman jieeiton.e for a question ? Mr. Packer. Certainly. Mr. Small. 1 desire to ak the gcnl'eman from Pennsylvania whether the estimate which has been submitted for the expense of carrying the mail for the next year includes the expense of carrying so much of it by c press us the De partment chooses to cany by express, and w hether that was done last year f Mr. Packer. I feel very confident the Post Office Department does uot m ii I the mails or mailable mutter by exprc. it is said soni" of the other Department , Jo -end matter by ex press which they formerly sent in the mails Un der the frank, but to what extent I am not ad vised. Mr. Small. You have 110 account, then, of the expenses that have been incurred incinyii.g by express during last year? Mr. Packer. No, sir ; I have no reliable data from the other Departments. It mav be proper forme to explain, iu thi connection, however, that although the Post Office Department ie not send by express, it doc send free in the mails without Ihe use of the official pcstal stamp, such articles as are regarded in the na ture of 'supplies" for the Department ilself ; such as wrapping paper, twine, mail hag, locks and keys, marking-stamps, blanks, stamped en velopes, ice. the daily average of which is. 1 understand, in the neighborhood of half a ton in weight. If postal stamps were put upon these, the apparent revenues of the Department would be increased by that amount, but whether the country would be any richer by the opvration is a problem I leave to others mote skilled in such mysteries to explain. Now, sir, having referred to the 'deficiency'' iu the Post Office Department, permit me to say that I do not thinK il will be difficult to show Alienee it coir.es, nor to de uoustrale to tiie House and the country w hy the expenditures iu this Deparinxiit are iu excess of the receipt. In the forty-eight State and Teriitories. in cluding Alaska and the District of Columbia, the expenditures for the iiscal year ended June 30, 1873, exclusive of the amount pai l for foreign mails, mail bags, postage stamps, uud items of a gencial nature, and including a small amount of miscellaneous items, were f-26,lii,.l,l(i3.,.3. And the receipts, exclusive of money-order busi ness, fines, dead letters, fcc, were. $J2,'.l'.i5,li.V.4S leaving a total deficit on thin account of ?3,704.3i5 45. In only Sclen of the States did the receipt ex ceed the expenditures, namciy : New Hampshire ":i,'.S3 S3 Massachusetts. fill.SOO ,,'7 Khode Island 101..VJ3 0 Connecticut IL'-J.m-,' .7 New York l.o!-',."ii 5. New Jersey -'.05S i-ii Pcnusvlvatiu 3'.'S,44S 54 Total cM-t ssof receipt While, in all th'' other State toiies, the expenditures were in 2,692,113 30 and in ihe Terri excess of the re . largely, as fol eeitifs, and pome of them verv lows : Maine Vermont I"iaiiirLV Maryland Virginia. West Virginia Noilh Carolina South Carolina Gengia Flotilla ... Ohio Michigan Indiana Illinois Wiscon-in Iowa Missouri Kentucky Tennessee Alabama M jssissippi Aikan&a Louisiana , 'leva California .. Oregon Minnesota Kansas Nebraska Nevada Colorado Ctah New Mexico Washington Rikola A rizona Idaho . Wyoming Montana Alaska Ilistrict of Columbia 18.274 31 30,954 90 2,300 37 I0j.8a8 00 18,718 81 6O.070 91 117,043 53 79,993 74 84.242 90 100.059 60 224.719 11 112.203 65 145.504 83 20O,s,s2 59 77,7a8 70 230.024 59 204.753 50 129.052 52 130,430 81 173,7.1s Oil 155.587 9S 272.3.i) 01 145.! 83 21 47.8,V2;, 10 587.513 28 06,400 30 126.002 63 249.107 09 3t;'.l,325 79 145.047 4 4 141.590 59 340.588 05 312.911 22 102.712 36 00.401 11 ;o.4'.!8 07 100,552 G'l 4.753 27 116.743 31 2. Hi 38 62.313 01 Total exees 6,452,277 72 In the eleven States of Virginia, North Caro lina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennes see, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas, there was an excess of expenditure over receipts of f 2,029,034.29. nnd in I'tali and New Mexico the excess waf 059,529.87. It is manifest, therefore, even from ihe hur ried reference I have made to the dlici.il records, that these detieieticics are occasioned principally bv the extended line ai d additional service upon oiir mail routes, and licit by an increased volume or bulk or mail matter transported. In the older and more thickly settled Slates, with their larger population greater commercial activity, and more fully developed tesources, and where the. mails are heavier, the receipts, it will be ob serve:!, a'e much in cxres? of ilie expenses. while in the more sparsely populated districts, where the mails are lighter, und the distances greater, the expenses not only exceed the re ceipts iu their own sections of the country, bnt absorb the balances in favor of the service in the other States, and swell the deficiencies to the proportions I have already stated. It is possible, I believe, sir, that some of- these expenditures, especially in the Territories, may toe reduced without detriment to the service or (serious inconvenience to the inhabitants, by lim iting t lie amount of service upon some of the outes ; aud at the proper time I shall, in the ln erest of economy aud retrenchment, call the ttenliou of the bouse to that subject. But fhile I hold it to be the duty of Congress to conotuize and reduce expenditures in every form nd iu every direction in which the burdens of he people may be lightened, and while I shall ontinue to give in the future, as I have in the ust, my earnest support to every juft measure f economy, yet I do not wish to be understood e advocating the policy of abridging the proper lail facilities of the public, or of crippling the tistal service and depriving the people of the in ojculable benefits and advantages enjoyed by tiem. merdy because the Post Office Dcpart ncnt is not, in this age of improvement and de elopment to which it contributes so largely, a living or se'f-snstainii g institution. The War aid Navy Departments do not exhibit a cash hlanee in their favor upon the ledger of the (ovcrntucnt, and yet, useful and necessary as ley are justly admitted to be, it is doubtful Wn-ihcr both of them combined can be regarded a so potent an agtnt of civilization as this. Let but half a dozen of our enterprising citi zus plunge into the w ilderness and commence inlay a settlement far bryond the boundaries o civilized life, and before the smoke shall have I cried a fortnight above tlieir humble dwellings, ' tl-y will be asking for the establishment of a pst olhce and a post route to reach it. And it i.-right and proper that it should be so. The nlliotisof acres of our public lands awaiting dvclopment will remain unoccupied and unim pnved and will pay 110 taxes and furnish no recnues to aid in the support of the Govern unt, un!es the hardy pioneer, braving the rw ils and enduring the privations of frontie? liK is advised that the Government will treat bin like the rest of his fellow-citizens, and will no regard him as an exile from the old home anl friends he has left behind. have referred to these statements, Mr. Spakcr, to show why it is we are having these "dficiencies," and why we have had them, from ycir to year, every year, I believe, with the ex cepion of one,since 1 S51 ; but I do not believe, sir, thel the most searching examination of the de ta'Jt of these expenditures will furnish any, even th slightest, ground for adverse criticism of the Department whose officers have honestly, econ--omi-ally, and faithfully performed tlieir whole dut; to the Government, and have so success full" met the highest expectations of the people. Tie attention of the House was called, a few j Staement showing the number of post-offices and length of post-roads in the j United States, ozc. c o I 1 a " - S - ' "5 '- .'S'-i S ' y. ' j -; - . ' c u VM 75 1,875 22,0S1 00 ! 37.935 00 32,140 00 Vl 453 1 3.207 1 75,359 00 j ltjil,620 00 117,S'J3 00 1D0 1(03 20,817 128,044 00 280.804 00 231.iiu4 00 H'." 1,558 31.070; , 231,t35 00 j 421.373 00 377,3C7 00 1W 2,300' :;ti.4i;(i : 3J7,U0 DO ' 551,GS4 00 4'J5,ln;if 00 lSJa :vO0 4 3,748 487,779 00 1 1,043,0(15 00! 748.121 00 lHtti 4,500 72,492 782,425 00 i 1.111.927 00' 1,160.920 00 18:-, 5,1177 94,052 7S5.1UG 00 j 1,305,525 00 1,229,043 00 IS!:) 8,450 115.176 l,272,15t 00 1,919.300 00 1,959. 109 00 1830 10,770 112,774: 1,553,222 00 ! 3,152,37G 00 1 2,585,108 00 is 13.468 155,739 3,213.042 01 $595,353 4,543.521 02i 4,718.235 64 184. 13,778 155,026 3,034.813 91 485,843 4,407.726 27! 4,449,527 01 184; 13,733' 149,732 3,091 ! i 4,192.196 W 432,568 5,029.506 65 5,674,751 76 141 13,814 142.295 3.714 1 2,982,512 47 531,752 4.296,225 4 3 4,374,753 71 1SI-- 14.103 144,687 ! 2,912,946 78 8ol.2o6 4,237,2S7 S3 4,296,512 70 m, 14,183 143.910 4,092 2,808.63.1 48 562,141 4.439.841 80 4,320,731 99 Ihji, 14,601 149,670 4.4U2' 2,597,454 66 587,769 4,089,089 97 4,084,332 42 184V 15,146 153.818 4,735 2,476,455 68 597,923 4,013,447 14 3,971.275 12 Jh4s 16.159 163,208 4,957 1 2,545,232 12; 587,204 4,161,077 85 4,326,850 27 lsly 16,747 167.703 5,497 ! 2,577,407 71 635.740 4.705.170 23 4,479,(49 13 is.") 18.417! 178,672 6,780 2,9(.5,7'G 3Gi 818,227 5,499.980 80 5.212.953 43 I8.'i 19,790 192,026 8,255 .: 3.538 0G3 54 ' 95,019 6.410,604 33 6.278.401 03 185- 20,901: 210,020 10,146 3,939.971 U01 1,275,520 C.925.97I 28 7,108.459 04 1S."; 22.320 217,743 12,415 ! 4,495,963 00 1.0j1,329 5.9411,724 70 7,982,75'i 59 ISi, 23,548 218.935 14,440 : 188.8.131.526 00 1,758 610 C.955,580 22 8,557.424 12 ls. 24.410' 227,903 18,333 : 5,345.233 00 2,073,089 7,352.11.6 13 9,963,342 29 1S5 25,565 239,642 20.323 6,035,374 00 2,310,3S9 7.620.821 66 10,407,868 13 5V 20,586 242,601 22,5:l 1 0,622,040 00 2,559,317 8,053,951 70 11.507.670 18 15$ 27.9771 200,6(.3 24,431 ' 7,795.418 00. 2,828.3ol 8.180,792 80 12,721,G3G 5G 15.11 28,539 200.053 20,010 9,408,757 00! 3,243,974 7.968,484 07 14,904,493 33 lt..j 28.498 240,594 27,129 ! 8,808,710 00 3,349.662 9.218,067 40 14,874,772 89 18(11 23.530: fl40,399 $22,013 ........ '15,309,454 00 t2,543,7oll 9,049.290 40 13,606,759 11 1VI-1 23.575! j 134,01 3 21,338 t"e35".34 00 2,493,115 9.012.549 50 il, 125,304 13 is(;s 29,047j tl"f.;,,Js 22, 152 1 f5,740.57( 00: 2,538,517 11,163,789 59 11,314,200 84 1804 23,878 139,171 22.616 ' 5,818,469 00! 2.567,044 12.4HS.253 78 12.644.780 20 180- 20,550 142,340 23.401 0.240.84 00 ' 2,707,421 14,550,158 70 13,091,728 28 im 23.828 180.921 32,092 7,630;474 00 3,391 .592 1 t,33.SMi 21 15,352,079 30 1-0' 25103 203,245 34,(1:5 4.43V 9,330,286 00: 3.812,000 10.137,020 87 19.235,483 46 INoV 20,481 210.928 30,J!3 7,019 10,200.056 00; 4.177,120 16,292,000 80 22,730.592 05 V. 27.100 223,731 39.537 7,201 10.406,501 00 ' 4,723,080 18.344.510 72 23.093,131 50 187i 28 492 231,232 43,727 8,252 10,834.053 00 5.128,901 19.772,220 65 23,998.837 63 1371 30,045 238,359 49,834 11,208 11,529,395 00 5,7-4,979 20.037,045 42 24,390, 104 08 3l,!-G3 251.398 57,911 14,117 12,572,264 00 6.502,771 21.915,420 37 26.058,192 31 liTi; 33.21 250,210 63,457 11,800 13,635.341 00 7,257,190 22.990. 741 57 29.981,945 67 Iiici'miiiig suspended offices in rebellious Status, ffciclusive of routes in rebellious Males. s.it thousand eight hundred and eighty-six mile in length, and J973.910 in cost, discontinued In nh'llioiis States. Uii'.road and steamboat service combined. ! I ke third section of the bill will, if passed, be ' swh- aiitially but a re-enactment of the law ! iuth.-izi-i!; the free exchange of newspapets, periapicals and magazines between publishers, I and Hie free circulation of new-papers to actual 1 subsviil ers residing or receiving the same within the oiiiuty of publication, as it stood prior to the I 1st a of July last. ! lniriciiig the origin of this provision it is re markable at how early a date the fathers of the Kepihiic recognized the value aud importance of j thia ncans for the dissemination of intelligence ' anf iiformatiou among the people. I Ihe men who believed tint governments de rive! their just powers from the consent of the gowned, and who were seeking to establish justi-e, to insure domestic tranquility, provide lor he common defense, promote the generul welhr--, '""I to secure the blessings of liberty to thani's'lvcs and their posterity, could not long rcua'ii indifferent to this most powerful agency fort lie education and enlightenment of those iu white kecpiug the new government was to be inlru-Jed, and therefore we rind that the second Coniyess under the Constitution, at its first ses sion, ;iiade full provision for the free exchange of nevs'aapers through the mails. In ?(le tirst general ordinance for regulating tie p'lst-ollice of the United States of America, aler i be declaration of independence, and passed otithe 13th day of October, 1782, it was ordained by 1 lie United States iu Congress assembled TIM l'tte;s, i'i:rk-!s :ind dial al-chi ., to and from the meait and secretary 01 Tokkii'sh, wuile actui'hy at-ti-utlu (iijrt--fi ; 10 :ind Hum tui 1'uuiiuaiidi-r-ii.-rliiel' ,f the armies ef llii'se l iii'til Siut-j, or com-uiiale-ol a si-j-arai iinny ; 10 autl Iruiu the heads of In lieHrinieiiiH ol' lin oiia-, ul' war, mid of loreigu al laj.a, u me' Cuitt-d but a, ou ubhc eervier, aiiall j. ss h-tun it-'.l :icr ot I'sifge. t the first session under the Constitution Congress, by an Act approved September 22, 178i, nacted that the regulations of the post ollice'bould be the same as they were uuder the resolutions and ordin inces of the late Congress, and tiii provision was continued and re-enacted from linie to time, until February 20, 1792, when il tb tirst biw passed by the Congress of the Uriteil Slates "to establish the post-office and post. roads" within the United States, containing geueii'.I rules aud regulations for the govern ment thereof, it was enacted Ttt.it ihe follnwhiK letters and packets, and 110 other, b.'i.h ti rce.-:wd uud conveyed hy Jos', Hoe of j ost.iue, uieU-r aaeh r"trieUoim a are hereiniifirr provided, tu-it isto say : All li-:tiira aud packets to or lroin Ihe iVi-sid til or Vice I'rt-Hidfut ol the United auatt-a, and all l.-icers and packet, not exceeding two ounces an wt-nt, to or lroni any member of the Heaate or House of lu-iieii'.Htiverft tne Secretary of the Senate or (llerit of tne boils.- id Kt'i rvHi'iitativeR, during tLeir actual at-tend.iit-e in " seiM.ie.il ol Con(ires, and twenty diya alter iucu at'srtioii. All letteis to and from the decre tal v 1.: Ifca Treasniy, aud liia asaiatant, Comptroller, ItelJiHter, and Audiior of the Treasury, the Tieaaurer, llf rvfr''OJ "l , l ii:i.uii ' nai, 1 nr u'lu- iiiisaavxT lor scttliiiK the accounts lietweeu the I' iiiied SiMtt iid ii'dividui'l Suites, the Pos-mastur (leueral ami liii' assistant, And by the twcnty-nr.t section of the same act it was provided T.nt eveiy primer of newspapeis nicy send one paper to - en and ev.-ry other prim r of newspapers within tne t'nited States tree of postage, uuder aucii reirala tiois 1 h the I'os.niuster lener.il niittll provide. ud that privilege was continued, in some for. 11. from that date until the passage of the net of March 3, 1873, when, hy a sweepiug pro v i f i 011, inndverlctitly inserted as a proviso to the third section of the act making appropriation for fJi sol vice of the I'ol OUiee Department, and passed without sufficient, or perhaps any consideration, iu the confusion attendant upon the la-t hours of the session, all laws permitting tin, transmission by mail of any free matter aflei J'ine3'), 1873, were repealed, and this privilege, wricl had bceu enjoyed for a period of eighty one ytr.rs, nearly as lotij; as the franking privi lege if members of Congress, heads of Depart ment.', and other officers of the government, waB taken away. ' TIib action of Congress having been made the ubje'l of iniiiib adverse criticism, it may bo in teresting, at luast, to slate briefly its history, as shown by the oflicial records. By Ihe act approved January 31, 1873, entitled "An act lo abolish the franking privilege," wli'iet originated in the House of representa tives, it was enacted That the. franking privilege lie, and (he same hereby is, als-lisned from and alter the lat day of July, Anno Doniuii 173. and that 1 henceforth ail ottii'inl corres pomlei.ee, of whatever nature, and other mailable mat ter t-ul from or addressed to any officer of the llovorn HMit or person now authorized lo frank such matter, sadl lie clmigeibie with the same rates of postage as ne.y lie lawfully imposed upon like matter sent by or adiicssed to other persons: J'lovided, That no coin pens.,tiou or allowance shall now or hereafter be mada loS.aalore. Mcmbeis, and Delegates of the IIoubk of IteprciientativeB on account of postage. This, it will be observed, did not reach or affect the f-ee transmission ol newspapers or ex cliangts, but only took the franking privilege from members of Congress and the officers of the Government. At a later period in tiie Session, boweTcr, and after the annual post-olllce appro priation bill had passed the House and had gone to the Senate, without any provision in rahttioQ to that, subject, the gentile Committee 011 Appro days since, by the distinguished gentleman from Massachusetts, Mr. Dawes, to the increase in the gross expenditures of the post-office from 1S37 to the present time, but he omitted to give us, along with his general statement of the ex penses, any information in relation to the in creased receipt of the Department during the same period, aud, what was far more important, in my opiuioi , be failed to make any reference to the wonderful development of the country which has so largely and imperatively demanded a corresponding increase iu our postal accommo dations and facilities. At the commencement of the period he has seen proper to select we had a population of less thau $15,000,000, who were accommodated with about 11,000 post-offices, supplied by 1'-I5,000 miles of post-roads, not one mile of which was recognized as railroad tervice. At the end of the second period (1355) our population did uot exceed 27,0x0,000, and we had but 24,410 post offices, employing about 2-8,000 miles of post roads ; while, at the termination of the next period indicated by him, (1S06,) with a popula tion of about 34.000,000, we had 23,828 post-offices, using 180,021 miles of post-roads ; and at the close of the last fiscal year, (1873.) with a population of at least 40,000,000, we had 33,244 post-ollices, with 25(5,210 miles of post-routes, 03,457 miles of which were upon the railroads of the country. With post-offices more than treble In number, with a population much more than double, with postal service twice and thrice a day iu place of weekly mails, and with post-routes more than twice as long as they were thirty-seven years ago, it is not surprising that there should be ihe increase spokun of iu the amount of the expendi tures of the Department. A comparison with the expenses of the "post" established by tiie United Colonics on the 2dth of July, 1775, when Benjamin Franklin was chosen tiie first Postmaster General, to hold hi office at Philadelphia, with a salary of f 1,000 per annum for himself, with power to appoint a secretary, if necessary, at an annual salary of ?340, and directing '"the establishment of a line of posts from Falmouth, in New F.nglanu, to Savannah, in Georgia, with as many cioss-posts as the Postmaster General should think fit," would show more astonishing increase, and yet it would but serve to prove the still m.re aston ishing progress and advancement of the country. That the question of the postal revenues, and expenditures may be more fully understood, I also ask atteulion to a statement made from the records of the Department, showing the number of post-offices and length of post-roads in the Uuited States, the annual amount paid for mail transportation, and the amounts of postal reve nues and expenditures, at periods of five years, from 17110 to 1840, inclusive, and in each year from 1840 to 1873, iuclusive, with the length of the railroad portion of the post-roads, the length of railway post-office lines, and the cost of the railroad portion of the transportation, from the date of the commencement thereof. c s 2 priations leported tin amendment to the bill as follows : 1'iovi.ted. That all Lins and parts ol laws 1 ei-niitting the tiansia.asioii ty mail of any free matter whatever be, and the Same are hereby, repealed, from and alter J.liie M, 1H7U. And the Senate, on February 21, 1873, agreed to the provision ayes 24, noes not counted. The bill having been returned lo the House on February 24, 1373, Hon. Frank Palmer asked and obtained unanimous consent from tire House to have the bill taken from the Speaker's table and referred to the Committee on Appropria tions. On March 2, 1373, Mr. Palmer reported the bill buck, aud asked and obtained a non-concurrence in the Senate amendments, and a com mittee of conference was ordered. So that it will be seen the House refused to adopt this amendment of the Senate. Upon the 3d of March, 1873, the last day of the session, the committee ot conference, ap pointed as before stated, made report as follow s, (see Congressional Globe, pase 2094 : Til committee of conference on the distgraeing vote of the two Houses on a bl.l (41. 1.. No. 343) eutiil' d 'An act making appropriations for Ihe :-iuv of tne Post-office Department tor the yenr audits Joue 10, 174, would rt-sj ec-1 ully report laat havii.K met, i.fo'r full and free conference thereon, have agreed to lecol'l mend, and do recommend, that the Ho'ib'. recede noia their disaK1 tenieht to the amendment ot tne Senate, numbered 1, li, 4, ti, 7 and 10, and agree lo the s-me. Tuat the Senate recede fiom iia amendments num bered a and Tuat tiie House recede from its dis-.trr-ement to the amendment of lle Senate unuibered !, with au amend ment, aa follow a : lane 4, p:;ge 5, etriie out ail alter the words 'io wit, down to word 'li;t,' la line G, and njree to the e..iue. Tne previous quearion waft necoudr-d and ihe maiu question ordered; tud uuder the operatiou thereot the report w.js adopted. Thus, under the. operation of the previous question, without a word of explanation of the nature, of the amendments, in the closing hours of the session, this important amendment ""as adopted, adding another to the long list of un wise laws mat have been passed through legisla tive bodies upon the eve of an adjournment when sufficient time could not be taken for their con sideration. That this Congress will correct the error by the passage ot this bill 1 have no doubt. There never was any good reason for the enactment of the law it proposes to repeal, which could only be regarded as imposing an iiujusi tax upon in telligence ; and 1 am glad to find that the t'osl- 1 master General, 111 a recent communication, ' takes Oceanian In express hU approval of thi proposition os the commit te, and gives ihe pow erful aid of bis oflicial position and iulliieiice in : its support. At the dawa of the Revolution there were but i thirty-six newspapers published in all the land. 1 In New Hampshire, one ; Massachusetts, six : 1 Khode Island, two ; Connecticut, four ; New j York, four ; Pennsylvania, nine ; Maryland, I two; Virgiuia, two; North Carolina, two; . South Carolina, three ; und in Georgia, one. ! In 1870 we had 4,295 weekly newspapers, with a circuiatiou ol 10,591,043. e Had, tit the same time, 574 daily papers, with a circulation of 2,001,517; 107 tii-weckiy. and 115 semi-weekly newspapers, making, with the mouthly and quarterly publication, a grand total of 5,871, with a cil dilation or 20.842,475, and the enor mous aggregate of 1,503,548,250 copies issued annually. The history of the newspaper press iu llii country, and of its steady advancement and magnificent success, would be but the hi-toiy of the country ilself. Defending, educating, or leading public opinion, it has, as a rule, been found in the advance in all measures of progress and reform, and who so bold as to venture to conjecture how much this country is to-day in debted to this agency, fostered, encouraged and protected by the people and the Government as it has been iu tho past, for our national great ness, prosperity and renown. These weekly newspapers, let me add, reach ing as they do every fireside, every workshop, every abode of civilized life, aud shedding their rays of intelligence even in tbe remote aud waste places not penetrated by other means or agencies of education and information, exert an influence nt once too powerful to be neglected, und of far too much national importance not to command and receive the respectful consideration of the representatives of the American people. Congress is being petitioned for the pas sage of a constitutional amendment pro viding that Inauguration Day shall be changed from March 4 to t,he second Wed nesday iq May, Senator Cameron presented a petition, on Monday, signed by a large number of citizens of Lebanon county, asking for frco banking under lh6 national banking system. OI K XE W YOKH LETTER. FEMALE BARBERS TWO PLUCKY GIRLS A YOUNG MAN'S EXPENSES DISTRESS ONE CASE DRESS REFORM BUSINESS A CONVERSATION THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT. New York, March :i, 1874. FEMALE BARBERS. Two women, at least, have secured their rights, and have now all the privileges that men enjoy. Two very pretty young girls, age respectively 18 and 20, had a papa who was rich, and who lived in grand style on Fifth avenue. Papa got into the hands of the Philistines last autumn, and busted. The girls were genuine girls, notwithstand ing the fact that they had been fashionably educated, and they lelt their poor father's distress keenly. The old gentleman's trou ble so weighed upon Ids ruiud that he sicken ed and took to his bed, and got into a bad way generally. The house in which he lived was fortunately in hi3 wife's name, so they could not be turned out of doors, but as the old gentleman had sunk every dollar he had iu the world, the question ol bread and but ter became an imminent one. One morning the old gentleman's barber did not come around to shave him, and Ella, the eldest girl, 6aid she could do it. She took her father's implements and shaved him as nicely aud neatly as any tonsorial artist could do it, aud dressed his hair and trimmed his whiskers, and propped him up in bed aa comfortable as you please. An idea struck Mary, the younger. '"Ella, if you can shave papa, you can shave any other man.' "True," said Ella. ''If you can shave a man I can shave a man." "True, once more. But what has that to do with us ?" "Ella, do you want to starve ?" "No, my child." "Papa can't get out Mamma is selling olf the plate to get what we eat each day. Let us stop all this by starting a barber shop." Ella saw the point. The two girls rigged up an extempore chair they took their coachman, whom they had not yet dis missed, because he wouldn't go, and they shaved him for practice, and dressed his hair, and trimmed his beard every day. To accommodate thtm he brought his friends in, aud in a week's time the girls were accomplished aud expert workmen, or rather work-women. Then they sold the horses and carriages, and taking the proceeds fitted up a modest, but very neat shop in Union Square and went at it. The first customers they had were young swells who had knowu them "in society," and great was their astonish ment. "Miss Mawy," said one of them, "by Jove, what led you to this ?" "Papa failed you know Charles, and we had to do this or worse,". "Worse I worse ! Why, what could you do that would be worse V" "Marry a niau like you ?" replied Mary, dabbing her shaving brush in his mouth. It is an encouraging fact that the girls have all they can do, at good prices, and are not only supporting their parents in comfort, but are laying up a handsome sum besides. Why should not women be barbers? Imagine the deft, soft, warm fingers of a pretty girl on your face I A man would submit willingly to have his nose sliced off by one of them. I caunot say that it is in auy ay-out of the way. If men are cm ployed in lady's shoe stores, where they put on and take off lady's boots, why is it not just as proper for women to be employ ed as barbers and lo shave men ? They do it better and more pleasantly than the men barbers, and customers would never be j afraid that a drunken women-barber would ! cut their throats. iVIlY TIIE BOYS DON'T GET ON. A great man youns; men who come from the country to New York, and get tolerably good salaries, find themselves at the end of the year in debt, and they wonder why it is. The young gentleman is, we will say, a book-keeper on a salary of S2,000. He pays 12 per week for board, which leaves him about $1,400, and he calculates to lay by something of that. But he don't, aud this is why: Board pT j er JS24.00 Clothes w.oo Total 4.U0 Then comes his little expenses as follows : BlaekiUK boots, 10 cents xcr duy J 116 oil Morning and uteruoou isipei 3i lo Turee dunks ei day, 15 cents e.ich lt4 Four cigttru l.er day at 10 cents euck 14t (W SiniviiiK twic per wet-k, 15 cents euea 15 60 Attfmitr.K tiieater twice a wet-k, seasou of 9 mimt'lis 72 00 Feur faults of billiards ir witk 3s UU Strret car imv, 10 cents euca dy 3rt 50 Total $570 75 He gets into "society." Society de mands a dress suit, which costs $125, and society demands that when he attends a party or a dinner that he put on white neck ties, and light kid gloves, at t?2.50 a pair. And society, inexorable mistress that the is, demands that he shall taku Aratninta to the opera otice in a while, which means gloves, neck-ties, boquets and carriage, which, with seats at 4 00 each, means $30 for the night's amusement. And so Augustus discovers at the end of the ear that his 2,000 are all gone, that he has overdrawn $."500 or $1,000, and he com mences peculation or speculation the same thing so far as results go and Augustus drinks to drown his trouble, and finally he lauds in the Tombs and comes out a poor, miserable wretch. This is what happens to a great many Augustuses. Society is what does it for them. DISTRESS. The distress among the sick unemployed people in New York at this time is terrible. Much has beer, done by the charitable to relieve il, but not one dollar has been given where ten should be. Young James Gor don Bennett, of the Herald, established soup houses to the extent of $30,000, and others have done the same thing, which is good as far as it goes, but it does not go far enough. The people who can come to the soup houses can, generally, get ou with out it, for they are able to do something. But the worst cases arc knowu only in the houses where they live. Many prefer star vation to beggary, and shrink from allow ing their distress to be made public. A case of this character was brought to my attention yesterday by a child who was begging for money with which to putchase food and fuel. In reply to questious he said that his mother had just been confined ; that his father had bceu out of work since autumn, and that he was DYING FOR TIIE FOOD which he was too proud to beg. I accom panied him to the house in Canal street, where the family lived. The house was small, but was occupied by a number of families. The boy led the way up a flight of rickety stairs, which threatened to give way at every step. The room presented the appearance of the utmost squalor and pov erty. Every article of furniture which could be sold had been parted with, and nothing remained but a bed, a table, and two chairs with broken backs. Upon the bed lay a woman whose face told the sad story of disease and hunger. The child, which was but three days old, was at the point of death. The husband-father sat with his face between his hands, and seem ed entirely unconscious that any one was in the room. The boy said that he had been too sick to work that he had had for a week just strength to drag himself out to beg, but that for two days past he had ob tained nothing. The attention of charita ble persons was called to the case, and measures were taken to provide for the needs of the starving family, and medical attendance was secured for the mother, whose child was too far gone with starva tion to be saved. There are thousands upon thousanda of such cases in the city. There is work enough for the strong and healthy to live upon, but not enough to enable them to help the unfortuuatc, of whom they alone knojv. Thank Heaven ! the spring is near at hand. white KIDS. Speaking of dress and things, the Brook lyn Woman's Club has made a discovery, no less than that the costliness of social life has been due to the wearing of kid gloves men and women have felt that they must "dress up" to kids. Therefore the club have inaugurated a reform by banishing the iuischevious kids from their receptions. This will last two weeks. Dress will rule so long as the poor devotees can stand it. A movement has been made by crippled, people in Boston, to simplify woman's dress. The dry goods dealers and mo distes have not been consulted in connec tion with the movement, and they exclaim as with one voice, "What a horrible idea !" And the rich will all echo, "What a horri ble idea !" BUSINESS is not as brisk as it was. The season has advanced so far that tbe country merchants have put off their buying till the spring, and our merchants languish. The crash, so pleasant ttheir ear?, is not heard their clerks and salesmen idle upon boxes and bales, for the country merchant, he. in whom they delight, cometh not. But he will be here in April with his plethoric purse, or what is the same thing, his A 1 credit, and the way they will sell him goods will be a caution. Money, :s t ;:ht. and then is a stringency and closeness in everything that is exceedingly uncomfortable. Tht Grancers have disturbed Railroad securi ties, stocks have changed values, and then is a general derangement, so that the aver age New Yorker hasn't any idea where h' stands'. Even goods in a store have n fixed value, for, behold you, a man's nex door neighbor may be in a position tha compels him to raise money, and to rais money he must slaughter goods to the de moralization of the market for days. Ob my bucolic friends, you don't know hot well you are off. The man who has a farr of 160 acres of fat land, paid for and we' stocked, is in as good a shape as any ma in the world can be. Such a man doesn know what trouble is. Think of a man worth a million of do la rs of dry good in I113 store, on which 1 owes $(500,000. Now the man is wort $400,000. But he can't sell his -goods-nobody is buying anything and his pap is maturing. To meet his paper he for his goods ou the market, he sells atasao See, expenses are enormous, and when ti thing pans out he finds hi salable goo all gone, and he, poor fellow, owes S25( 000 and hasn't a dollar to bless him with. But there is a bright side to it, son times. If the poor fellow ought honest to fail tor $250,000, he fails for $b00,0( the odd S350,0o0 being invested in the pi chase of real estate in his wife's name, ai out of the reach of his creditors. 1 heai yesterday a conversation this wise : Simpson Brown has failed. Jones Has he indeed ! Well, I'm gl of it. He's worked hard for a good ma years aud it's time he began to lay off a take things easy. I suppose he will set a carriage now. Won't he ? This explains it all. One merchant w failed for a million has GOO acres of land the Hudson in his wife's name, that is grc ing in value, so that it is now worth ore million. Iut this is no, tbe case with of them. The high-minded merchant, n fails because he cannot help it, and takes a clerkship, has a hard and bit life of it God help him ! he never cor up again, but he grows old and gray-bai in a hopeless, helpless way, and fin: tumbles into his grave, unwept, unhon ed and unsung. His old clerks even for him. TIIE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT in its western form, has not struck us b yet, but nevertheless, there is great acth among the temperance and religious f pie. Organizations are being perfec in every ward to make head against monster, and the work that has been d has not been fruitless. The reformers t have not demonstrated against the rc seller, but they have confined their wor the rum driuker. They are cstablis leading rooms, and pleasant resorts as stitutes for the saloon, and tea aud ct as substitutes for rum. And though I have but commenced, they have wontl sands from their ruin, and in one neigh hood have compelled several rum-mills close for want of custoai. Is not thi pretty good way ? PlETTtt 110. 1$ PAIN. KILLER, TIIE GREAT Family Medicine orthe Age. Taken Internally, It Cures "Dysentary, Cholera. Dianhea, Cn and Pain in the Stomach, Bowel C plaints, Painters' Colic, Liver, Compla Dyspeps:a, Inuigestiou, Sore Throat, I den Colds, Coughs, &c, &c. Used Externally, it Cures Boils, Fel ns, Cuts, Bruises, Br Scalds, Oid Sores, Sprains. Toothact Pain in the lace, Neuralgia, Uheumatism, Frosted Feet, &C..&C, &c. PAIN-KILLER, after a thorough trial by inumerahle Ii witnesses, has proved itself the Medici the Age. It 19 an internal and ext remedy. One positive proof of its effi is, that its sales have constantly meres and wholly upon its own merits. Th feet of the PAIN-KILLER upon the patient when taken intcrnall case of Cold, Cough, Bowel Compli Cholera, Dysentery, and other atrlictio the system, has been truly wonderful, has won for it a name among medical paratiims that can never he forgotten, success in removing pain, as an ext remedy, in cases of Burns, Bn Sprains, Cuts, Stings of Insects, and causes of suffering has secured for it a host of testimony, as an infallible ret that it will be handed down to postcri one of the greatest medical discover! the nineteenth century. THE PAIN-KILLER derives much of its popularity from th plicity attending its use, which gives peculiar value in a family. The T. diseases which may be reached by it in their incipient stages eradicate among those which are peculiarly suffered to run ; but the curative ir this preparation at once disarms fii their terrors. In all respects it fuld conditions of a popular medicine. Be sure you call for and get the g Pain-Killer, as many worthless no are attempted to be sold on the grea tation of this valuable medicine. (Directions accompany each be Price 25 cents, 50 cents, and $1 Bottle. Sold by all Medicine Dealers. March 6, 1874. lm.