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The Somerset herald. [volume] (Somerset, Pa.) 1870-1936, December 12, 1877, Image 1

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026409/1877-12-12/ed-1/seq-1/

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Terms of Publication
The Somerset Herald
I, IMiMlrlwJ r7 WaJncftlay M-iralng at i M
pet annum. I'aU ' advanc) otlwrwiaa l M
ill Invariably.! chanced.
No subrrlpUoa will I discontinued nntll U
inrM" are pall p. Postmasters nes;lef la
to twtiiy s bn subscribers do. not iaka oat
I heir paiien will b neldllahla for the subscription.
iainKTlbert renoTlng from on PoitufBoe to an
grier should 01 tUo nams of tb linmr as
well as the present oRtoo. Asddre
Somerset Printing Company.
Business Manancr.
ixt H-mniy ancfensJou Agent, Somerset,
fa. Ofnoa la Maainrath Block. Jan. U-U.
I'D. B. SCl'LI
(Somerset, Pennn.
. al Law, Somerset, Pa. Prolrwipnai b.i
tea respeoUuUy solicited and punctually attend
d to
I AW NOTICE. Alexander H. Coflroth bat
j resnmed the practice law m Somerset .and
jj,niTi cmnUea. Utno la Mammoth Building,
and dealer In real estate, Somerset, Pa., will
attend to all business entrusted to Ins care wltn
pruuii'tness and ndeUty. aug. U-ly.
LAW, Somerset, Pa., will practlue In Som
erset and ediolntns; counties. All business en
trusted to them will be promptly attended to.
erset, i'a., will promptly attend to all business
entruste-l U bim. Money advanced on oulleeUon
ex. Otnoe In Mammoth Building.
Law, Somerset, Pa., will give prompt atten
tion to business entrusted to Hie cere in whdi
tod the a (joining counties. Otboe la Printing
House Bow.
sj Somerset, PaM will eturaa to all ImslneM en
trusted u Uu care In Somerset and adjoining coun
ties wits iiromuuiesa and fidelity. Omce In Main-
snoth Block. feb.ll-ly
Somerset, Pa. Professional business entrusted
to uyeare attended towiLbpromptiMM and ndelity.
a. a. uorrnorn. w. . acrrsu
' Lw. All business entrusted to their care will
be s)eedily and punctually attended to.
Orru B on Main Dross street, opposite the
Mammoth Block.
Somerset Pa. Ottlce up stairs la Baer's Block.
All business entrusted to bis care attended to Willi
promptness aud fidelity.
Somerset, Pa. Office, Mammoth Min k. op stairs.
Entrance Alain tiros St. Collections made, es
tates settled, titles examined, and alt legal bust
ess attended to with promptness and fidelity,
Ol ilVKYIN(if,
Writing Deeds, &c.
i a i i i r -1 " t I t ciiimi'.i t e nus.
-Knuulre at Casebeer A Co.'s Store.
R. .1. K. MILLER has Dermanently located
J t in Berlin lor the practice ol bis ptvinsslon.
Otllce opposite Charles swnasiuger s store,
apr. ICi, '70-tf.
IR. H. BRUBAKER tenders bis prolessloaal
1 f services to tbe ciUsens ol Somerset ana vn-m-l;y.
omoe in residence, on door west ol the Bar
net House.
OR. E. M. KIM MEL will continue to praotlco
Medicine, and tenders bis prolessl.mal servi
ces to the ciUsens ol Somerset and surrounding
country. Otnoe at the old place, a lew doors east
vf tbe triads House.
lormerlyof Lavansvllle, will continue the
l.ra. ticeol medicine, and tenders bis prolessional
services to the ciliseus of Oenirevtlleaud surround
ing country.
W! 77
g S. GOOD,
f-Orri-! Jp Mammoth Block led'Ta
rvl? A MIT.T.KR after tvrt-lre
J jea-i' active practice In Shanksville, has
li-j iM-rni aentiy incaieu ai sinnrno
tire ol me kJne, and Usnders his professional scr
tioes to tt.e citlsens of Somerset and vicinity.
tunes in his Drug Store, opposite the Barnet
House, wuere be can bo consulted at all times
unless prfwl"nally eniisgad.
AsTMgnt calls promptly answeraa.
doc. l, 7-ly.
Iits? Ile dent Surgeon,
New Tort Eye an! Ear Inflrmair,
Has lxatei permanently in the
City of CU1IEEELAITI!, Haryland
fcr the EZCLUSIYE treataent of all
diseases cf the Eye and Ear, includ
ing 'those of the Hose and Threat.
OfMrr, ft. 20 Kvtilh Cfstlro Mrecf.
June 'JO.
Pa. Ortioe In Caselieer's Block, up stairs,
w here he can at all times be found prepared to do
all kinds ol work, such as filling, regulating, ex
trading, ax. Artinclal teeth ol all kinds, and of
the uost material, Inserted. Operations warranted.
J 0IJ2 biis,
Office In Coflroth A NeO'l new building.
Main Cross Street,
Somerset, Pa.
t Iffie sUnre Casebeer A Frease'; store, Somerset,
Pa. In tbe last filleeu years I have greatly re
di ced tbe prices ol artiboial U-eth in this place.
The constant increasing demand for teeth has in
dujed me to so enlarge my lacilitics that can
make good sets of teeth at lower prices than you
ci:n c them in any other pla in thlf "-;nrry.
1 sin nw making good act of Utb for kl, and If
there should it any person among my I housanJs
ol customers In this or tbe adjoining counties that
I have made teeth lor that la m giving good sat
Islactlon, they can call on me at aay time and get
new set free of charge,
PALS C1TT, Mmtrut Co., Pa.,
Artificial Teeth, war -anted to be or the eery best
qualltv. LJIe-llke and Handsome, Inserted in tbe
t-st style. Panlculai atwotloa tald to the pres
ertatlon of tbe natural teeth. Those wishing to
n:ntult me bv letter, cas iv so by eoolosing stamp
A ddreas as abS. leU-TX
1 t 1
TUs proprietor If prepared to aeasBmodate guests
in the most comfortable and satisfactory manner.
The traveling public and permanent boarders tur
nishod with the liest of hotel acoommodailons.
Tbe tables vtlil continue to lie furnished with tbe
beet the market attorus. Large and cugiinodlou,
stalillng attached. iuU
KAMLilCUSTEIl, 1'i-oprie-tor.
This pct'ilar and wefl known bouse It at all
tin a del JraMe stopping place lor tne traveling
tilille. T'ble and Rooms brst-class. Oood s ta
iling, lias leave dally lor Johnrtwn and
he am et.
I li e
VOL. XXVI. NO. 17.
Cambria Co, Bank.
M. W. KEIM & Co.
No. 2CG Main St., Johnstown.
A General Banking Business
Interest Paid at 6 per cent, on
Time Deposits.
Loans Negotiated.
Drafts Bought and Sold.
J any. 3.
Successors to
Schell & Kimmel,
Accounts of Merchants and oth
er Business People Solicited. Drafts
negotiable in all parts of the Coun
try for sale. Money toanod and
Collections made.
new Bvis:i:.
( fa rooms formerly occupied by M. A. Sannrr If Co.)
Somerset County Bank
Cashier ntul Manager.
Willoixn for bu-lncss 'on Monday October 1st.
Collections made in all parts ortliel'ntted States.
Charges moderate. Hutter and other checks col
lected and cashed. Eastern and Westcrncxchange
always on band. Remittances made wilh ppimi
ness. Accounts solicited.
Refer by ermlssion to
Hon. W. If. Knont. Att'y at Law. Hon. W.
J. Buer. Atfy at Liw. Col. Kd. .ull. Col. V. S.
Revenue. A. J. C-ollsirn Atfy at Law. V. C-Mussi-lman.
Ass -iate Ju lge. Hon. A. H. Cf
froth, Att'y at lw. W'ui. H. Prease, Merchant,
k Kiernan.
Tctecco anfl Ciprs,
, J. II. Zitu merman,
Hain Cross St,
Somertel, l'cnna.
The best of cigars of different brands, manufac
tured by himself, of the choicest of tobaccos.
These cigais cannot beexi-elled by any in the mar
ket, tine ol the lest stocks of chewing tobacco
ever brought to Somerset. Prices to suit the
times. janM
(Suc-efSvrtoC. I!. C.illwrn A Co.)
ii: m:i: iv
&c,. &c.,
IXK 111 1 CK.
All Goods Positively
Sold at
Do Not FaU To Give
When doin your
CtOber IT
Agents for Fire ail LilB IiisiiraiiGe,
And Keal Estate Brokers.
Persons who desire to sell, buy or exchange prop
erty, or tor rent will find It to their advantage to
register tbe decritioo thereof, as no charge la
made unless sold or rented. Keal estate business
generally will be promptly attended to.
Merchant Tailors,
JVxkd ManulUotaren ot
Gent's. Youth's and Boys,
i!b ClotliM asl
M6w Goois
Those who are now building houses should know
tha Is It cheaper in tbe long run to nut en Mats
Hoofs than tin or shingles. Slate will last forever,
and n repairs are required. Slate gives the pur
est water lor cisterns. Slate la lire proof. Every
, . i i i i - til.,. M.r Tha nmUr.
signed Is located in Cumberland, where he has a
good saopiy oi
Peachbottom & Buckingham
lor roodlng Die very best nrtiole. He will under
take to put Slate Knots on Houses. iibllc and pri
vate, si'lres, Ac, either In town or country at the
lowest prices, and to warrant tbt sn. Call and see
l.lio ca: ad.lres him at his Office. No. 110 Holtimnre
Street, Cumoerland, aid. Urders may oeieu wim
Agent, Somerset, Pa.
Wi. H. Shiplct.
Aprl B.1S7.
E. H.
285 I5ult, St., Baltimore, M. D.,
Would rrlrtfunv nnk the merrhiuitj of Somer
et county, tu semi him their orders fur
asurlnKthnm wtipraction both ai rrtrar.l price
and quality of h-khIa. The tntrrhaDts viMtinic
Italtirn'rre re nneently mjuested to call and see
me belure makiiiK I'Urctuuea.
Wrought-lron Aif-Tigtit Heaters
Cooking Ranges, Low-Down
Crates, Etc.
Descriptive Circulars sent free to any address.
April A
Cook & Beerits'
Flour and Feed
We would most rerpectrully announce to our
friends and tbe public generally, in me wiwn aou
vicinity of Somerset, that we have opened our
NewSuire on
And in addition to o fell line of tbe best
oiirr'ltoiirrle. Notions,
Tobacco, Clean. Ac,
We will endeavor, at all times, to ?"',J iX
turners with tnj
Aadcr;;. ll.ii itUoa. w Hit eed Depart
ment at tlie
CASH owzr.
Also, A well selected stocg of
Olaarwire; Btoneware, wooaenware, jsruaea
al amuv aou
WUlcb ws wU soil as cheap aj Oa cLeapatV.
Please oaU, exaalM our foods of all lade, aavi
besaUrfjed fromyour own JudjTjient. .
Don't forget wtere we stay . -MAIN
CROSS 6treet, SosMTset, Pa.
Fello Citizens of the Senate
and House of Representatives :
With devout gratitude to tbe bountt
ful Giver of all Good, I congratulate
yoa that at the beginning of your first
regular sesulon you nna our country
blessed wilh health, peace and "bond
ant harvests, and with encouraging
prospects of an early return or gen
eral DrosDerity. To complete and
make permanent the pacification of
the country continues to be, ana un
til it is fully accomplished mast re
main, the most important of all our
national interests. I he earnest pur
pose of good citizens ' generally to
unite their efforts in the endeavor is
evident and it found decided expres
sion in the resolutions announced in
1876, and in the national conventions
of the leading political parties of tbe
country. There was a widespread
apprehension that the momentous re
sults of our progress ' as a nation,
marked by tbe recent amendments to
the Constitution, were in imminent
jeopardy ; that the good understand
ing which prompted their adoption in
tbe interest of a loyal devotion to the
general welfare might prove a harten
trace and the two sections of the
country, once engaged in civil strife,
might be again as widely severed and
disunited as they were when arrayed
in arms against each other.
The course to be pursued, which in
ct judgment seemed tbe wisest in the
presence of thiaeiuergency,was plain
ly indicated in my inaugural address.
It pointed to the time which all our
people desire to see, wben a genuine
love of our w hole country and ot all
that concerns its true welfare shall
supplant the destructive forces of the
mutual animosit) of the raoos and
sectional hostility. Opinions have
differed finally as to the measures
beet calculated to secure this great
end. This was to be expt cted. The
measures adopted by the administra
tion have been subjected to severe
and varied criticism. Any course
whatever whcb might have been en
tered upon would certainly have en
couraged distrust and opposition.
These measures were, in my judg
ment, such as were most in harmony
wilh tbe Constitution and with the
genius of our people, and best adapt
ed under all circumstances to attain
tbe end in view. Beneficent results
already apparent prove that these en
deavors are not to be regarded as
mere experiments, and should sustain
and encourage us in our efforts. Al
ready in tbe brief time which has
elapsed, tbe immediate erTeclivencss
no less than the justice of the
course pursued is demonstrated, and
I hare an abiding faith that time will
furninh its ample vindication in tbe
minds of the great majority of my
fellow citizens.
the withdrawal op troops.
The discontinuance of the use of
the army for tbe purpose of holding
local governments in two States of
tbe Union was no less a constitution
al duty and requirement, under the
circumstances existing at the time,
than it was a much needed measure
for the restoration ot local self gov
ernment and the promotion of har
The withdrawal of the troops from
such employment was t fleeted de
liberately and with solicitous care for
the peace and good order of society,
and the protection of the property
and persons and every right of all
classes of citizens. The results that
have followed are, indeed, significant
and encouraging. All apprehension
of danger from remitting those States
to local self government is dispelled,
and a most satisfactory change in tbe
minds of tbe people has begun and is
in progress in every part of that sec
tion of the country, once the theater
of unhappy civil strife, substituting
for suspicion, distrust and aversion,
concord, friendship and patriotic at
tachmfnt to the Union. No unpre
judiced mind will deny that the ter
rible and often ratal collisions wcicn
for several years have been frequent
occurrence, and have agitated and
alarmed the public mind, have almost
entirely ceaed, and that a spirit of
mutual forbearance and hearty na
tional interest baa succeeded. There
has been a general re-establishment
of order and in tbe orderly adminis
tration of justice instances of remain
ing lawlessness have become of rare
Political turmoil and turbulence
have disappeared, useful industries
have been resumed, public credit iu
the Southern States has been greatly
strengthened and the encouraging
benefits of a revival of commerce be
tween the sections of the country
lately embroiled in the civil war are
fully enjoyed. Such are some of tbe
results already attained, upon which
the country Is to be congratulated.
They are of such importance that we
may, with confidence, patiently await
the desired consummation that will
8U rely come with the natural progress
of events.
It may not be Improper to say here
that it should be our fixed and unal
terable determination to protect by
all available and proper means under
the Constitution and tbe la.ws tbe
lately emancipated, race in the en)oy
mept pf their rights and privileges,
and I urge upon those to whom here
tofore tbe colored people have sus
tained the relation of bondsmen tho
wisdom and justice of humane and
liberal local legislation with respect
to their educ&t.aa and general wel
fare; a Srm adherence to the civil and
pulilioal rights of tbe colored people,
now advanced to full and equal citi
zenship. Tbe immediate repression
and sure puplehmeut by tbe national
and local authorities, within their
respective inriadictions. of every in
stance of law)eastt.0fl and violence
toward the u is required fox tbe
security alike of both 'races, and is
justly demanded by the public opin
ion cf tbe couutry ana tlie age. ;n
this way the restoration of harmony
and eood will, aad the complete pro
tection of every citiaen in the full en
joy men t of ever; constitutional right
vul surely be attained. - Wuatever
authority rest with me to this end 1
shall not hesitate to put forth. What
ever belongs to the power of Con
gress and the jurisdiction or tbe
! courts of the Union they may confi
'dually be relied upon to provide and
perform. And to tbe legislatures,
the courts and the executive authori
ties of the several States I earnestly
appeal to secure by adequate, appro
priate and seasonable means within
their borders those common and uni
form rights of a united people which
loves liiierty, abhors oppression and
reveres justice. These objects are
very dear to my heart and I shall
continue most earnestly to strive for
their attainment. Tbe cordial co
operation of all classes and of all sec
tions of tbe country, and of both
races is required for this purpose, and
with these blessings assured, and not
otherwise, we may safely hope to
hand down our free institutions of
government unimpaired to the gen
erations that will succeet us.
Among the other subjects of great
and general importance to the people
of this country, I cannot be mistaken,
I think, in regarding as pre-eminent
the policy and measure which are
designed to secure the restoration of
tbe currency to tbe normal and
healthful condition in which by the
resumption of specie payments, onr
internal trade and foreign commerce
may be brought into harmony with
the system of exchanges, which Is
based upon the precious metals as
tbe intrinsic money of the world. In
the public judgment thit end should
be sought and compassed as speedily
as the resources of tbe people and
the n-iadom of their Government can
accomplish. There is a much greater
degree of unanimity than is often
found to concur in the specific
measures which will bring tbe coun
try to this desired end or the rapidi
ty of the steps by which it can be
safely reached. Upon a most anx
iousatid deliberateexamination,whicb
I have felt it my duty to give to tbe
subject, I a ii but the more confirmed
in tbe opinion wbich I expressed in
accepting the nomination for the
Presidency, and again upon my in
auguration, that Ibe policy of resump
tion should be pursued by every
suitable means, and that no legisla
tion would be wise that 'should dis
parage tbe importance Or retard the
attainment of that result. I have no
disposition, and certainly no right,
to question tbe sincerity or the in
telligence of opposing opinions, and
would neither conceal nor under
value the considerable difficulties and
even occasional depression which may
attend the progress of the nation to
wards this primary condition and to
its general and permanent pros
perity. I must, however, adhere to
my most earnest convictions that any
wavering in purpose or in steadiness
in methods, so far from avoiding or
reducing the inconvenience insepar
able from the transition from an
irredeemable to a redeemable paper
currency would only tend to increas
ed and prolonged disturbance in
values, and unless retrieved mnstend
in serious disaster dishonor and
disaster in the financial affairs of tbe
Government and of tbe people. Tbe
luischit f wbich I apprehend and ur
gently deprecate are confined to no
class of the penp'.e indeed, but seem
to me roost certainly to threaten tbe
industrial masses, whether their oc
cnpalions are of skilled or common
labor. To that, it seems to me, it is
of prime importance that tbeir labor
should be consolidated. Money is
itself fixed in exchangable value by
being irrevocably measured by tbe
labor necessary to its production.
This apportionment of the quality of
the money of the people is sought
for, and can only be gained by the
resumption of specie payments. The
rich, tbe speculators, the operating,
tbe money dealing classes may not
always feel tbe mischiefs, or may find
casual profits in a variable currency,
but the misfortunes of such a cur
rency to those who are paid sal
aries or wages are incalculable.
Closely connected with this general
subject of the resumption of specie
payments is one of subordinate, but
still of grave importance. I mean
the le-adjuslment of our coinage
system by the renewal of the silver
dollar as an element in our specie
currency, endowed by legislation
with the quality of legal tender, to a
greater or less extent. As there is no
doubt of the power cf Congress un
der tbe Constitution to coin money
and regulate the value thereof, and
as this power covers tbe whole range
of authority applicable to tbe metal,
the rated value, and the legal lender
quality which shall be adopted for the
coinage, the considerations of which
should induce or discourage a partic
ular measure connected with the
coinage, belong clear ly to tbe pro
vince of legislative discretion and of
public expediency. Without intrud
ing upon ibis province of legislation
in the least, I have yet thought the
subject of such critical importance in
the actual condition of our affaire as
to present an occasion for the exer
ciue of the duty imposed by the
Constitution n the President, of
recommending to the consideration of
Congress such measures as they may
judge necessary and expedient. Hold
ing the opinion, as da, that neither
the inlc routs of- tbe Government nor
lae people of the United States
would be promoted by disparaging
silver as one of the two precious met:
als wbich furnish tbe coinage of the
world, and that legislation whick
looks to maintaining tbe volume of
intrinsic money to as full a measure
of both metals as Iheir relative com
mercial values will permit, would be
neither unjust or inexpedient, I must
ask your indulgence to a brief and
definite statement of oertaine agen
tial features, in any such legisla
tive measure which I feel it my duty
to recommend, 1 do not propose to
enter the debate, represented on both
sides by such able disputants in Con
gress and before tbe people and in
tbe press, as to the extent to which
the legislation of any one nation can
control this question, even within its
own borders, against the unwritten
laws of trade or the positive laws of
other governments. The wisdom of
Congress in shaping any particular
law that may be presented for my ap
proval may wholly supersede the ne
cessity of my entering into these con
siderations, and I willingly avoid
either vague or intricate inquiries. It
is only certain, plain, and practical
traits of such legislation that I de
sire to recommend to yonr attention,
In any legislation providing for a
silver coinage, regulating its value
and imparting to it the quality of le
gal tender, it seems to me of great
importance that Congress dhould not
lose sight of its action as operating
in a two-fold capacity and in two dis
tinct directions. If tbe United States
Government were free from a public
debt, its legislative dealing with the
question of silver coinage would be
purely sovereign and governmental,
under no restraints but those of con
stitutional power and the public
good, as affected by tbe proposed
legislation ; bat in tbe actual circum
stances of the nation, with a vast
public debt distributed very widely
among onr own citizens, and held in
great amounts also abroad, the na
ture of a silver coinage measure, as
affecting this relation ot the Govern
ment to tbe holders of the public
debt, becomes an element in any
proposed legislation of the highest
concern ; the obligation of tbe public
faith transcends all questions of profit
or public advantage, otherwise its
unquestionable maintenance is the
dictate as well of the highest expe
diency, as of the most necessary du
ty, and will ever be carefully guarded
by Congress and the people alike.
Tbe public debt of the United Slates
bears interests at the rate of six per
cent, and $703,000,000 at the rate
of five percent., and the only way in
which the country can be relieved
from the payment of these high rates
of interest is by advantageously re
funding the indebtedness. Whether
the debt is ultimately paid in gold or
silver coin is of but little moment
compared with tbe possible redaction
of interest one third by refunding it
at such reduced rate. If the United
Slates had the unquestioned right to
pay its bonds in silver coin, the little
benefit from that process wonld be
greatly overbalanced by the injurious
effect of each payment, if made or
proposed against the honest convic
tions of the public creditors.
All the bonds that have been issu
ed since February, 18T3, when the
only unlimited legal-tender metallic
currency of the country are Justly
payable in notes, coin, or in com of
equal value during tbe time of the is
sues, the only dollar that could be or
was received by the Government in
exchange for bonds was the gold dol
lar. To require the public creditor
to take in repayment any dollar of
less commercial value would be re
garded by them as a repudiation of
the full obligation assumed. The
bonds issued prior to 1873 were issu
ed at a time when tbe gold dollar
was tbe only coin in circulation or
contemplated by either the Govern
ment or the holders of the bonds as
the coin in whioh they were to be
paid. It is far better to pay these
bonds in that coin than to seem to
take advantage of the unforeseen fall
in silver bullion to pay in a new is
sue of silver coin, thus made so much
less valuable. The power of the
United States to coin money to regu
late tie value thereof ought never to
be exercised for tbe purpose of enab
ling the Uovernment to pay its obli
gations in a coin of less value than
that contemplated by the parties
when the bonds were issued. Any
attempt to pay tbe national indebted
ness in a coinage of less commercial
value than tbe money of the world,
wonld involve a violation of the pub
lic faith, and work irreparable injary
to tbe publio credit. It was the great
merit of the Act of March, 1869 in
strengthening tbe public credit, that
it removed all doubt to tbe purpose
of the United States to pay Iher bon
ded debt in coin. That act was ac
cepted as a pledge of public faith.
Tbe Government has derived great
benefit from it in the progress thus
far made in refunding the public debt
at low rates of interest. An adher
ence to the wise and just policy of an
exact observance of the public faith
will enable the Government rapidly
to reduce the burden of interest on
the national debt to an amount far ex
ceeding $20,000,000 per annum, and
effect an aggregate saving to the
United Slates of more than $300,
000,000 before the bonds can be fully
paid. In adapting the new silver
coinage to the ordinary uses of cur
rency in the every day transactions
of life, and prescribing the quality of
legal tender to be assigned to it, a
consideration of the first importance
should be so to adjust tbe ratio be
tween the silver and the gold coinage,
which now constitutes our specie
currency, aa to accomplish the desir
ed end of maintaining the circulation
of the two metallic currencies and
keeping np the volume of the two
precious metals as our intrinsic mon
ey, it is a mixed question lor scien
tific reasoning and historical expe
rience to determine how far and by
what methods a practical equilibrium
can be maintained wbich will keep
both metals in circulation in their ap
propriate spheres of common nse. An
absolute equality of commercial val
ue, free from disturbing fluctuations,
is hardly attainable, and without it
an unlimited legal tender for private
transactions assigned to both metal
would irresistably tend to drive out
of circulation the dearer coinage and
disappoint the principal object pro
posed by the legislation In view. I
apprehend therefore, that the two
conditions of a near approach to
equality of commercial value between
tbe gold and silver coinage of the
same denomination, and of a limita
tion of the amounts for which the
silver cionage is to be a legal tender,
are essential to maintaining coin in
circulation. If these conditions can
be successfully observed, tbe issue
from the mint of silver dollars would
afford material oasis lanes to tha com
munity In tbe transition ' of redeema
ble paper money, and would facilitate
the resumption of specie payment
and its permanent establishment.
Without these conditions, I fear that
only mischief and misfortune would
follow from a coinage of silver dol
lars with the quality of unlimited le
gal tender. Even in private transac
tions any expectation of temporary
ease from an issue ot silver coinage
to pass as a legal tender at a rate
materially above iU commercial val
ue is, 1 am persuaded a delusion.
Nor can I think that there is any
substantial distinction between an
original issue of silver dollars at a
nominal value materially above their
commercial value, and the restora
tion of the silver dollar at a rate
which once was, but has ceased to
be, its commercial value. Certainly
the issue of our gold coinage, reduc
ed in weight materially below its le
gal tender value, would not be the
less a present debase ment of the coin
age by reason of its equaling, or even
exceeding in weight, a gold coinage
which at some past time had been
commercially equal to the legal ten
der value assigned to the new issue.
In recommending that the regula
tion of any silver coinage wbich may
be authorized by Congress should
observe these conditions of commer
cial value and limited legal tender I
am governed by the feeling that
barely possibly an increase should be
given to tbe volume of metallic money
bich can be kept in circulation, and
thereby every possible aid afforded
to the people in the purpose of resum
ing specie payments. It is because
of my firm conviction that a disre
gard of these conditions would frus
trate tbe good results which are de
sired from the proposed coinage, and
embarrass with new elements ef con
fusion and uncertainty the business
of tbe country, that I urge upon your
attention these considerations and
respectfully recommend to Congress
that in any legislation providing for
a silver coinage and imparting to it
the quality of legal tender there be
impressed upon tbe measure a arm
provision exempting the public debt,
heretofore issued snd now outstand
ing, from payment either as principal
or interest in any coinage of less
commercial value than the present
gold coinage of the country.
In the organization of the civil ser
vice of tbe country, wbich has for a
number of years attracted more and
more oft he public attention so general
has become the opinion that tbe
methods of admission to it and the
conditions of remaining in it are un
sound, that both the great political
parties have so agreed in the most
explicit declarations ot the necessity
or reform and in the most emphatic
demands for it that I have fully be
lieved thesejdeclarations and demands
to be the expression of sincere con
viction of tbe intelligent masses of
tbe people upon the subject, and
that they should be recognized and
followed by earnest and prompt ac
tion on the part of the legislative and
executive departments of the Gov
ernment. In pursuance of the pur
pose indicated, and before my acces
sion to this office, I endeavored to
have my own views distinctly under
stood, and upon my inauguration my
accord with the public opinion was
stated in terms believed to be plain
and unambiguous. My experience
in tbe Executive Chair has strongly
confirmed the belief in the great ad
vantage tbe country would find in
observing stricly the plan of the
Constitution, which imposes on tbe
Executive the sole duty and respon
sibility of tbe selection of those Fed
eral officers who, by law, are ap
pointed, not elected, and which in like
manner assigns to the Senate tbe
complete right to advise and consent
to or to reject tbe nominations so
made, while the House of Represen
tatives stands as the pnblic censor of
the performance of official duties,
with the prorogative of investigat ion
and prosecution in all cases of dere
liction. The blemishes and imperfections
of the civil service may, as I think.
be traced iu most cases to a practical
confusion of the duties assigned to
the several departments. My purpose
in this respect has been to return to
the system established by the funda
mental law, and to do this with the
heartiest co-operation and most cor
dial understanding with the Senate
and House of Representatives. The
practical difficulties in the selection
of numerous officers for posts of
widely varying respocsibility and
duties sre acknowledged to be very
great. No system can be expected to
secure absolute freedom from mistake,
and tbe beginning of any attempted
change of the custom is quite likely
to be more embarrassed in this res
pect than at any subseqent period. It
is here that the Constitution seems
to me to prove its claim to the great
wisdom accorded to it. it gives to
tbe Execntive the assistance of tbe
knowledge and experience of the Sen
ate, which, when acting upon nomi
nations as to which they may be dis
interested and impartial judges, se
cures as strong a guaranty of freedom
from errors of importance as is, per
haps, possible in human affairs. In
addition to this, I recognize tbe pub
lic advantage of making all nomina
tions as nearly as possible impersonal,
in the sense of being free from mere
caprice or favor, in tbe selection; and
in these offices in which special train
ing is of greatly increased value, I
believe such a rule as to tbe tenure of
office should obtain as may induce
men of proper qualifications to apply
themselves industriously to the task
of becoming proficient.
Bearing these things in mind, I
have endeavored to reduce the nam
ber of changes in subordinate places
usually made upon the change of the
general administration, and shall
most heartily co-operate with Con
press in the better systematizing of
suoh methods and rules of admission
to tbe public service, and of promo
tion within it, as may promise to be
most successful in making thorough
competency, efficiency and character
the decisive tests In these matters. I
ask the renewed attention of Congress
to what has already been done by tbe
Civil Service Commission, appointed
la pursuance of an act of Congress
by my predecessors, to prepare and
revise the Civil Service rales.
In regard to much of the depart
mental service, especially at Wash
ington, it may be difficult to organise
a better system than that wbich has
lane for provided. It is now being
used to a considerable extent under
my direction. The Commission has
till a legal existence, although for
several years no appropriation has
been made for defraying its expenses.
Believing that this Commission baa
rendered valuable service and will be
a most useful agency in improving
tbe admisiatrattoa 9? the service, 1
WHOLE NO. 1379.
respectfully recommend that a suita
ble appropriation, to be immediately
available, be made to enable it to con
tinuo its labor.
It is my purpose to transmit to
Congress as early as practicable a re
port by tbe Chairman of the Commis
sion, and to ask your attention to
sack measures on this subject as in
my opinion will further promote tbe
improvement of the civil service.
FXRFICTLT amicable.
During the past year the United
States has continued to maintain
peaceful relations with foreign powers.
Tbe outbreak of war between Russia
and Tnrkey, though at one time at
tended by grave apprehension as to
its effect on other European nations,
has hod no tendency to disturb the
amicable relations existing, beyond
the two contending powers. An atti
tude of firm and impartial neutrality
has been preserved, and I am gratified
to state that in tbe midst of their hos
tilities both the Russian and tbe
Turkish Governments have shown an
earnest disposition to adhere to the
obligations of all treaties with the
United Slates, and to give due regard
to tbe rights of American citizens.
By the terms of the treaty defining
the rights, immunities and privileges
of consuls between Italy and the
United States, ratified in 1868, either
Government may, after the lapse of
ten years, terminate the existence of
the treaty by giving twelve months'
notice of its intention. The Govern
ment of Italy, availing itself of this
fsculty, has now given the required
notice, and the treaty will according
ly end on tbe 17th of September,
1873. It is understood, however, that
she Italian Government wishes to
renew it in its general scope, desiring
only certain modifications in some of
its articles. In this disposition I con
cur, and shall hope that no serious
obstacle may Intervene to prevent or
delay the negotiation of a satisfac
tory treaty.
Numerous questions in regard to
passports, naturalization and exemp
tion from military service have con
tinued to arise in tbe cases of emi
grants from Germany, who have re
turned to tbeir native country. The
provisions of the treaty of February
22, IS68, however, have proved to be
so ample and so judicious that tbe
Legation of the United States at Ber
lin has been able to adjust all claims
arising under it, not only without
detriment to tbe amicable relations
existing between the two Govern
ments, but, it is believed, without in
jury or injustice to any duly natural
ized American citizen. It is desirable
that the treaty originally made witn
the North German Union In 1868
should now be extended, so as to ap
ply equally to all the States of tbe
Empire of Germany.
Tbe invitation of tbe Government
of France to participate in the Expo
sition ot tbe products of agriculture,
industry and fine arts, to be held at
Paris during tbe coming year, was
submitted for your consideration at
tbe extra session. It is not doubted
that its acceptance by tbe United
States, and a well selected exhibition
of tbe products of American industry
on that occasion, will tend to stimu
late international commerce and emu
gration, as well aa to promote the
friendship between the two countries.
A. question arose some time since
as to the proper meaning of tha ex
tradition articles of the treaty of 1845,
between the United States and Great
Britain. Both Governments, howev
er, are now in accord in the belief that
tbe question is not one that should be
allowed to fmstrate the ends of jus
tice, or to disturb the friendship be
tween the two nations. No serious
difficulty has arisen in accomplishing
the extradition of criminals when
necessary. It is probable that all
points of disagreement will, in due
time, be settled, and, if need be,more
explicit declarations will be made in
a new treaty.
The Fishery Commission under
Article XVIIL to XXV. of the trea
ty ot Washington, has concluded its
sessions at Halifax. The result of
the deliberations of the Commission,
as made public by the Commission
ers, will be communicated to Con
gress. A treaty for the protection of trade
marks has been negotiated with Great
Britain, which has teen submitted to
tbe Senate for its consideration.
The revolution wbich recently oc
curred in Mexico was followed by
tbe accession of tbe successful party
to power and the installation of its
chief, General Porfirio, in the Presi
dential office. It has been the custom
of the United States when such
changes of Government have hereto
fore occurred in Mexico to recognize
and enter into official relations with
the de facto Government, as soon as
it should appear to have tbe approval
of tbe Mexican people, and should
manifest a disposition to adhere to
the obligations of treaties and inter
nal friendship. In '.be present case
such official recognition has been of
fered by the occurrences on tbe Rio
Grande border, the records of which
have already been communicated to
each House of Congress in answer to
their respective questions oi inquiry.
Assurances have been received that
tbe authorities at tbe seat of tbe
Mexican Government have both the
disposition and the power to prevent
and punish such unlawful Invasions
and depredatiooo. It is earnestly' to
be hoped that events may prove these
assurances to be well founded. The
best interests of both countries re
quire the maintenance of peace spon
the border, and the development of
commerce between Um two republics.
It is gratifying to add that this tem
porary interruption of official rela
tions has not prevented due attention
by the representatives of tha United
Slates in Mexico to the protection of
American citizens so far as practica
ble, nor has it interfered wilh the
prompt payment of the amounts due
from Mexico to the United States
under tbe treaty of July 4, 1363, and
the awards of the Joint Commission.
While I do not anticipate an inter
ruption of - friendly relations with
Mexico, yet I cannot but look with
so sotkKfcds upon '' m costlna&ncs
f border OitoClfii, M oposlsg lbs
two countries to tho irritations of
popular feeling and mischances of
actions which are naturally unfavor
able to complete amity. Firmly de
termined that nothing shall be want
ing on my part to promote a good
understanding between the two na
tions, I yet must ask the attention of
Congress to the actual occurrences
on the border, that tbe lives and
property of our citizens may be ade
quately protected and peace preserve J.
Another year has passed without
bringing to a close tha protracted
contest between the Spanish llovern
mentsnd theinsnrrectionon tbe island
of Cuba. While the Uuited States bsj
sedulously abstained from an; inter
vention intbis contest, it tsimpus!
ble not to feel tbat it i atteniied with
incidents affecting the riuts ami in
terests of American citizens. Apart
from the effect of the hostilities on
trade between tbe United SuUs and
Cuba, their progress is inevitably
accompanied by complaints, having
more or less foundation, of searches,
arrests, embargoes snd opprrf-.fi e
taxes upon the property of American
residents, and of un provoked inter
ference with American vessel and
commerce. It is due to tbe Govern
ment of Spaiu to say tnat during tlie
past year it has promptly disavowed
and offered reparation tor any unau
thorized acts of unduly zealous sub
ordinates whenever such act have
been Drought to its attention. Nev
ertheless, such occurrences cannot
but tend to excite fenlings of annoy
ance, suspician and resentment, whicli
are greatly to be deprecated, between
the respective subjects and citizens
of tbe two friendly powers.
Much delay consequent upon accu
sations of fraud in some of tbe awards
has occurred in respect to the distri
bution of the limited amounts re
ceived from Venezuela, under the
treaty of April 25, 1S66, applicable
to tbe awards of the Joint Commis
sion created )y that treaty. S long
as these matters are pending in Con
gress the Executive cannot assume
either to pass upon tbe questions
presented or to distribute tbo fund
received. It is eminently desirable
that definite legislative action should
be taken either affirming the awards
to be final or providing some method
for the re-examination of the claims.
Our relations with the Republics
of Central and South America, and
with the Empire of JJrazil, have con
tinued without serious change, fur
ther than the temporary interruption
of diplomatic intercourse with Vene
zuela and with Guatemala. Amie.iMj
relations have already been filly res
tored witb Venezuela, and it is not
douoted tbat all grounds ot misun
derstanding with Guatemala will
speedily be removed. Frooi all these
countries there are favorable indica
tions of a disposition on tbe part cf
tbeir Governments and peoj le to
reciprocate our efforts in tbe direc
tion of increased commercial inter
Tbe Government of tbe Samuaa
Islands has sent an envoy ia tbe
person ot its Secretary of State to
invite tbe Government of tbe United
States to recognize and protect tbeir
independence, to establish commer
cial relations with tbeir people, and
to assist them in their steps toward a
regulated and respousiule givera
ment. Tbe inhabitants of tbene
islands having made considerable
progress in Christian civilization and
the development of trade, are doubt
ful of their ability to maintain peace
and independence without tbe aid of
some strange power. Tbe subject
is deemed worthy of respectful atten
tion, and the claims upon onr astiit
ance by this distant commuuity will
be carefully considered.
Tbe long commercial depression
in tbe United Staies has directed at
tention to the subject of tbe possible
increase of our foreign trade aad tbe
methods for its development not
only with Europe, but with other
countries, especially with the States
and Sovereignties of the Western
Hemisphere. Instructions from the
Department of State were issued to
tbe various diplomatic and coauIar
officers of tbe Government, akiog
them to devote attention to tbe ques
tion of methods by which trade be
tween the respective countries of
tbeir official residence and tbe United
States could be most judiciously fos
tered. In obedience to these in
structions examinations and reports
upon this subject have been made by
many ot these officers, and transmit
ted to the departments, and the same
are submitted to the consideration of
The annual report of the Secretary
of the Tresnry on the state of finance
presents an important question for
the action of Congress, upon some of
wbich I have already remarked.
Tbe Government receipts during the
fiscal year ending June SO, 1377,
were $269,000,536 62. Tbe total
expenditures for the same period
$238,600,003 93, leaving a surplus
revenue of $30,340,577 GX Tbisbas
substantially supplied ibe require
ments of the sinking fund far that
year. Tbe estimated revenues of tbe
current fiscal year are $265,500,000,
and tbe estimated expenditures fjr
tbe same period are $232,430,043 72.
If these estimates prove to be correct,
there will be a surplus reveuue of
$33,069,356 23, so amount nearly
sufficient for the sinking fund fur tbat
year. Tbe estimated revenues for
the next fiscal year are $260,250,000.
It appears from tbe report tbat dur
ing tbe last fiscal year tbe revenues
of tbe Government compared with tbe
previous year have largely decreased.
This decrease, amounting to tbe sum
of $13,431,452 54, was mainly in
customs duties, caused partly by a
large falling off of the amount of im
ported dutiable goods, and partly by
the geoeral fall of prices in tbo mar
kets of production and of such arti
cles as pay ad valorem taxe. While
this is felt njuriously in tbe diminu
tion ot tbe revenue, it has been ac
companied with a large increase of
exportation. Tbe total exports dur
ing tbe last fiscal year, including
coin, have been $653,637,457. and
the imports have been $192,097,540.
leaving a balance of trade ia favor of
the United States amounting to tbe
sum of $166,529,917, tbe beneficial
effect of which extended to all branch
es of business. Tbe estimated rev-
enea for the next fiscal year will im
pose upon Congress tbe duty of
strictly limiting appropriations, in
cluding the reqaisite sum for the
maintenance of the sinking fund
within the aggregate estimated re
While the aggregate of taxes should
not be increased, amendments might
be made to the revenue laws tbat
would, without diminishing the rev
enne,relieve the people from anceces
sery hardens. A tax on tea and
coffee is shown by the experience not
only of our own country, but of other
countries, to be easily collected with
out loss by under Vuluaticn or fraud,
m(Continved en Fourth Page)

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