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Baltimore. Dec 9. EjMhe brig Chatsworth, captain Rogers, arrived last eveniug from London, we have received London papers to tb* 23d October. Tho Chatsworth nad a passage of S6 days from ttravesend, and 34 from the Down*. The examination of wit nesses in favour of the qneen, is con tinued in these papers to a great length, and tend to do away the slanders against tier character. Ad dresses wore still continued from all parts t<> tho queen. In the house of Lords, as late as October 22d, Mr. Brougham produ ced an Austrian Gazette, as evi dence of the estimation in which the queen's character is held abroad ? this testimony was rejected. A do cument vi as then exhibited, signed by the queen, when princess of Wains, j creating Dergaiui knight of the ho ly sepulchre, and William Austin was raided to the saute dignity. ? "With regard to the present appear- 1 ancc$ of the trial, we can only say, thai the testimony touches on colla teral anil incidental points, not in culpating the character of her inajes -To enter into a detail of such natters would onl> perplex our read ers and ourselves, without advancing one inch in the discussion, whether btr majesty is guilty or innocent. The evidence on the part of her majesty closed on the 24th of Octo ber. ? On the day that captain R. left I^endon, be informs, that it ?as re ported the bill of pains and penalties had been rejected in the house of lords. It is stated in one of the I. or. don papers, that Spain had ceded the Flo rida* to the UuiUd States. Tbere bad been considerable da . mage done in the Downs by the late B^^tre gales. Several vessels had put .rtto ltarosgate, with the loss of ca bles and anchors. Accounts from Naples state, that 4he Sicilian insurgente, from a to tal incapacity of further struggle, had yielded to tbt propositions of the ir sovereign. A< cording to the French journals, but nnf sentiu.?'!!' of enthusiabtir joy * pervaet-s the nation, on account of the birth of the young Bourbon prim e. Sir Francis Burdett is suffering y nder a severe atiack of the gout. The emperor of Russia haw order , *ed a new levy of four men out of every 5UO, amounting to 96,0G?j. According to the accounts from Vienna, the interview of the sove reigns \\ as to take place on the 23th tober. The accounts of the revolutionary X^-pXQtfeeoings in j'ortugal, had ex ited c> inordinary sensations iu Vienna. Tb e archduchess Leopoldina, having married the crown prince of 1'urtu gal, is destined, perhaps, to bccoine ijueen of that kingdom. Lord Hutchison, it is reported, is to succeed the ^nsrrjuis of listings, as governor g? ueral or India. Ili? majesty is not expected to re turn ago in to ti?e i.jitag** i* \\ uidsor Grraf 1'ark tlu.s vrar, the situation > being loo dan.]# for a winter resi ?en.e. A report has prevailed for the la?t few days, that 'l.e king means to dis po?e of his palace at Brighton. Sixt) f?>e t of the site ol ill* bouses polling down opposite the kio^'- the atre, have been pure haseo u; one of the banking firms iu Puil-Luaii, upon which they propose ?o er*-' t one of the most spac ious and elegant bank ing houses in the metropolis. 1,1 \.of Or %) * Tb ir ^ ? v Two Diivs Later. CharW ?ton, f>ec. 8. By the *hip Arathu&a. ( apt. W- r ril, arrived at tliit> port jestcrdav. in 30 dajs from Liverpool. we have re ceived paj/ij ut that plat e to the! 27th, and Irwin J,?<ud'?n to (lit* 25th > Offob^r, both inr|u*ivr. Ah u*uaj for mi D>c tim? pa*t, they ai? a!oi?'?t L *? luKively o? t upted with the trial of \ H' queen. ? The evidence in h<.r fa ^jji had beer rioted: and ?.w of h#*r (Mr. I)?-nroan) ti night d his ddi *sfc, and xiiiiitiiin/r up ?l the (>>i ence, at 4 oYi?>? k on t !i?- 25th ? He rooM be followed next da) b) Dr. hMhington, on (Ik ftfMir hi tie; after Rrh the ? elebrat^d trinl toulll clow ?h the replies Ot the attorney and ?ritor renernJ, The Lit paper* w*in Mr. DcnttmnN npn t li ai full The opinion ippem t<? be pjeral, that lie r oiajrstjr ill be a< - Kitted. Bets ol fi\e In nn?* uere uf ifrd in London on tin S5i lli.it the I of paina and penalties would not London, Oct. 25. |>er? of Friday, Saturday lb?vc arrived. IbcOocli* , ess of Berri is so completely restored to health, that her royal highness has notified her intention of publicly receiving visits of congratulation. Her visitors, however, are all to ap pear before her in deep r ourning. A telegraphic dispatch was receiv ed in Naples on the rth of Octobor, announcing the surrender of Palcr-t mo. On that day, general l'ire took possession of the forts. A general parden w as published in the name of tha prince vicar general, and the af fairs of state have now returned to their ordinary course. The troops who had been taken prisoners at Pa lermo on the first revolt, to the num ber of 450 men, rejoined the royal standard. Tha national parliament of Naples i commenced its public sittings on the 2d of this month. Several committees were appointed, and the internal re gulations used by the cortes of Spain were adopted pro temper' , until the parliament shall bave framed others better suited to its purposes. The j ministers of state were to make re ports respecting the affairs of their several departments during the fol lowing week. The cortes of Spain have for seve ral days been occupied with the fi nances of the kingdom. The propo sed loan of 200 millions of reals has experienced much opposition. The committee of finance, nevertheless, passed a resolution for its adoption, and in the sitting of the 12th, the I ccrtes, by a majority of 126 against 27, accepted the proposals of M. M. Hubbard and Ardouin for the loan. The assembly also determined, that the mouopoly on tobacco and salt : should case from the first of March ! next. The decree fur the extinction i of the inujorats has been sanctioned | by the king. I ' VIRGINIA. The legislature of Virginia commen ced its session, at Kichmond, on Monday tnc 4'.li instant. From the governor's address which is very lengthy, we have made two extracts; one on the subject of the black population, the importance of wfcich is equally felt by all the south ern states; the other on the system of banking, a subject which has acquired considerable inteiest in every part of the union. Every individual is more or ies> effected by hanking operations; and as banks cannot perhaps be entirety dis pensed with, any new views of the sub ject calculated to diminish the evil, while their usefulness is retained, are deserv ing of attention. ** The deplorable error of our an cestors, iu copviug a civil institution fi wuj aavage Africa, has fixed upon their posterity a depressing burthen, \vhi<?b nothing but the extraordinary benefits conferred aad the great cn I ergy infused by our happy climate, | could have enabled us to support through so grrat difficulties, and at the same liiue to uinintain for so ; long a period our lofty station in the | union. Th- want of moral motives I and t of intelligence, the too j common *'?seu' e i?f nettled character, tba'. marks tlie rac? degraded by sla very. if L"t bv nature, which sup plies so large a majority of the la bourers of our ntate. have deprived us. in a i wlv.w holy degree, of the ' immense advaiita^**M lor enlightened a? :i'.ulfure, uiai?uf*< tures and com merce, in vain offered by our fertile soil, our long and deep rivers, the abundance of minerals, and the ex- I traordiuary frequency of fortunate localit i<*?. \\ e have been outstripped in those important pursuits of civil ized man, by state* to which nature has U?-4*ii far l? us bountiful. The un ii? f r?sart quantity ol labour thought* IchhH waited among us in unpmduc tire mrmJ ofljres, f?rins a heavy de f'u< tioi) from the nun of our produc j tire u*eaus, *lii<h the contemptible inefticacy of the labourers themselves rouJd alone induce us to make. Tlic steady exertion of ingenious skill, j the d'Xteroua management of com plicated ma< hinery, ( an never he re lied on from such agents* and the de ficiency of those of a superior cha rafter, whose places are thus pre occupied, must keep us long depend ant on others for the comforta which refur 4 life requires. To these dis advantages, by which tlie value of the general industry is so much di minished, may be ndded an enor mous amount of waxte annually com mined, through ignorance, apathy, and want of responsibility* support ed not by fear, but by reason and self interest, whvh no mechanical habits given by education can errr replace. It is painful to calculate what misfit have been, under other i in umMam es, the amount of the ge neral wealth in Virginia, or the whole 6am of the memos ?f comfortable ex istence and happiness possessed by all her inhabitants, at the expiration of two centuries, with the euergy tier free citizens have displayed .and the advantages nature had bestowed. ?? Great actual loss is unavoidably sustained by individuals from the encouragement aud facility given to secret pillage, by the numerous e mancipated people of colour, and their descendants every where to be found among us. The farmers of Virginia, in peaceful country situa tions, suffer as much from that evil, as the great cities of other countries. May not some remedy he found, at least for this latter evil? Do not the circumstances render it just, that it should be declared a misdemeanor in free persons of colour to traffic with slaves, without a written permission, to be exhibited beforehand to a com petent witness? And might not trans portation to St Domingo, or Africa, with forfeiture of freedom for return ing, be made the commutation of pu nishment? Tho damages at present incurred by such an actt with the al ternative of corporal punishment, of ten inilicted by feint, have been found an unavailing remedy. It is believed that a law forbidding emancipation, unless on condition of transportation over sea, with a pecuniary penalty for-the omission, would not be unac ceptable to tho state. To assert the impolicy and dangerous tendency of any attorn pt at general emancipation, however gradual, would be entirely superfluous, if the finger of scorn had not recently been pointed at this blemish on our political body, by those from whom it was lately re moved, not by a tive remedies dicta ted by moral feeling, but by the slow effects of unfavourable climate, long passively awaited, until at length the evil became reduced by it to a man ageable head. How unpardonably erroneous would be the calculation, which should give the least room to hope for permanent safety, to |>er sons or property, in the midst of needy and idle vagabonds, who had never known from their birth any law but force, ever impending, in deed in too many cases ever acting somewhere in view! General milita ry protection would soon become in dispensable to Society. How cruelly improvident would it be to commit to the care of a destitute, ignorant, and slothful people, the existence of that great number of beings, render ed helpless by age, infancy, or infir mity, which their body must neces sarily contain! What guarantee for their welfare could he obtained under such circumstances? However, 'fici ther the absolute despair of lessen ing the evil in a sensible degree in our ovt n time, nor our innoccnce of its orign, can fairly discharge us from that just responsibility to posterity fehich conscience imposes. To pro | vide some means of gradually redu cing, henceforward, the number of persons of servile condition likely to be born within our territory, might be expected from a generous regard for (heir happiness. //A free commu nity of that particular race of men now under consideration, has been ! established sufficiently near us to ad.nit of emigration at little cost, and yet separated by a sufficient space of sea to render the interdic tion of return an effective measure. Faculties for self government, in a tropical climate, and an insular situation* have been displayed by them. The willingness of their sove reign ruthority to receive emigrants, surh as we wish to send forth, is not doubted. Can it be supposed that the government of the United States will hesitate a moment to make arrange ments for their transportation, and reception when arrive*)?* May we not confidently expect, that it will be ready hereafter to interpose its in fluence and power, if at any time requisite to protect the asylnm which events have tlms provided, for the consummation of their hoj*s, and our wishes with regard to them? A taste for our prodnctions would most probably be quickly introduced by the new inhabitants, and an advan tageous commerce with the island, in the exchange of our corn, meal and flour, for their coffee and sogar, to a rapidly increasing amount, might be the reward of our generosity in a few years. It would be a measure not only of magnanimity, but of sound policy, to consecrate the wbete revenue now derived to our treasury | from slaves, to the purchase, by vo luntary contract, in a fair proportion throughoot the state, of youth of both sexes, just arrived at the age of pu berty, to be transported to that coun try at the public expense. Two hun dred years have, been requisite for this evil to grow, keeping pace with our own growth to the head it now holds among us. The geometrical progression denoting the increase of a single pair in that time, would give a number Millicicnt to startle an en lightened calculator, who feels a ge nerous regard for the interests of dis tant posterity. But humanity would not forbid* at least for a considerable length of timev a double proportion of females to be removed from among us evrry year. The importations from Africa were never considered more inhuman, for having included a much greater disproportion of males in the cargoes. Besides, it is a remedy for a diseased state which we have occasion to seek, and effi cient remedies are rarely ever entire ly smooth in their operation. // ?* Although it is not necessary at this time to invite the attention of the legislature to the subject of banking, yet as the same men are not of dif ferent times, indulgence may be ask ed for the expression of very delibe rate sentiments with regard to it. It begius to be evident that no perma nent increase of the quantity of the circulating medium, among us at least, can be obtained from banks. Tlicir issues are too closely limited by rivalry, and the rigid necessity of preserving a steady equilibrium among themselves, to afford that ad j vantage. A benefit in the manage ment and employment ?f large funds, is undoubtedly afforded to capitalists through their means. ** but that part of (he industry or a country. which possesses not. and yet absolutely needs a monied capi tal for its employment, is annihilated, or reduced to a paralysing slate of dependence, by the mode in which capital is dispensed by banks. They, beyond doubt, have a strong tenden cy to prevent permanent advances 1 by capitalists for the promotion ol useful industry, and to facilitate and encourage those employments of mo ney least beneficial to the general in terests of society. Although such pa per is more convenient than coin as a medium of exchange, yet it never can be a standard of value by which alt property may with certainty and security be measured. A solid sub stance of imperishable nature, and in universal demand from its gene- , ral utility, which conveys great rral value in small bulk, is readily divi sible, ami easily tested, can alone afford such a measure ? and that is also subject to some alteration in its comparative value, even in the ordi nary course of affairs. The quantity may augment in a country from an increased demand abroad for its pro ductions, the opening of new com merce with countries producing the precious metals, or a sudden increase of industry, intelligence, and skill in the arts, if attended by economy; and all these events are subject to the influence of moral and political causes. In tbat case a new equilibri um adjusts itself, and more silver is given for the same thing, and rival ry is natnral to inau. Hut pa|?er ne ver can be a measure ?f value, its own value resting altogether upon confidence which rumours endanger, and ordinary commercial eveuts may I destroy. Although paper cannot sup ply the place of specie in its most important use, it effectually expels coin from a country. '* l lie specie of banks is for ever in the power of great capitalists, who have of course extensive command of bank paper. But enlightened, active and enterprising men, possessed of large capital, will ever be fond of bold adventures, and the grandeur of sudden conceptions, often formed too hastily, upon intelligence rrude ly digested, has a fascinating influ ence over such minds. In many in stances specie is the best remittance, and upon very sudden occasions of promising speculation it is the only cargo that ran be sent out with suffi cient despatch. While the coin of a country is in circulation, dispersed throughout the wh??|f> territory, it cannot be readily exported. To col lect it would require uitirb time and home premium, both of which would tend to delay, discourage and pre vent all commercial enterprises by means of that remittance. The. state of Virginia, although it may be ea sily drained of specie through its banks, possesses small moans of re pairing its loss. The most common ?ecessariet of life, with the addition of one useless luxury safely dispens ed with, and abundantly produc ed in a great variety of climates, are its only resources. The demand for the latter must ever be precarious, and for the farmer scarcely less so, as all other countries known, with very little exception, are capablc of pro ducing tbem, and all the people of the world, when left to follow thtir own understanding, use their utmost endeavoar to produce tha greatest quantity possible. From our exam pic the people of other countries have acquired a knowledge of their rights, and that monopoly of soil, which li mited its productive power, has va nished with feudal dependence. But a still greater evil seems to be ins?, parably connected with the system of banking. Great fluctuations in the quantity of circulating medium pro ceed from their vascilating nature, and such changes are productive or the most distressing consequences in society. A sudden necessity for ali enations to a great amount, must ever produce extensive misery by the depression of property below it3 just value, which they unavoidably occasion. Much is takei for little that has been received. Nothing, it is true, is lost to the world by tie transfer, and it is even probable that the unexpected happiness produced, is equal to the sudden misery, occa sioned ? but that is equally true of pillage in war. In both a sudden and violent change is made in the equili brium of society, as before estabtui. ed. M hetlier tlie agent be force m artifice, the consequences are pro. ductive or so mnrli distress as to tio worth some endeavour to avert. In the actual state of business, produ ced in no small degree by the banks, it is not probable thai banking will ever be dispensed with. Indeed it is to be expected, that it may at some time be thought doubtful', whether any association desirous of underta king to bank, if able to pledge sufli cient solid capital, in surely availa ble funds, can ia justice be denied. At some fuiurc day it may be found worth considering, what might be the probable effect of collecting the whole revenue in specie, beginning with a part, and gradually increasing, so as to give time to business and feeling to accommodate to the change, until no paper of any kind be any longer received for taxes. The specie col lected would certainly be as safo in the care of the officers of the govern ment, as it could be, if it belonged to stockholders, and lay in the vaults of the banks. Through the interven tion of some corporation, as bills of credit cannot be directly issued, a quantity of paper equal to the reve nue recei\ ed in specie, might be thrown into em ulation every year. Having the faith of the common wealth pledged, in the second place, for its ultimate redemption with spe cie, and moreover being the true re presentation of specie ac tually in the treasury, it would be willingly re ceived in all payments made by the state. The certainty of its basis would make it very desirable to hoard, and equally good to circulate in the state, with any other paper, which bears the character of being daily exchangeable, while the reali ty is ever impossible to any great amount for a continuance. All the banks near our borders which adhcrr to specie pa} merits, would be made to contribute to the collection of the revenue of Virginia, in some degree, if their notes circulate at all within the state. The revenue itsrlf under such circumstances, would not b? susceptible of a great and sudden in crease, which must ever seriouslr distress the people. No inconsidera ble benefit to them! sinco after war, pestilence, famine and tyranny, tax ation is most to be dreaded by them, j A large spe< ie capital would thus be I acquired by t lie state, the regulation I of wliii h would be entirely in the hands of the legislature. Such is sues, and such precaut'-ons against exportation, as their wisdom might dictate, would ho annually directed and provided* Nor r an it he reason ably supposed, that a postponement i of the redemption of any part of the paper in question, if circumstances required it, would affect it* value, when that could not possibly be ra ted b) specie, hut only by some oth er paper, which could not, itself, in fact, command specie in quantify. But this prospect belongs to another period, when nearer views will de termine whether the suggestion now made be worthy of notice. The sub ject is however important enough to require little apology for Attracting the attention of the legislature to it at any time and under any form." Advantage of a Public Library. Shortly after the establishment ?fth? Apprentices' Library in Huston, a young man of about seventeen yeats of acf? apprentice to a shoemaker, applied and inquired for /Cuclid'a Element*. I he li brarian did not immediately know how to receive surh an unexpected applica tion. He told the lad that it wa* not at present in the collection, but soon would be. Anxious to know the real drift of the lad, he conveyed him to the profes sor of mathematics in the university* who, after some conversation, exclaim ed to the librarian, " It this lad is pv?>* peily encouragcd, he will turn me out of iny (.hail in a lew years."