union. Tin: constitution ami mi: lawn-mr. uiiaiciii vns of ih:u i.ii.krtv.
if nil 1 1 in i
R . II I ! fi
L-YsS LZLb 4 i-ii
'mirt have uiiV, nl many million, nf
UMfar, wa the rae durio t'e ar i'l
I Kl$, iiiitM .av Lent sarniiccd in dn-
f-.Hit.ts iijn linn, am! upon the depn e
aied p'l eurrrnry vhU-h .he govern
ment would liars len routix lied to uf .
U ler the operations of the constitution
al treatlir IU llullsf lus been 1M dv
1. 1.. .1 r ,t.
her sum of three hundred an.! forty fix
thousand .hree l,i.ui!rcd ami miy'rum
d..I!..r and ttiitty rem. In U-rn paid in
lo llie treasury, and lai.ripi inVd bnlann
iiU remain in Ue liaisd. of dohur-ing of.
fifw and io mere engaged in ihe
ri.lh-rt.on of these money . A for the
It i fratjfyii p tu Cod tl.e rtvt-unre !
the dcp.iirtni.i, isiHi. r ilo latesol jxM-t.igr
now d l.y Iw, o
creasing. ThegroM a.nMil
doling tie lust f.x-il year anwM.ired Ut
four million thrcu hundred and s
one llwtinid and etei.tv seven
M iii of mrs-mre wa t1.td 1. h. r f ip-vtl .ti-Hi. Imi;t lrrn ili-pV, ej
i ni'i d nid ron.l ir.fd, rooni'ntfJ Lai ". u i kim - ii.L..irr. I.ut mM -n!
rapidly in-1 iimu d by ibetr atnlnHsaiJ du-u- Jim iLe i-Lid nn s!i of IKi. Itr,
i.f tia:c j the Auii-iaraii yt m. 1 1"21. in l il ouUif iU rt
Tlte inWur!i.n f ilir rww ooLry I " a li-siU tnd auwUr '.
prnrUniaiHin of xarp,nfuri!iirdi1uiH.rsirrdinp llir annual trt:ic tccr'i
KiMity ' for a iime f ,on- l Ly ilir cihhImhmi of i!m
iLdUr. riiiiury; !y t -raTy dil l.irb I.adS I Lr lunl a Imt rn Imr
rel fur Imh rontrirtrd i!uring lie rai; Ly lUJ 'fM- A li-ili'Wlrf
ram-h of i?e
- . - - - . -- - - . .
utriiU en uimlo of any um x jirnd.il tiin-Jihe niw jrari iii:ni'i!i.il ty prorrdu: tlir;d. umhi of the jiuldii" !; Ir t!rJ", "u',1, 5"M " ihmmi of duh
nry aiidig fomi ourn. 'II b ! naage of il.p s,rt 4 lli ll.ird of Marrli, , t!ir.iit'' d ii of l!ie InniMt and tl euf ! 'r '" i ! i i4 t I i!oguird
IVn-m'-Y a, 1 ( McVun wrrr urminf d .y the STr-tir-! Ince on hand mere ilmrud t Ihi pid I R5, ly lli uni of is ihn::nd four rrrtcy ; and l.y the roomieo-i-il and jtu- ,,,4 ""y "f ;iim.i i Hie new
(('oiiiiimo! frooi our U4-) f 1m Trranry uyti nrt realizing J ltn ' tury, andindttidu4 rUinik on luuutRHl and fifty tlm !..Ui, and rx-!itiary rntlariwr ism til hili exininuly m Ji'l "-t irxM 'Jt-rdy pyrornt a
hirw mfiiiitiiu ti C.if fjorrrniin-nl. Tha j f""'! wiU rt-inain uu:i!jiihti d until Con j -rec'ing the annul avrn - ren ied fur the nrtaih 1. h t i rc wt thi' oi.lv ran ' f''i"l to the i4h.r jmjsiTity, hut
me eomniemal r vuMona ir!Hl revtraMims rHTt ol the avali-in mihiu the 1 2r,' "n. ""-nxc tiw ir M.uu inciu aim nine y-ais iir-nir-naieiv i rcrciiin" Hit-nna-. M B huli HU lo ii t.n-tajirni. I lie ;- i. -
alry liwtorore ojM-r.ind t Ji- tendfinie- t eireMir oanir inuMi hr U,i,3r,ucnU I wfr ilaiint are not ruiMdv I apc iI Hie arioi ihe liiiMiof Marrh, 1H15. i-vmu of the war wmii C.ieat Uriiain. and ""'" " 'un""
t r . r. I. ... . i iit. i t. ' . :.. ......!.... A. ........ t ii.a in.n .r; i .....i f .... 1......1....1 ! .1 1...... .. 1 1. ..1 ......!. .i. :.Iiiiiiiii tu the national Lank, and rend r
i. ..r !..i -. 1 1 1 . ... i. r I - r 11. I -...1 f.f. il.r ...!!... .i.-!:. ....;..., i. ...i i. rt .... .1. .ili-d iixrrafed taK:tiun oeressarv to the
rvi'iT omim 11 'i iim-iu-u iuiiu-it v 1 v iiira. jui iTim:umm 01 our iiiMiira j 1 reenmniriiij vi vnur lavnraoie eoni 1 v " . m i h 1 .-.t .. . - .
j.i n rrttin ii-,tiii v ....1 ...... Ti.. i.!..r.ii.. n. tn ..ii.,n .r i i.o v.....i..r.. ' niiiiiuiu n cm en itr inc wvtt eiiu.iia iiie iimiiv iii uiir iairit.en iiie itiMri'Hiu . - ..... .v-., . . .u... ......
I " a. .... i
'Hi U'Wix'rarv d i'r'iun of a imhiiou
our ininiif irturini intereat- i thet lTrt of
f,irri;u ruc. and fir lc irvcre than
n prirailcd on all fainter iinilar orca-
widMn of t!ie ayMfin lua lioen U fled, hy
t!ie exrricm e of the Wi two yean, and
it it the dirt ite of found pni'ry that it
f Imiild ri'iu.ua uM.lihturlic d. The niodifi-
of War and the Serretary of the Katy in
regard to h gMution on ihi uhjrrl.
Our Indian n l-nioin are jrcrnied in a
moat favorable tit lit Hie ri-Hirt Iroin the
thiiiictli of June, I hi?, hy the tiiu of four ! lhat our cntt-ronn nt
hundmljaiul twchty jrv lhmis,iiid viw ,emugh and lhat to wit hi ib
liuiidrru &nd eighty f.ur iiDhara.
I .. .:n: . l. I . ii
;tH lit HIMi; i '""""I" "1 aiiiiiu.ii
i.i"iii;rcf uc-l I bit ri-nibi! in liarn.nny wiui 1I0
iei-alullV Hi treat cincrEijieien, ano rir ; ni-i or-iui h 01 iiie new vvxiein, wiih ii
The f iiicndiiurc for the year, esclu . eiallr iu war, moie ouw er should I eon 1 wan a high oroteeiive taiiiT. Thi at to
It m U liewl lhat, timlins to the treat eatiuii- in x.iii of the details of thi mea-" U'-r 11 .rtnu i.t. 'i'lio wihim ,f I i,n ,p mm "r '"iW,y ',u, Hi-aiMl m eeinrated in ti haii.!. f lo. meiei-i il , al...r l t.unm a to fa, nil eUe and .ar.
r : . m . mm a a : - a- r. a .
,-r,.,ie of all our ii.b re.is the whole i. nre, iiiorins mine of iu eenual rrin-!,Mdicr in refwl to the tri!c iihiu our I ,,un,,rrU aml ,tveuJr Uo ,,u!,ar nllowed . wwt-r uVy iJ wlwl loohiim hy the. tirtlar .uikuiw. al iheesvf neofIl oiIl
.."unuf waa lierer none .r.prrou than 'eiidet. href.ire eommended. are am limita. i rlearlv m:iniftc.l tv their iiu-,uyK's -lt toindiiidual ; hgiiinute and f-remdtd n.Mle &n a-jer. A roponion t lis the whole peo
. tttf we-ent Wiwl, and neer mow ra prenied for vour f-ivonhle con-ideratio.i. j .irovf d and rapiil!y iiui.rovii ewidiiinn. I -'ai,a,,lu' in ludmg the rum of one ' ueudni iit of the eimniua..n hut l.y pie for the purpose ol riinrlung a ew waa
i.l!v mlraneins i -;dl, and ,-.pul ,iion. n 1V of ,he Mtl,of Julv laal.! A l.M i.nUlanl treaty Villi the Mc "'".! five hundnd l.dlar-:n-lrueU.M. Tliey w goninn.tnt in H moiiMn u- lo le oh , y n.ade o
NAIm r ihe f.r.i,... war in lu. I. we La.e tranMniiting to f.H,tfre.t the .alified trea-' nnmonie. vJ hem r. ee.alv negotiated hy ! Ia,d I,c T'" bf l wnrJl1 f" UI"'M fK" M,,H " 1 '" f,,,p ,'",!ert ,,e
Wm involved, nor the loan, which l.ve!ty f aeeViil, Me.ico. I ree..,nu.en.hd !, Com.niioner of Imlian Affiir- iiii,UP" Urc',".,, on,, W.;of MM,ety. and to r.uviituu-4 a lo throw pha,M de h,U iVIunie pr.uu of ' Wea.
:iS,,,r!K.d.l.rSe.,,o0-reapi,ul tLad.Tto.n of measure. f..r the ,r,,ly 1 per,,,, hv which nil their land in .he J ?7f.7LTJ T!
., ,he eonnonial revuNi..n in fj.eal I .iay(!iei , (if Uie ,,Mu- ihlt. In i.terai- State of 'VM,.in-hrinS ahout four S """"J J.oueaii.1 e.ght hundred and ol a few who Ux.,1 mm eout.ol.td the ma.0 of our eop.e were, for a me. hd
1Sf(t,. in 8?. the parly,i. of ere-; ng U,t neomn ,n,L,io. ! nfr you to!. nil lion, of heeu ecded to iho I V fw w huh ,, ke. than the' m.njr wuh..t rem.ih.h.y or n.tnuo,. oU lute lhat. ux .Mm the ma.,,
da and eo,.erre thiou-hout Kim.pe in ,,,5 eon-id-ratlo,:. rwi in til mes ' I't.ited Slaue. Tim treaty will he .ub f nn P"'- l ''", angc. l ihey eonee.ved the All upon l.K.r waa for the hentl, of he
i.-..- ..r...i ;...7.,;.....i.. ,.:'-!..' ,...:.'..:. '.. i .i s . t. I.e........ ..to the a.t of 1815. hy thiee hundred thou- Mreri-th oi ualion m war eon-utcd. laWr h p.ml it. I his hranrh of the
I'M-, iit't """ "'J" , nrr i;i il fulMMin. lie lie tlt'in. ur ouiiru in hot -iii.iiu ir liium.muii bi ,.... . . . .... . . . i ,,,. " . . . , ... I
,a.ire m iu ruiMMiit. j he rut
coni'idrrahle exu nl any of the great inter- ;dudinr that amhorizod lo be neeotiatcd. earlv period of your present feinn.
rH of the eountry, oi arrested our on- j in purmanee of exiting laws, and includ-1 Within the list four year. eiiht impor
wr4 man h to gnauiesa, wtahli an J pow-; inj, fPJ,iry noica, amounted at that lime ; tant trcatitg have heeu nrgotiutcd with
.. . . I m
II, id tho UMturunni'e in hurnpo not jM.vi iitv eigl
prrurriMl, our conuneree wmild unduuhi- fifty dollar and forty one eenw.
sand sevcu hundred and furlv tiuht dot There wa :.lso iiomethinr faoeinatipg iu
lar. j the ease, luxury, and difplay of the logh-
The 'mail router, on the thirtieth day er orders, who drew tl.e ir weaUli from the
,.t I l i t . lil -II !!. .1 .
. . . . ... . . i iii juiic ia.L wi'ri. .rii.f. i.iin.ira.ii ami iiti. . ii.ii i.i inn i:iiiriiir iiiiiiiiiiim.. i up auiiitir
loaulv fit imlJion feven hundred ami .dillertnt InUian tnljes, an! al aeostoionc. , - . ' , - 7.t .."!.'. ; i"... ..r ..i;.;...i
i-ixhl thou-and four hundred and million eicht hundred and fo.ty twolhutt- ," .?' "
Iv h ive hecn nil more estend d. and
would have a!dtd Mill more to the nation
al wealth and puhlie prosperity. Hut not-
iihtnndiui; lhee doturlaurcs, the ope
t ,.... . -?... I f ...t... I, ..I .;ina...l
sand dollar. ; Indian lands to the amount , mrrease (li ning reononiT imu. w... '
of more than eighteen million Cre hundred j 1 ,e Ml 7 nf n,n? xU" f ? l ' LMT ! Vi ? , ", TLu Z
- . . ' ll'PlI Unit llllll'tt- nillna 1 l,a ..-.!. i.mmm lain 'I l,D liml llfU'l-il lll( Plllirillf ItlH
.,.,, .,r,.. i.. ,!,., i l...1f . ,;t a.f ini,ii. n.-n-. I.ut I.m-ii erileil lo l ie , "'v- . "
, , , , .. , , i . , ... i i.... transportea over them, durms the same wealth coneentrated in lew liaiuKiiml had
lars, has been purchaM'd. en authorized hy Lnited btates; and provision has been . 1 , . .. ' , ' . . , . . -..
i .i . i ... ii ii... .. i.. r . ,.,...... ,.,, nr l"ne, forty one million twelve thousand seen the splendor or the overprown es-
law, smre that ixriod. and the I'uhlicdcht rntde for eriilinj in the country west of . , ' , . ., .... ... .'. , . i:..i.
..r .! .v.tem e.t:lyil,..d!.... ,.... I ,.t......l . it. a .1...;i ..r .1.. t;;..in,.: il, irit.P wl.i.h etnA , "B M'"on-uanueewniy nine lime.; maii- . launaniiieiiw oi an ni.wr.iri .u.... wM
r .v, "".. "r:. v,i : r. ' ; .1" :;;:::'.V7 w or transportation f.r the upheld hy the re.tncuve poiiey. They
oy , e .ana -r. .. .0 7 , wine,. w, oe ,.n -semeu n me annua, rc . . V - year of two million one hundred and twen- lorcnl to look tluwn upon the poof rlas.ea
n-raiiy .wnrnew. . u.c " -"".por. o, ,:,e .creiarr 01 me 1 reasury. , nsuu. . ... M.e .....m . , . - f fc eighty of the Knglinh popu l it.on. upon whose
ihe hu.iness of ihe country, lln.1 no ehuice, The etimatea of exnemi.ture for the , the several States of our Union, with the -.. ..... ., , ,' ....ni.
in Iw provismns is demanded lv a wise
puhlie policy, and none i reeommeiidi-d.
The operations of the constitutional
(9iury eHt.iWuhcd hy tho art of the sixth
of August, 18 If., in the reecipi, custmly.
' I. l.:l... I .I 'l.. I. I.. I at ... .. a...t.1.a.l.-
. f . . . . . .. . t ....-ii 1 iiioc, wiiiiBi iiiu cxiH'iiFe was less man uany aim veany i.iuor ihv 'A'rmt o'",,lr
next fiseal year, sul.in.ttej hy the W , exception of a few small ' ,.,. of ,lP previous year hy four thousand menu they so much admired wre sua
tary of the Tre.iMiry, it i. believed, will now extmi.ui.died, and a wast region open- ..,., , , . ' ' .... ...7 ,, 1.. nr.
I laincd and supported. They failed to per
1 eeive that the scantily ted ami half t'hul
two hundred and thiity five dollars..
The increase in the mad transportion eeive that the scantily
within die last three years has been five operatives were not only in ahjert pover
he amnio for all necessary inirnoses. If ed for settlement and eulnvation.
I . " ... .... I M
tlic ojipropriatioas made by Lonres shall j 1 lie accompanying report 01 inc oecre-
not exceed Iiie amount eatiniatrd, tlio tary 01 me iavy e.vis a miismeiory .'.,..,. . . .. . ... , .., irillll,i :.. ' iin:n-.1r ..,inn...
and di-hursement of the. pnhlic money, I ,,,,. n the treasury will he ulTieient to hihit of the operations and condition of . , . At) fo f f;1,.oniJ ,
I . I.M ll.4r.ll 1 t St. tkf i .1 ..r.a ..tl a... a., m ..I II.., ,..i,JkBninA,.i tlll t I'M I lM t .t fllfl r.tlflll mtt W I M . 1 -w- ... .
' ,""m,H" ,7 1 , ' -! "'"", ""-b-7 '"" . r ' t ,ita r 'whist the expenses were reduced four c asses, who were the exclusive i.l.jeclsol,
I . . nnl. rililllM lllVII hMII I.. ..... r ll. .....I mol. ....ill ..f I .... mil. X till llllilr III till. ill PS!pll itll itiaf .III lllf . . . . ' ........ .v. . . 4
, l!' J V " , . ' ' I'V , .-;; I . Vi ,r r t; ' hundred and fifty ex thousand seven linn- the care ol the government.
earned throurh a fon-.pi war. involvm, ,Mm. t.f tUUr to Mcx.eo. which will . Zut ' anJ dollars-makin, an : 1, was nt possihl. to rccon,tn,ct soeie-
the necrss.iy of loans and extnordma.y jdue on the t urtulh ot May next, and s .11 '"''p; increase of servi. a. the rate f fifteen ,y in ,he L'nit.d Stairs upon tl.e Kuro-
exped.t;,rc...nd nqmrinj; distant trans-eonn, erahlc snnde. t-ill rcrnain. wlweh t eir.ce, cy lrtn.;j"0" pn r,n. lcre .here was a wii.ten
fersa,,ddrhr,em7U.w,U,-uleml,.rra,.-!,l,od the f.iUher purchase . . M"" nJZS f ".ore than fifteen per cent. 1 fonstitmion. hy wh.eh orders and title,
ment. and no loss has occurred of any ofif tf,- pdie stock and reduction of the when no longer valnablo Tor naval pur- )urj(t na . ' f ., h , ' ...,,tf'iSi.,l .,r il(.ted A sva-
the puhUmo,,eyd,riied under nspro- deht. npWi,,ions he i
vision. Whilst ,t h.s proved lo he e , mule, the mny eon.e.pienee w, I he . JJj Uffiea Department, two ocean steamers calculated, if not intended, to withdraw
nndnseful to the government, , cfTects . p.jpone the payment of tl. J P?(","T5;- "Tw Iw?ii Sa ' 5f "'eying tlae n.aaiU monthly between power gradually and silently from the
have hern ,no.t Wnefirnl upon ho bus,- .Though our debt, as compare, with tint ,n' York and firemen.' and one. since tate. a.id the mass of the people, and by
cm of thf country. It ha. ten. cd pon-- f other mtions. ,s smnll ,t our ""'JP October hat, pcrformin,r semi monthly eons.ruetion to approximate our govern
erfully to secure an rion.Pt.nn from that . true policy. .d ,n harmony with the ge-, lo . h n''' J"0' are ; servite h C'liariesion and llavain; ment to the Kuropean models, subtut-
I il...... ....... nl ilia n.x.r rnr. ..t ... .....it.. ...... a il... tin liniilJ laliliKlimcill. Aiicdiiaie ftiuaurons are i . ..a . ... ... .
' . , i , , 1, " " ' i ,ripra of the ' a,ul a cnillra n rrn mmle nr the hg an ar stocraey or wealth for that of or
... ...... ....-. ti..i.ii.. ........... ...M.i.i k.. ..-. .nr..4.-M ii ni:i in.:n neii in inc several euaners oi uie . ... . . o . . j
- . .1 - I a. H tm
as often occurred under tne nanK uepos.ie comn.am!.n(f position among me nauon. ; i.' eifie. and are exoee.ed to enter unon the up in the United Slates a system similar
I i in vuc aucnuon m inv hi "iiiuitnuu- i - i ...... . . . ..
-c, injur.'... ........... r..v m.r. ! ,,.- .,.,... , - --, . iransportalinn Ol the 1'aeiie ma. s across . nn nn. i i p.
reuderinj so uncertain the rewards of , a ,.,,,3, wp..Mi.-. possessing vast resourc.s globe wl.cre experience ins si.own 1 lei j iho ch ,0 Vnmm:u . Without rellectin unon the dissimi-
, and it isheheved ha.larCely en- ad wcal.h, wlmliy exempt fmrn pnl.lie ; .mire, may re m,s .-..y . .,7, lhorrJ Utiw ( our institutions, and of iheeomli
d to pre-crve the whole eountry indebtedness. This would add still more an. .mo nava. se vice wa. - vh..- K"i .ion'i.fnnr oeonle and il,..Se of Konmo.
a serious comn.crri.l revulsion, such , onr strenetli. and Cive to us a Mill more : dituin of bifii.tr oisc.pimc or greater em- v v; - -- Mm .. ,
I iibtll VWIIM l,tCTU illitj evil I lt WIl" 1 I -s.v -..w -- .v.-4 v.
- ti.A mi inirn w:ib 11 mil ninn
...,,. ' V., V. V ... ....L...U I. ar.i.a nrt, N.vv on the mail service between Panama and On-con. to liiai wnieli tney a.nnireu ai.roa.i. ureal
tuition ,n the bns.ness o. v.reai , ..a n ; , e pun.ic expenmm 7.770 oeceo- u.. . . - am, intermediate port., on the first of Britain had a national hank of large eapi-
01 sjreal exten. am. ....rnsny. wn en mini - a,, anu no connnc. .0 o r"' ' " ; uJ. . " "r reouired Jy r.l. and a fouril. has hecn en- tal, in who.e hands was coneentrated live
followed h. failure m lhat fc.ni.lmn .tin- ry oh,ees are rlearly .tl..n the pnw- H ..jew fTVV, r iita ctTo Tl 1 Pgrd by hn for the service helween controlling monetary and fina.-,d power
prece. ented in m.inhcr snd amount of loss- cr4 ,., I Wn-e-. A! sneh as are not al, that f W"" lZuZ2 "" snd Chagrr so thai a regular of the nation ; an in.li.ution wi, ldir.jj al-
es. This is heheved to he the first in- soh.tely demanded should he Pd. "era - fc am, in.
stance when such d.sastrou, hanktnp.c.es. am the payment nf the puhl.c debt at the '0;;a lhat time between the United Slat a and lluence upon all the opera.ions or trade,
neenmng in a country with nhi. h we have e,rl.cst pradical, e period should be a car- 1 our territories on the Pacific. i and upon the policy of the government it-
such ex.csive commerce, produced hide dmal pcplc of our puhhc policy. c hut w , houUin) Wed f ,u I con Nolwhlstam!; lhig . . 5t,lf. lreat ,ritaill hat, an ebnormoHS pub.
or ni in urious clTeci nrou om trade or I or the reason assienril in tny last an-: cur in opinion itl. tlieereun.inai ne v.. .ii. nn,l it had bncme a n:,rt of her
. .. ...a.. d c-lMMll.. .11. f V. V 1 1 lit. . ' 1 1 .... ' - -" " - ' I -
1 ' .1
... ... ,-..1 . 1 . 1 .1 . . 1. I ...... 1.H11M Iiu imnrnvpi hV r.MIUi'inir iiie
currency. Wo remained run lime .iicc- nual tnessajre, 1 repeal uie iccommenua-...... ..-.j - ?
ted in our money market, and our husi- lion thai a branch of the mint of the Uni-; number of landsmen, and increasing ihe
lies, and industry Were still prosperous . t,;, States be established at the city of; marines. Such a measure would jnsti y
and proercssive. , , New York. The importance of this mea- an increase of the number of officers to
Dnrinc the present year, nearly the 'sure is qreatlv increased by the acnuisi- the extent of tho reduci.on by dismissal,
whole continent of Knmno has been con- Nion of the rich mines of the precious me-! and still tho corps would have lower ol-
vnlsed by civil war and revolutions, at-t;Tls in New Mexico and California, and
tuuded hy numerous bankruptcies, by an 'especially in the latter,
imprcceiiented fall in their public securi-j repeat the recommendation, heretofore
lies, ami an almost universal paralysis of made, in favor of the graduation and tc-
commerce and industry ; and yet, although jduction of the price of such public lands
our trade and the pi ices of onr pmducts have been long olfered in the market,
must have been somewhat unfavorably af-; and have remained unsold, and in favor of
h-cted by thceft causes, we have escaped j extending the rights of pre-emption to ac
a revulnon, our monov market is com- turd settler" on the unsurvryed as well as
. aa. . .. .
paraiively easy, and public, anu pnvaio me surveyed i.nius.
credil have advanced and improved
III mc .111111. 1 , ... . , , ,
' ... n.M. Kk ..(ill l.anll.n n ..An -.ml . . I n . .
The contracts for the transportation 01 . - " . u .. .v-
uuciion ot postnecs inaue 10 a unnorm
the mail in steamships convertible into
war steamers, promise to realize all the
Untie to increase the present year as it did public policy to regard tins as a "public
in the last,-there will be received near four blcsing." Great Britain had also a rc
hundred and fifty thousand dollars more strictive policy, which placed fetters and
than the expenditure. i burdens on trade, and trammelled the pro-
These considerations have satisfied ihe 1 due,tic industry of the mass of the nation.
Postmaster General lhat. with certain mo-' Hy her combined system of poucy, the
dilicalions of ihe act of IS 15, the revenue ' landlords and other property holders were
protected and enriched by the enornius
! taxes which were levied upon the labor
rate of five cents, without an interference
benefits to our commerce and to the navy with the principle, which tins been eon-
which were anticipated. The first stca-j sianuy anil properly enioreeti. 01 mating
mer thin secured to the government wa" that department sustain useit.
launched in January. 1847. There sre A well digested cheap postage system is
now seven; and in another year there wiil.; the best means of . illusine mtell.genc.e
v 1 ' - ..I .: .. ..... ;. nf .h nr. ' nrobably. be not less linn seventeen allnat. j among tne people, an., is o. so mucin o,.or
IIU 1 Mil a l 1 II "ll'f i'"i""- " I ' ,
1 ' . . . I . . 1 1 trn in
a - - a
lieen aarcd from their effect hy tbe salu
tary operation of the constti11lion.1l treasu
ry. Il is certain, that if the twenty-four
millions of specie imported into the coun
'ry during the fiscal year ending on ibo
public service under
the War Department
presented in the accompanying report
the Secretary of ar.
On the return of peace, our forces were
Ihe supervision or secured, our social and commercial inter-j the tinted Stat
. are satisfactorily course is increased and promoted w.th j your favorable
nnanyintr report of; Germany, Great Britain, and other parts ; t.ons of the Pos
thirtieth of June. 1817. had gone into tho withdrawn from Mexico, and the voltin-
banks, as lo a great extent it must have leers and that portion or ihe rrgu ar 'army
done, il would, in the absence of this svs-, eiig:ired for the war were disbanded. Or
tem, hare been made the basis of alig-Jders have been issued for stationing tho
mci.ted hank ppcr issues, probably to an forces of our permanent establishment al
Huiounl not les than sixty or seventy various positions in our extended country,
millions of dollars, producing, as an inev- where troops may be required. Owing
ilnhle eon-equen.-e of an inflated enrren- to the remoteness of some of these post
ry, extra vacant, prices for a li.no, and wild ; lions, the detachments have not yet reach-
- . . .! . . . . 1.1..!- .1 V. I. dan. Iimr IIia
speculation, uluch must hsve been lot- eu uic.r wn 1 .,........
lofted, on the reflux to Bmope, the sue-'extension ol ihe limits of our country and
reeding year, of so much of that specie, ihe forces required in ihe new territories,
by (he prostration f the business of the ill is confidently believed that onr present
country, the suspension ol the banks, and military esiauiisnmem i
most extensive bankruptcies, i iccurnng,
as this would have done,ala period when
the country was engaged in foreign war,
when considerable loans of specie weie
. . r..i .i...
exigencies, so long as our peacvim n
lions remain undisturbed.
Of ihe amount of military contributions
collected in Mexico, the sum of seven
required fir distant disbursement, and hundred and sixty nine thousand six linti
when ihe hanks, ihe lise-d agent of the jibed and fitly dol'la.s was applied towards
Rovi rumi-iit, .net the depositories of its j the payment of the fitvt instaliue.it due
oii-'ti - , , were Mispeiuh-d, die public credit j under the ttcaty with Mexico. Tlic luf-
a country ns extPnsic as inai 01
the United States, that I recommend to
consideration the surges
ostmasler General for its im
f r- ...:,i. ll ,hn xnmilrips nn tlie , provcmcnl.
West roast of our continent, especially Nothing can retard the onward progress
with Oregon and California, and between of our country, and prevent us from as
the northern and southern sections of ihe sum.ng and maintaining the hrst rank
United States. Considerable revenue may among nations, but a disregard of the ex
be expected from postaaes; but the eon- pericnee of the past, and recurrence lo an
nccicd line from New York to (Mingres.iunw.se public policy. We have jus.
tUn ...ii. .mis 1.1 Ornron closed a foroisn war by an honorable
anil lllRlir-v uniras u.v ia..i..- - c - ,
cannnol fad lo exert a beneficial influence. ! peace-a war rendered necessary and un
. 1 : ..i ,i,n inirn.ta, avoidable in vindication of Ihe national
iinn. nml ,!, nureiKV of the I'- SIMM, ol country .imlinr m .o ne nM
" ... .
steamers oeiween new vim-aiif , - -- - .
Crtu. It promises the most happy re- j measures of public policy wh.ch .ff
..:; fripn.kbio between ihe lhat war. There was al lhat period of our
two republics, ami iu extending reciprocal j history a departure JJ
benelii to the trade and manufactures ofjey. I he enlargement o t
.A ll.nl ...l... I. m- ..l-n.l IVVlflimlinlOl v impr
important part 01 me system, . r- r. J .. ""7 nr,n
lo your favorable consideration 1 u 'jr .o. ..-.
ahlisl.me.it of the proposed line ol'.n 1 mo. ana uie occasion ,, ..
A . I 1- . ' . nrnnr. nna In lnl.-B n rplroSOCCl Ol tlie
of the country for their advantage,
Imitating this foreign policy, the hrst
sysbm i.iv.diid a part.uri.hip bctweei.
the G.iwriiiiH nl and iho fa voted classes
the former reeciiiuff the proceeds of
the tax imposed 0.1 iirii. le. imported, and
the latter the increared price of similar
articles p roil need at home, caused by
such tax. 1 1 is obvious that the portion
to be received hy the favored classes
would, as a general udc, be increased in
proporii-m to the increase of the rales of
lax imposed, and diminished as those
rates were reduced to the revenue stand
ard required by the wants of the Govern-
mc ni. . no ra'es required to produce a
sulficicnt revenue for ihe ordinay expen
ditures of Government, for necessary pur
poses, were not likely to jive to the pri
vate partners in this scheme profits suffi
cient to satisfy their cupidity ; mid hence
a variety of expedients and pretexts were
r -sorted to for ihe purpose of enlarging
tho expenditures, and thereby creating a
necessity lor keeping up a high protective
t iritf. '1 he effect of this policy was lo
interpose artilicinl restrictions upon thn
iirilnnl course of the business and trade of
the country, and to advance the interests
of large capitalists, m the expense or tho
people who were taxed lo increase tht ir
Another branch of this system was .1
comprehensive scheme of internal im
provements, ciipnl.le.ol indeliuite enlarge
ment, and Fii-hVicnt, to swalUw up as
many millions annually as could be ex
acted from the foreign commerce of tho
country. This was a convenient snd
necessary adjunct of ihe protective laritf.
Il was to he the great absorbent of any
surplus which might at any time accu
mulate in tho Treasury, and of the taxes
levied on iho people, not for necessary
! revenue purposes, but fi r the avowed ob
ject of iillording protection to the favored
Auxiliary to the same end, if it was not
nn rssential pari of the system itself, was
the scheme which, at a later period, ob
tained for distributing the proceeds of tho
sales rr the public lands among the States.
Other expedients were devised to take
money out of the'Treastiry and prevent
its coining in from any other source than
tho protective tariff. The authors and
suppoitrrs of the system were the advo
cates of the largest expenditures, whether
for necessary or useful purposes or not,
because the larger the expenditures tho
greater was the pretext for high taxes in
the form of protective duties.
These several me:.sures4were sustained
bv popular names and plausible arsu-
i-al which obtained, was not arra'iited by any
rt.n r,.r...r rf hr IWimastpr (Jcner
will nnke known b. you the operations ;jd interpretation , of the
of that department for the pat year. j lc years alter the close of lhat sr.
ten in establishing the new system in menis, ny which thousands were deluded.
ihe United Stales was the creation of aj The bank was presented to be an indis
national bank. Not foreseeing ihe dan- j pensable fiscal agent for the Government ;
gerous power and countless evils which, was to equalize exchanges, and to regu
such an institution might entail on the j late and furnish a sound currency, always
country, nor perceiving the connexion1 and every where of uniform value. The
which it was designed to rorm between protective rann was 10 give employment
the bank and other bnnrhes ol the mis- 10 " American labor" at advanced prices;
called "American system,' but feeling was to protect " home industry," and fur
the embarrassments of the treasury, and nisli a steady market for the farmer. In
or ihe business or the country, consequent lernal improvements were to bring trade
upon the war, some of our statesmen who into every neighborhood and enhance the
had held different and sounder views were value of every man's property. The dis
indueed to yield their scruples, and, in- tribution of the land money was toenrieh
deed, settled convictions of its unconstitu- ihe States, finish iheir public works, plant
tionality, and to give il their sanction, as schools throughout their borders, and re
au expedient which ihey vainly hoped lievo them from taxation. But the" fact
might produce rclier. It was a most un- that for every dollar taken from the Trca
fortunate error, as iho subsequent history sury for these objects a much larger sum
and final catastrophe of lhat dangerous whs transferred from the pockets or the
and corrupt institution have abundantly people to the favored classes was careful
proved. The bank, with its numerous iy concealed, as was also the tendency if
branches ramified into the Slates, soon not the ultimate design or the system to
brought many of the active political and build up an aristocracy of wealth, to con
commercial men in different sections of trol the masses of society, and monopolize
the country into tho relation of debtors to ihe political power of the country,
it, and dependants upon it for pecuniury The seven! branches of this system
lavors ; tlmsuihiismg througiioiu ine mas were ro intimately otetiueu ioguincr inai
of society a great number of individuals in their operation each sustained and
of power and influence to give tone to strengthened the others. Their joint ope
publi.! opinion, and act in concert in cases ration was to add imw bu.deus of taxation
of emergency. The corrupt power' .of and fniicourage a largely increased and
such u political engine is no longer h tn'ut- ' wasteful- pcuditureol the public money.
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