Newspaper Page Text
IMF LAST FORTRAiT OF GIORGE WASJilKGTON. Painted in 1 797 by Dr. Elisha Cullen Dick After the Original Painting, Owned by Judge James Alfred Pearce. m BELVOffi OK THE POTOMAC « | w'H£F\£ Washington! sphnt I vkjHH HAPPIEST DAYS oT HIS Y> EtfsfcOW may one bettor appeal ^1? for interest in this long-cte serted and half-forgotten Jj£ Virginia home, situated some four miles below Mount Vernon on a noble biuff overhanging the l’otomae River, and now overgrown by forest trees and tangled wild vines, than by quoting the words of Washington himself con cerning it: "The happiest moments of my life had been spent there." The happiest moments of that bril liant, crowded, epoch-making life! In the Hush of liis glory after the Revolutionary War, while the great Sender was tasting to the full the cup of earthly success in his modest re tirement at Mount Vernon, we find Slim going off for a solitary ride to Bpi voir, through the bowery stretch of •woodland between the two estates, a road so often and so eagerly traversed in his boyhood in search of file kind friends and cheery comrades who made ISelvoir his favorite resort. WASHINGTON'S EE TT Eli. Upon ids return to Mount Vernon, fail of the emotions inspired by the lonely expedition to this forsaken banur of former joys, he sat down to pen a letter to the a''«e'*t owner of Bel voir, and in so doing allowed liim > self an unusual hurst of sentiment. "Alas! Be.voir is iso more! 1 took a ride there to visit tho ruins, and ruins indeed they are. The dwelling house and the two brick buildings that un derwent the ravages of tire are very rsisicli injured. When 1 viewed them, when 1 considered that the happiest moments of my life had beeis spent 'there, when I could not trace a room in the house, now all rubbish, that ■ did not bring to my mind tise recol lection of pleasing scenes, 1 was “Obliged to fly from them, and came home with painful sensations and sor rowing for the contrast.” One can readily imagine the effect of this letter upon the proprietors of the place, long resident In England. “Tour pathetic description of the ruins of Bel voir,” writes Washington's •correspondent, iss return, "produced eBJJH-W TIALIAM FAIRl'AI. many tears ancl sighs fro n the former mistress of it.” .Wither master nor mistress of Bel roir linage ever returned to live there, and tl» consciousness ,pf the neigh bor Bsood of this wreck of happier day s long continued ia weigh upon Washington's 1 sprits. In December, ITiitl. ten years later, he writes, hn Ids fricinl. Sir John Sinclair, who lias <«•;-;! proposing to -settle in Virginia, as fcJinws: "Within fn.i view of Mount Vernon, -separated there from by water only, is one of the u,::st beautiful seats on the fiver for sole, hm of greater magnitude .than yon .seem to have contemplated. JXt is called Be; voir, and belonged to *:Cieorge William Fairfax, who, were he ■”B»w living;, won! 1 lie Baron of Cam '-eK»S- . . . There are near 2000 acres ■of land belonging to the tract, sur rounded in a manner by water. . . • Tile mansion house stood upon high, commanding ground.’’ It does not appear that Sir Jo!m Sin clair ever made overture toward pos sessing Kelvoir: but it is easy to sym pathize with Washington in his desire to have the dear old house—originally after the early colonial model, broad, spacious, and fitted up with more of English elegance and comfort than were common in the neighborhood— ■ ******** n»—— the men of Mount Vernon and Bel voir. And now for some of the causes which led Washington to take such reminiscent delight in his early as sociation with the place. The first owner and founder of Bel voir was William Fairfax, a York shireman, cadet of the house of fight ing' Fairfaxes. He had been in Queen Anne’s service in Spain when only a midshipman of fourteen, and after a long career of adventure and militarj service for the English crown by land and sea, came to Virginia as collector of the King’s customs, and agent of the immense estates of his first cousin, the sixth Lord Fairfax of Greenway Court. He finally become President or the Virginia Council, was for that rea son called “Colonel,” and ended nis honored life on the Virginia hillside where he now lies. THE SCHOOLBOY GEORGE. It was to the household of this ac complished and kindly gentleman a large family of young people destined in various ways to come into contact with Washington's life—that the schoolboy George, not so very long graduated from the teachings of the sexton, Hobby, but more recently a pupil of Mr. William’s school at Wake field, was introduced by his brother Laurence, whom he had come to visit at Mount Vernon. Now such a "visit” might last three days, throe weeks, or if sufficiently en joyable. three months, without unduly stretching the welcome of one’s host. George's brother Laurence had mar ried Colonel Fairfax’s charming daugh ter Anne, who made tilings most agree able at Mount Vernon. There was a perpetual exchange of dinings and tea drinkings between Mount Vernon and Bel voir. At stated intervals all the gentlemen of- the county met at one place or the other for a fox-hunt break fast. The Colonel, Laurence’s father-in law. took ail immense fancy to young George, whom ue early began to enter tain and instruct in the art of war by recitals of his own adventures. And last—perhaps not least—there were always some nice girls stopping at Belvoir! What wonder that George's visit to Laurence and Anne extended itself indefinitely? That Mount \ ernon and Belvoir both became to him new homes? We may safely picture him about this j time of life as ‘T.v. awkward, some- j what gawk;, indeed, presenting l’ew suggestions of the "imperial man"—as ---1 ---------' BELVOIR, WHERE WASH iN< rT( *.\ SPENT THE HAPPIEST DAYS OF HIS YOETH. .•ebuilt and reoecupied: to see lights igaia flashing from the hilltop across Dogue Kun, to ride oven and find ;rooms in readiness to stable horses, good cheer on the tallies, big fires of Virginia hickory burning upon the Hearthstones: to find, above all, some thing that might have semblance of the ild, kindly welcome awaiting guests, ,vho never in vain had levied tax upon Belvoir's hospitality. Hut it was not to he. From Wash ington's day to this no dwelling has flood upon the site of Belvir House. Great forest trees have matured and iged and fallen, and new ones sprung in their places, above the depressions in the earth, where in recent years some of the ancient bricks of the old dwelling and an iron fire-back bear ing the family coat of arms have been found upturned, and the boundaries of the wall are still discernible. The White Hodge, a sort of fishing headquarters, built on the shore, was deemed sufficient for the purposes of the various members of the family who occupied the place periodically in sub sequent years. Truth to tell, although perfectly healthy during a large part of the year, the lowlands round Kelvoir have never been entirely free from reproach as to the scourge of chills and fever, so calmly accepted with our ancestors along with their heritage oi Virginia acres. The old diaries and letiers handed dow n in i:.. families record, quite regularly and unemotionally, days and weeks given over to intermittent shak ing of aristocratic bones and dosing witli abominable drafts intended to counteract malarial influence. At Bel voir it was tile custom of its owners and occupants to retire at cer tain seasons into log cabins built in land. away from the danger line along the river shore, and there remain in a sort of luxurious camp life. When autumn clad the hills with radiant dyes, and after a light touch of frost had gleamed upon field and up land, the family and its numerous de pendencies came hack into winter quar ters on the river’s edge. It was a glorious neighborhood for hunting, and every rod of the ground has known the hard runs across coun try of tile famous band of fox-hunters headed by tough old word Fairfax of Greenway Court, and including always P Lowell calls him—he afterward be came. His clothes were homespun, and no doubt he carried in the pocket of ids country-made suit that historic pen knife one may see in the Masonic Lodge of Alexandria a lejsson to all boys who lose their knives. It was pre sented to him by his mother when ho was twelve years old, and was con stantly carried for fifty-six years. What stories that penknife might have recorded if it had only been born a pen! THE TWO EKIENDS. When old Lord Fairfax of Green way Court gave Washington, at six teen. his first chance to earn money by surveying my lord’s lands in the pathless wilderness of what is now West Virginia, George Fairfax offered to accompany his friend. Together they rode through “Ashly’s Gap” in the Blue Ridge Mountains, and roamed and camped for weeks in happy fellowship, a description of which ad venture may be read in full in Irving's life of Washington. When George William Fairfax went over to England, at a later date, to take possession of the -Yo-kshire prop erty then coming to him, some of the incidents of his life in the mother [country certainly justify the suggest n that Tbackery’s fortunate youth, Harry Warrington, in “The Virginians,” wa3 drawn from him. He was, by that time, married to a certain beautiful Miss Sally Cary, nith whom rumor in the colony said George Washington also had been in love, ihe couple had invited Washington to join them for a visit to Fairfax s new inhei itance, Towiston Manor, in Yorkshire, and were much disappointed when Washington wrote out to them: “My indulging myself in a trip to England depends upon so many con tingencies, which in all probability may never occur, that 1 dare not even think of such a gratification.” A comfort, perhaps, to some stay-at-homes of the present day, although their reward for labor in the home field may not prove quite so wonderful as that of the most illustrious of all Americans. The two Georges in their youth did not spend all their days in sport and travel". Side by side they went into the political contests of the country. Perhaps the most interesting phase of the friendship of the two Georges was that during the oncoming of the Revolutionary War, while Washington was slowly but surely taking his place as one of the guiding spirits of the movement toward disruption from the mother country, and George Fairfax was as steadfastly holding to his con viction that such a movement was wrong and mischievous. In spite of this burning difference, their relations did not alter. They dis cussed the question personally and by letter, from every standpoint, each listening respectfully to the other’s views, and each ending as firm as be fore in his own opinion. FROM PATRIOT TO TORY. it uas to George Fairfax that Wash ington finally gave utterance to that noble cry of feeling about the coming conflict: “i'nhappy it is to reflect that a brother's sword has been sheathed in a brother's breast, and that the once happy mill peaceful plains of America •ii. .. i. ! ilnml or inhabited by .slaves. Sad alterna tive! But can a virtuous man hesitate in ills choice?'’ George Fairfax sailed linaliy tor England, passing the famous "tea ships" coming into Boston Harbor, and iii England the conscientious Tory thereafter lived and died. During his absence at this time Washington charged himself with the care of Belvoir, and the various affairs relating to his friend’s Virginia estate. Fairfax’s death was a blow to him, Another link of remembrance binding Washington to Belvoir was that there began, as has been said, his iirst ac quaintance with the interesting old lord of (ri'eenway Court. This old nobleman had come out to live in the Virginia wilderness in the prime of his manhood, and abandon ing his beautiful home of Leeds Castle in Kent. England, and other estates, contented himself with ruling over a principality of land inhabited chiefly by a few backwoodsmen, a few scat tonal families, many prowling and bloody-minded Indians and vast abund ance of big game. His lodge at Greenway Court, not far from the present town of Winchester, was an abode of delight to tile boy Washington, who was frequently bid den there to stay. In the dining room of the writer of these lines hang two large plates of old Oriental china, part of a set once presented by Washington to Lord Fairfax on his arrival at Greenway Court for one of these many visits. From Lord Fairfax he received color and influence in many matters relating to literature, culture and the science of diplomacy in foreign courts. In a thousand ways their sympathies touched and through all the talks, when Washington stood fast for the colonies, Lord Fairfax for the crown, they kept their friendship intact. .Most schoolboys know the touching story of how news of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis came to the old baron, as he sat by the chimney corner in his great lodge brooding over the trend or public events. When convinced that America was forever free from Eng land’s rule, and, worse than all, that it was the lad he had helped to train to whom tlie British commander at York tow n had surrendered an army, he at first said nothing. After a while he turned to black Joe, his body ser vant, exclaiming plaintively: "Take me to my bed, Joe! It is time for me to die.” Belvoir, in the mutability of affairs concerning American estates, has passed out of Fairfax hands. If the old house had endured, like Mount Vernon and Arlington, it might well have served as a slirine for National pilgrimage.—Youth’s Companion. I ^ ' M —' i SOUTHERN fhRM * 07ES. | •d—~~J=7rrD,©,d====S~;—P* ! % TOPICS OF INTEREST TO THE PLANTER, STOCKMAN AND TRUCE GROWER. 9 Ki____—A Fresh Beef For Farmers. We have known of a club of this kind being carried ou quite success fully at the North. We see no reason why Florida farmers might not do the the same. It would not be necessary for each member of the club to own a berd of cattle. Arrangements could be made beforehand for those members who did not own any animal that was suitable for the purpose, to buy at a fair price from those who own plenty. As a rule farmers do not live con venient enough -o butchers and meat markets to enable them to have fresh beef and mutton constantly as town people have. In Canada they seem to have organized in some sections, at least, to overcome this inconvenience. The Consul at Collingwood, Canada, explains how they do this. He says that clubs are organized among the farmers in groups and neighborhoods and co-operate to supply themselves with fresh meat. The ring, or club, is usually composed of sixteen, twenty, or twenty-four persons, although some times as many as forty are enrolled. Kach member agrees to supply one beef animal during the summer, and in order to give plenty of time for preparation the members draw lets the previous winter to determine the order in which they shad contribute animals. After drawing members may exchange numbers if they find it mutually ad vantageous. Two small families may combine for one share. m it iiu.3 uvhii ijlho ajs' tern lias given excellent results, as is shown by the fact that it is difficult to gain admission to the rings, as there is no inclination to drop out. The farmers’ wives and daughters are par ticularly well pleased, as the abund ance of fresh meat at their command simplifies the question of providing suitable meals. Then the farmers get their beef at actual cost, paying no more for the best cuts than they wouid for the cheapest they could buy at retail. Under the operation of the beef ring each family gets its portion within a few hours after killing, so that there is little difficulty in keeping the meat fresh for nearly a week. The usual method is to use the steak and roast first and put the boiling piece into brine or a refrigerator until needed.— Florida Agriculturist. Irish Potatoes in tlio South. Dr. S. A. Knapp, of Lake Charles, La., special agent of the United States Department of Agriculture for Louis iana and Texas, is a most practical man, one of large experience In nearly all branches of agriculture. He re cently gave a talk upon Irish potato culture, in which ho suggested “strong, sandy loam” as the best land for pota toes. Where this is not. obtainable, chocolate or black land will answer if thoroughly drained. After being flat broken “about two inches deeper than usual,” the doctor recommends har rowing every twenty days until plant ing time. Preparatory to planting, the land should be bedded into two and a half foot rows, just as Hr. Porter does. “Split the bed with a small plow,” he said, “and plant the potatoes twelve inches .‘mart in flic furrow ” Tie roc ommends cutting the potatoes into three pieces, and placing the cut side down. “Have a man follow with a hoe,” he continued, “and cover potatoes with one inch of soil. Distribute even ly on this COO pounds per acre of a compound made of two-thirds of cotton seed meal andone-third acid phosphate. Put one inch more of soil upon the fer tilizer. It is not advisable to plant po tatoes as deep as most people plant, because it takes too long to come up, thus hindering early maturity. The potato, when planted, should never be below the drainage furrow. If it is it .will rot. “Barnyard manure, well pulverized, will g-ive good results. It is a good plan to plant cotton between the rows before the potatoes are dug, thus easily raising two crops upon the same ground in one year. “In this ease, however, the rows should be five instead of three and a half feet apart, so as to give space for cultivating the cotton while the pota toes are maturing.” Selecting: Breeding Stock. Much depends on the selection we make of those fowls which we intend to keep in the breeding yard next sea son, and after the season has passed vve will be able to locate the mistakes we have made and perhaps be better able to act more wisely in the future. If we are breeding fancy poultry we are doubtless trying to reach high points of perfection in different sec tions of the fowls; trying, as it were, to eliminate certain faults which ex ist, without in any way changing the meritorious points already possessed. But ho-w is this to he done? Certainly not by indiscriminate breeding—by selecting fowls at random —without first considering every ma terial point—the parents for several generations back—the individual fan 3 and the results to be expected. All these must he carefully consid ered: in a word, we must know exactly what we are striving for, and make our selections accordingly. We must select strong, vigorous fowls; good in all sections, and above all avoiding every one with any taint of disease which might in any way he transmitted to the offspring. What we must have, above all else, is vigor, without which there is no hope of success. All, in a measure, depend,! on this, since no flock of fowls will produce good chicks if there is a taint of weak ness in either parent. Let vigor be first, then sectional goodness, to follow as we may choose. Best Use of Cowpeas, It will certainly pay. then, to grow cowpeas for fertilizer, but why not first obtain the feeding value and still retain seventy-five per cent, of the fertilizer value in the manure? Be cause we have found a good thing is no reason why we should not get all out of it possible. If the fertilizer value of a ton of cowpea hay is §10. and seventy-five per cent., or §7.50, of that is obtained in the manure after the liay is fed, it is clear that if we had the live stock to consume it, this ton of feed would onlv cost us twenty five per cent, of its fertilizer value, or 82.50. 'jj Wiiat is cowpea liay worth as a feed? We may. possibly, best answer this question by comparing it with wheat bran with which we are all familiar. For producing milk, one and one fourth pounds of peavine hay have been found equal to one pound of wheat bran. Can we afford to plow such a valuable food as this directly into the soil in order to save twenty five per cent, of its fertilizer value? If the great need of our soils is vege table matter, which is certainly true— and this vegetable matter has a double value—fertilizer and food—then it is apparent that we can only get these two values through the feeding of our crops to live stock before putting them into the soil to supply the deficiency of humus.—Tait Butler, State Veterin arian. North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Raleigh. Borers in Peach Trees. I will venture the following sugges tions for any who may wish to try them. In using a sharp knife care should he taken not to girdle the tree. A good plan is to cut away just enough of the bark to find the opening, insert a piece of wire and give it a little twist and you have aceomolislied the work. This is necessarily a slow and tedious job for those who have large orchards, but it will go a long way toward pre serving the trees. I also find that an effective prevent ive is the use of wood ashes. Put half a peck or more of unleached ashes around each tree—heaped up around the body of the tree. The egg pro ducing the borer is laid on the bark of the tree just on top of the ground, but this insect will not work in the ashes. I am satisfied that it is Ihe lime and potash that the insects object to. In the absence of sufficient amount of ashes, I would advise the use of kainit, say a pint or quart, according to the ox*c Lxiij- ucc. aiiuum juii, JIL every year. In the spring is the best time.—Correspondent in Southern Cul tivator. "White Holland Turkeys# During the past few years this breed of turkeys has won many admirers, who claim for them superiority over all the others. They are large and vigorous, easily bred to uniform color and shape, and possess in a large degree all the good finalities necessary in first-class fowls for the market. They are pure white, and when Pressed present a most inviting appear ance. They are active and splendid foragers, and their young grow rapidly. They enjoy the liberty of the fields, but are more prompt in returning home at night than others, and are seldom the victim of wild animals that so often destroy whole broods of even the iialf-grown turkeys. They are destined to become popular with those who rear them. Rape Gives Satisfaction. Rape is comparatively a new plant n the Southern States, but where it ias been tested it has given entire sat sfaction. It is a nutritious forage alant, which closely resembles Swede :urnip, can be easily grown on any iverage soil, and is especially adapted. :o lands that are about half tine sand. !t makes excellent feed for sheep, hogs ind cattle. It will withstand hot .veather, and we have known it to ceep a herd of fifty hogs in Tennessee n good condition when all other green Tons had about burned out. News of the Day. The fifty-eighth report of the com missioner of lunacy, issued September 7, 1904, shows that in England and Wales on January 1 last, 117,199 per sons were certified as insane, being 3,235 in excess of the number on the same day in 1903. This increase is comparable with that of 3,251 in 1902, 2,769 in 1901, and 1,333 in 1900, the average annual increase in the 10 years ended Decemoer 31, 1903, be ing 2,513. Odds and Ends. L. B. Harris, of Lyndonville, Vt. saya that he has noted an interesting fact in regard to sheep. He has just im ported some 6heep from England and the steamer had a rough pasage. Al though passengers horses and cattle alike were terribly frightened by the heavy rolling and pitching of the big ship, the sheep paid, no attention whatever and contentedly chewed their cud through all the tossing.