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SEED CORN STORAGE.
A Western Corn House Constructed on New Lines. A full sized model of a seed corn storage house that is in constant use on a Scott county (111.) farm was display ed at the 1905 Illinois state fair. It is depicted in the cut from the Orange Judd Farmer, which says in regard to the method of construction: The house is 18 by 30 feet and meas ures nine feet under the eaves. The frame is made of 1 by 0 uprights, and the slats for holding the ears of corn in imr1" . ....— •--U---Wl MODEL SEED COBN STOKAGE HOUSE. place are 1 by P/i inches, placed three and a half inches apart, up and down. This house holds 500 bushels of ear corn in the racks, and there is space for saving 150 to 200 bushels in the attic, so to speak. The house is three feet above the ground and set on posts ten inches in diameter, surmounted on the top by tin, so that it is mouse proof. It is covered with weatlierboarding on the outside, has a window in each end, a door and two windows on each side, with a window in each gable. In the floor there are three or four openings j made by taking up three boards. These places and the lower windows are Covered with wire netting to pre vent the entrance of rats and mice. A cupola on the roof, with slats in the sides, completes the ventilating scheme. Particular attention is called to the necessity of having a free circulation of air. This is accomplished by the openings in the floor and windows. With that arrangement Mr. Grout, on whose farm the house is built, states that’he has had no trouble in securing a^fe»plete drying out of his seed corn. He especially emphasizes the necessity o^kaving the openings in the floor, as these induce perfect ventilation. Should the weather be warm and wet during the harvest period or later, before the corn is thoroughly dried, a small stove may be used to heat the air and cause circulation. Around the base a twelve inch board is placed. This completes the house and makes it one of the most effective in Illinois. If your seed is dried out thoroughly in this way before the cold weather sets in the percentage of kernels that will not germinate is reduced to the minimum. Wintering Cabbages. A method for wintering cabbages for spring use is to stand them, roots up, in rows upon the ground in a well drained spot and cover them with ridges of earth. If you want to keep them from freezing, so you can get at them any time during the winter, an other method must be employed. Leave the cabbages outdoors as long as safe, then put them into a barn or other outbuilding and let them get thorough ly chilled, but not frozen through; then cover them with straw, hay or chaff enough to prevent them from freezing solid, or you may put them in a heap outdoors, cover them with a roof of old boards, straw and earth. The sides of the structure may be simply stuffed wdth plenty of straw or dry forest leaves. Fattening Hogs. A number of experiments—in fact, nearly a hundred—show that to produce 100 pounds of gain on the hog in the fattening pen it takes an average of either 436 pounds of corn, 529 pounds of Kaffir corn, 472 pounds of oats, 439 pounds of peas, 452 pounds of wheat or 432 pounds of mixed grain. This shows that hogs make a more profitable gain on a ration of mixed grain. The above figures are from pens where nothing but grain was fed—no pasture or green feed was given. In the Kansas station an acre of alfalfa hay produced 776 pounds of pork without grain. This shows that pasture has an important part to play in the ration for hogs and that gains can be made more eco nomically on dry lot feeding. — Ex change. Handy Addition to Farm Wagon. Here is a handy addition to a farm wagon, figured by Farm Journal—a step added to the rear end of a farm wagon by means of two stout iron sup ports. This step will prove a 4 strain in getting in .and out of the wagon when un loading, and when one is lift WAOON STEP. ing boxeSj bas. kets or bags in or out it is a halfway place on which to rest. Then, too, one can tip a box or barrel over on edge against the step and then lift the other end and tip it into the wagon. One person can easily load boxes and bar rels In this way and not lift much more than half the weight at any time. . 1 - - - 3, .... -ran.2 PASTURING CATTLE. j Change of Field Should Be Avoided* i Winter Feeding:. There is an old saying that change j of pasture makes fat calves, but, like many another wise saw, this has more sound than sense. Cattle never gain flesh when in a field new to them. Three or four days pass before they become accustomed to their new sur roundings and settle in their regular round of habits. If moved from one field to another adjoining, the same restlessness will appear, although if a gate between the two fields be left open they will pass from one field to the other without the sign of uneasi ness. Introducing strange animals in to a field occupied by a herd will cause the same disturbance. T&e social posi tion of each newcomer must be settled by much fighting and more threatening before the chief business of their lives can go on quietly and comfortably. Having got a herd together, it would be advisable as far as possible to avoid changing from field to field and sud den changes of diet. Such changes are almost certain to “throw the cattle off their feed” or lead them to overeat with more disastrous results. If the intention is to feed cattle in the winter mouths, attention should be given to providing a feed lot in which they may be fed comfortably and prof itably. Much will be gained by pro viding shelter to prevent fcem from shivering away the flesh the-y have slowly gained. Less of food is needed for merely keeping up the animal heat, and the animal will eat and drink more when sheltered from cutting winds and warmed by the sun’s rays. It is especially important that the sunlight should reach the stock early in the day, for, even when there is lit tle perceptible warmth in the rays, there is in them that which enlivens the spirits of beast as well as man. It has been found that cattle fatten better in an open field, exposed to the winds from every point of the com pass, than they do in fields in the midst of timber, where the sun’s rays seldom or never reach them. Salt should be placed where every beast in the herd can easily reach it. By this plan the crowding and fighting will be avoided, and the animals will be much better for it.—W. J. Grand, Cook County, 111. Care of Breeding Evres. AA'e feed our breeding ewes liberally with roots and plenty of clover hay, says a writer in the American Agri culturist. AA'e have large, well venti lated sheds and let the ewes have plen ty of exercise, keeping them out of all storms. It does not do a sheep any good to get wet. AA’e aim to have our ewes in a good healthy condition, al ways use the best rams we can secure and mate them with the ewes early in the season. AA’e find that early lambs do far better than late ones, provided they can be cared for properly. AA’e cull our lambs and flocks carefully each year, sending all inferior animals to the butcher’s block. o--a THE SWINEHERD o-o It is demonstrated by all experiments that in the making of pork at low prices the various species of pasture grasses are the most beneficial, cheap est and most useful of the many foods on which the hog subsists. The ani mal which can make the best use of them is therefore the most suitable for general purposes. To Load Hogs, Handy devices for loading hogs are numerous. Here is the best one I know, says a writer in Kimball’s Dairy Farmer. I have tried the portable chute, the hog yard chute and some others, but this beats them all. My hog house i% built on a slight side hill. The hogs go in on the ground level. I back the wagon up to a door on the opposite side and drive the hogs in without any chute. It is much easier to drive a hog on a level floor than up an incline. If you have a low wagon this can be man aged with almost any hog house by digging two trenches for the rear wheels, thus letting the hind end of the wagon down to the level of the door. A neighbor has one pen with a floor about a foot higher than the rest of the house. There is an outside door in this, and he backs the wagon up to it and loads in that way. By feeding in this pen several times it is an easy matter to handle the hogs. There is an easy incline leading from the other house to this, so the hogs do not have to climb around any. Anything that make3 it possible to load fat hogs with little dis turbance is worth considering. Honung tne i’igs. In a paper read at the Iowa swine breeders’ meeting W. Z. Swallow, a swine breeder for forty years, said: “I have had lots of experience with pigs in little houses and big houses and with stoves. Now I use no stoves and no big houses. I did not find any ad vantage in farrowing houses. They al ways get too cold. It is hard to keep artificial heat'even. Where you keep five or six sows and litters together it is hard to keep them all warm and not get them stirred up. One in a place is a good deal better than the other way. With a small house covered with straw except a door on the south side, with wings on each side of it so that when the door is open the breeze cannot get In, you will have better luck, and the heat of the sow will be warmth enough In the house. They will get plenty of air and sunshine from the door. With houses like this I have had sows far row seven and eight pigs in the cold weather and be all right. They are cheaper than the big houses. A nice house will cost about $7 or $8 now.” Breeding the Modern Percheron :■» = O The modern Percheron stands sixteen hands high and over, weighs from 1,700 to 2,200 pounds and is white, gray or black in color. lie has an Intelligent head of a type peculiar to the breed, rather small ears and eyes; short, strongly muscled neck; strong, well laid shoulders and chest; a plump, ro- ! tund body; strong back, heavy quarters ! and somewhat drooping croup. He usually is low down and blocky, on short, clean legs, devoid of feather and has well shaped, sound hoofs. The pasterns in some individuals of the breed incline to uprightness, and size of bone and development of ten dons are somewhat deficient. The ac — --—... .. ..'I', ■■ii;:. A CJOOD TYPE OF DRAFT HORSE. [This is the type of horse that is wanted for moving freight in all cities. There is money value in every colt of this class.] tiou of a Percheron is usually fast at a trot and fairly straight and sprightly at the walk. The best individuals have superior all around action. The objec tionable individuals roll in action of fore legs or slough at the walking gait. Stallions having oblique pasterns and action free from the faults noted should be selected by breeders. The draft horses of France more than those of any other country have had a beneficial, ameliorating effect upon our native horse stock. The Ter cheron breeds true to breed type, al though individual prepotence is some what lacking. He has become popular because of his docile disposition, easy keeping qualities, clean, hairless legs, activity and general adaptability to many purposes upon the farm and in the city. Percherons of the heaviest weight and largest frame beget from suitable mares horses adapted for heavy draft purposes. In general use they have also stocked the country with horses of somewhat lighter build, in cluding excellent expressers, farm chunks and general purpose animals. Where the blood of this breed predom inates in a district no other breed should be used. Continued breeding in a right line la highly advisable and will result in the production of practically pure bred horses of great usefulness and value, says a writer in Farm, Field and Fireside. Breeding; the Horns Off. Professor Spillman of the department of agriculture in his recent address said it is only a matter of time under the application of Mendell’s law of heredity on animal breeding when the horns may be bred off cattle, and he said: “The operation of the law is ab solute and certain, and in getting rid of the horns of any breed of cattle it is only necessary to apply the principles of the law and the horns disappear, never to return, unless the breeder de sires to grow them again. One of the first items in the application of this law Is to find what characteristics are possible to be transmitted. In cattle horns and color can be transmitted.” The same law of breeding, he said, ap plies to plants, etc. It is the same law by which Luther Burbank of California is governed in breeding up plants, flow ers, etc.—selection and mating in ani mals according to characteristics and pollinizatlon in plant breeding and se lection. A Great Hereford Sire. Fretorian, the great Hereford bull, here reproduced from the Orange Judd Farmer, is owned by F. A. Nave of II__I HEREFORD BULL PRETORIAN. Indiana, a noted breeder with a repu tation for high class stock of the very best quality. Pretorlau is one of the world’s famous Herefords. Improvement In Breeding. The first thing for the breeder to recognize is that all of the animals which we know today have been de veloped by a process of evolution from previous animals of an inferior quality. The next thing is a recognition of the forces which have kept that process in operation ' until they have brought about the results which we now see. And the third step is to keep those forces acting continuously in a desired direction so that each step may be a forward step. With such knowledge properly applied the practice of breed ing animals will be as certain in suits as are the results of o-d’ manufacturing processes, and the at which improvement will be so will exceed anything the world h : Been.—Professor C. L. Itedfleld. HCXS&EN FLOORS. \ Those ol Earrtii' Equai/t® Cement i Eor Small H«<ls. While the cement floor may bet the ideal one for the hogpen, as claiimed by many swine breeders, our experi ence has been that the floor of earth, if it is of clay and gra\«el, will answer the purpose equally well with a small num ber of swine, says a writer in Ameri can Cultivator. If we had large herds we should certainly use cement, which can be applied at any time, with the earth floor as a foundation. The one floor which ought not to be used is that of plank, and the reasons are obvious to every one who keeps swine. They are cold, wet and slip pery, r«(fiin odors, and are expensive, besides being bad for the feet of the hogs. In making the floor for the hogpen, and we have the same sort of a floor for the yard, it is made by taking out the soil for a depth of three feet, Ailing in a foot deep with coal ashes well packed down and then putting on the two feet of soil, about evenly composed of clay and gravel, using the gravel which comes from a heavy or clayey soil if possible. If sand gravel, as it is sometimes called, is all that can be obtained the sand is screened out and the gravel mixed with the clay in the proportion of two parts of clay to one of gravel. By giving this floor the proper slope, both in the pen and the yard, it does not stay wet long, and it is so hard the hogs cannot root in it while being yielding enough so that they do not slip on it, and the understratum of ashes carries off the moisture which penetrates through. About the Harness. In selecting a harness, a plainly fin ished set where every strap is cut from back stock is worth more money than a highly decorated set of all grades of leather. Above all things keep a har ness in repair and allow no weak places. The strength of a harness is the strength of its weakest place. One weak place may cause a serious acci dent and even the loss of life. Q--O THE FEEDER o——---o It Is a bad practice to feed largo quantities of cracked corn to horses, for a great length of time. It wears out the inner coating of the stomach. A few years ago I examined a horse that had died of an unknown disease and found a quart or more of cracked corn among the intestines, says a writ er in the Farm Journal. The corn had worn through the* stomach. Feeding: Cattle Without Hog:*. My experience of twenty-seven years ns a cattle feeder in eastern Nebraska, where corn and hay are about as cheap as anywhere in the country, justifies the assertion that there is seldom any profit in feeding cattle without hogs, writes a correspondent to Breeder’s Gazette. By grinding the corn and mixing it with bran or linseed meal or both the waste is greatly reduced and fewer hogs are required, but the higher cost of these feeds partially off sets the saving effected. With the or dinary margin of from 1 to 2 cents per pound between cost of feeders and well finished beeves, the owner can make no net profit if any waste or slipshod methods are tolerated. Alfalfa Fed Hog:*. Considerable attention is now being given to alfalfa. I believe it will prove the most profitable crop the farm ever produced. To the dairyman who combines the growing of pigs—as is very profitably done — this promises much in the production of cheap pork. In southern California, where I visited last winter, they sow alfalfa, inclose the field with a wire fence, turn in their pigs and feed nothing else. They are marketed-directly from the alfalfa. That, in connection with water, grows the pork. The pigs never see anything else in the line of food. Some 160 acre fields turn out carloads of pigs every season. The brood sows are put into the alfalfa, there the young are born, and there they remain. That seems to be the perfection of profit in swine husbandry. That would not be prac tical in winter in our climate, but it would answer every purpose for the spring litters—Cor. Hoard’s Dairyman. The universal habit of feeding both hay and grain to domestic animals, esfiecially to work animals and those producing milk, seems to have gen erated the belief in many minds that the nutriment is all in the grain and that the hay is only filling. It is true that grain is concentrated nutriment, but it does not follow that the hay or grass from which it is made is without nutriment. Indeed, some hays and grasses appear to be as nutritious as some of the grains. Herds of cattle and sheep on our farms and ranches often live their lives without know the taste of grain, and even horses have lived and worked for years with out grain, says a writer in Farm and Ranch. In the early days of Texas, when grain was scarce and grass abundant, Texas horses lived on grass alone. Of course there is nutriment in grass and hay—it is not mere filling, and we have always known it. It is the young grass that is most nutritious and hay made from grass before it gets too old. But grass can be too young to be nutritious. In just what manner the composition of grass varies, however, according to age, could not be known till chemical analysis revealed the fact. The younger the grass or forage crop the greater the percentage of water and of protein. As it grows older, the percentage of dry matter in creases, the percentage of protein de creases and starchy matter Increases rapidly. _ , ± prof. Geo. H. Crowell, of High Point, County Superintendent of Education R. G. Kizer and White head Kluttz, Esq., spoke to a large audience at the educational rally at Rockwell on September 27th. Last night Whitehead Kluttz, Esq., delivered an entertaining address to the members of Coun cil No. 18, Jr. 0. U. A. M. J. Frank McCubbins has return ed from a short visit to Waynes ville. 1 Miss Leona Smithdeal and W, ■ T. Eagle were married on Septem ber 25th, at the home of the bride’s parents Rev. J. E. Gay, of the Spencer Methodist church, officiated. Mhe little son of J. E. Painter, of Spencer, died last week. Rev. R. E. Neighbor officiated at the funeral, which was held at the home of Mr. Painter in Spencer. J. C. Bernhardt, the republican nominee for county surveyor, has declined to make the race. He says that, at his age he docs not desire any office. Mrs. P. D. Roueche, who has been quite ill with fever for some time, is improving rapidly. S. H, Boss, of Pittsburg, has home to Salisbury to make hiB home here. He is connected with the Gillespie Company. -• • Marriage of Popular Pasfor. A recent number of the Augus ta, Ga., Herald, contains an ac count of the. marriage of Mies Rosa Lynch, of Augusta, Ga., to Rev. C. B. Currie, pastor of the Presbyterian church at Spencer. The marriage took place last Wednesday, at the Green street Presbyterian church in Augusta. The good wishes of a host of friends and acquaintances are ex tended to Mr and Mrs. Currie. -• • The Gash Came Back. H. B. Deese, of Knoxville, Tenn., lost $250 on the streets here last Monday morning. Later he was made happy by having the money returned to him by the finder, C. E. Wallace, a traveling man whose home is in Stanton, Wilkes coun ty. Mr. Deese considers himself in good luck, in that his cash fell into the hands of an honest man. Eftort to Kidnap Girl. A few nights ago Mr. Easel, a section master who lives near Rocky Mount, heard his 12-year old daughter crying. Upon in vestigation he lound her lying on the ground near the door-step. The house had been entered by some fiend who was endeavoring to take the child away. He drop ped her, however, and in the fall her shoulder was hurt. She be gan crying, awakening her father, who came to her rescue. Mean while the fiend escaped. -• • Has Stood the Test 25 Years The old, original Grove’s Taste less Chill Tonic. You kuow what you are taking. It is iron and qui nine in a tasteless form. Noe^re, no pay. 50c. ij First-Class Job Printing i • | is always present N at the office of 'j M ] j The Carolina Watchman, ij ■ ■ Those who wish the ij i. t_are|invited to give us ij jt ^ ^ their work. •< Mat Brown, a negro woman who was cooking for a working gang at Whicney, shot and killed one man, and badly wounded another Monday n'ght. Jim Griffin i< the man who was killed. The woman is in jail at Albemarle and says the shooting was in self defense. ---• • We still have a number of copies of the California Earth quake book on hand. The price of this book is $1.50. Any one buying one of these books will be given a year’s subscription to the Watchman, but sin uld you be a subcriber we will make the price of the hook $1.00. Now, if you want the most interesting book of the day, is the chance to get one at a reduced price. Trinity High School, TRINITY, N. C. (Old Trinity College.) Location five miles southeast of High Point, climate and water unsurpassed. Faculty of seven Teachers. Will afford thorough preparation for Sophomore class of leading institutions of State. The coming year to be most successful in history of institution. Strong finan, cial backing. Rates very reasonable. Write for catalogue and other informa lion to J. T. HENRY, Principal. “Rev. B. F. Hargett, Financial Agt.. 7-18 8t TRINITY COLLECE Four Departments—Collegiate. Gradu ate, Engineering and Law. Large library facilities. Well equipped laboratories in all departments of sci ence. Gymnasium furnished with best apparatus. Expenses very moderate. Aid for worthy students. :: :: :: Young Men w ishing to Study Law should in vestigate the superior advantages offered by the Department of Law in Trinity College For catalogue and further information, address D. W. NEWSOM, Registrar, 6-20-81 DURHAM, N. C. Furniture Repairing. We have opened a FURNITURE REPAIR SHOP HEAR THE PASSENGER DEPOT. Furniture repaired, refinished and upholstered to order. We can make your furniture look like new. 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