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BOOSTMilf FARMERS’ MEETINGS BEGIN AND END IN AUGUST—MRS. Mc KIMMON BUSY. DISPATCHES FROM RALEIGH Doings and Happenings That Mark the Progress of North Carolina Peo ple, Gathered Around the State Capital. Raleigh. Fue production and conservation of ed, and household economy of every umd re getting a mighty boost in v.rrth Carolina since the staff of irimers’ Institute Conductors have . gun their pilgrimage over the state. Seventy institutes will be held ending with the State Convention of Farm ers here during the last week in Au gust. Mr. T. B. Parker, director of the urmers’ Institute Division will have -everal different parties in the field, most of them having itineraries through the Piedmont section of this State. Mrs. Jane S. McKimmon will look after the women’s meetings and will supply speakers from her staff of v orkers. The places and dates of the meet ings for the various counties are: Alamance County—Elon College, Monday, August 13; Snow Camp, Tuesday, August 14. Alexander County — Taylorsville, Wednesday, August 8. Anson County—Bethel Schoolhouse, Saturday, July 28. Burke County —- Quaker Meadow Schoolhouse, Monday, August 6; Hil Jeband Schoolhouse, Tuesday Au gust 7. Cabarrus County — Winecoff and Rocky River, Friday, August 10; Ri mer and Cabarrus, Saturday, August 11. Caldwell County — Collettsville, Monday, August 13; Gamewell School house, Tuesday, August 14. Caswell County—Yanceyville, Sat urday, July 28. Catawba County —- Terrell, Friday, August 10; Dr. Foard’s Store, Satur day, August 11. Chatham County—Pittsboro, Friday, July 27; Bonlee, Saturday, July 28. Cleveland County—Boiling Springs. Thursday, August 2; Grover, Friday, August 3; Shelby, Saturday. August 4. Davidson County — Sandy Grove, Monday, August 13; Clarksbury, Tues day, August 14. Davie County—Cherry Hill, Friday, August 3; Cana, Saturday. August 4. Durham County—Bahama Farm Life School, Wednesday, August 15; Patrick Henry School House, Thurs day, August 16. Forsyth County — Burke’s Grove, Wednesday, August 1; Tobaccoville, Wednesday, August 8. Gaston County — Dallas, Wednes day. August 1. Guilford County—Battleground, Fri day, August 10; McLeansville, Satur day, August 11. Hoke County—Radford, Friday, Au gust 3 Iredell County — Linwood School house and Shawnee, Wednesday, Au gust 1; Harmony Farm-Life School, Tuesday, August 7; Test Farm 1 Statsville), Thursday, August 9. Lee County — Courthouse, Tuesday, July 31. Lincoln County—Bess Chapel, Mon day, July 30; Daniels’ Schoolhouse, Tuesday, July 31. McDowell County — Dysortville, Wednesday, August 8; Greenlee, Thursday, August 9. Mecklenburg County—Bethel School house. Friday, July 27; Observer Schoolhouse, Saturday, July 28. Montgomery County—Troy, Satur day, August 4; Mount Gilead, August 8. ’ Moore County — Glendon, Wednes day, August 1; Eureka Farm-Life School, Thursday, August 2. Person County—Rorboro, Friday, July 27. Randolph County—Liberty, Monday, •July 30; Farmer, Wednesday, Au gust 15. Richmond County — Rockingham. Friday, July 27. Rockingham County—Carmel School house, Monday, July 30; Matrimony, Tuesday, July 31. Rowan County—China Grove and Oak Grove, Thursday, August 9; Mt. T’lla and Miranda Schoolhouse, Thurs day, August 2. Rutherford County—Shiloh School house; Friday, August 10; Mt. Pleas ant Schoolhouse, Saturday, August 11. Stanly County—Porter, Tuesday, August 7; Millingport, Wednesday, August 8. Stokes County—Lawsonville School house, Thursday, August 9. Surry County—Rusk Schoolhouse, Monday, August 6; Woodville, Tues day, August 7. Union County—Marshville, Monday, July 30; Waxhaw, Tuesday, July 31. Wake County—Farmers’ State Con vention, A. and E- College, August 23. 29, 30. Wilkes County — Mountain View Schoolhouse, Thursday, August 2; Bell View Academy, Friday, August 3, Edge wood Schoolhouse, Saturday, Au gust 4. Yadkin County—Yadkinville, Mon day, August 6. Campaigns Against Fires. bpecial agents and inspectors ol virtually all fire insurance companies doing business in North Carolina met here today in the office o£ Insurance Commissioner Young to discuss plans to aid in the nation-wide campaign to assist the national government in do ing away with things tha tcause fires and destroy foodstuffs and wearing apparel after costly labor has been consumed in their production. S. Y. Tupper, Southern Manager of the Queen Insurance Company and A. M. Schoon, engineer for the National Board of Fire Underwriters, composed a committee sent here to explain the ulans of the campaign and enlist the support of the field insurance men. Present at the conference were Gov ernor Bickett, Commission Young, J. Broughton, Jr„ president and A. T. Bowler, secretary of the Raleigh Chamber of Commerce; Prof. W. A. Withers, president of the Raleigh Ro tary Club, and about forty insurance field men, members of inspection ooards and other insurance field workers. Cordial support of the state admin istrative departments were pledged to the campaign by Governor Bickett and Commissioner Young. The visiting committee expressed itself as highly pleased with the fa miliarity with the national campaign shown by the North Carolina workers and declared this the best meeting of the kind it had held. The committee has recently held similar conferences in Richmond and Columbia. At a second conference held in the afternoon the field men arranged de tails of the work to be done. North Carolina is to be divided into dis tricts which will be under the super vision of these men, trained in inspec on of buildings and the detection and correction of fire hazards, and regular inspections will be made by them throughout the state and every effort will be made to prevent fires and espe cially fires which may destroy food stuffs in storage during the war emer gency. The work undertaken by the insur ance men is general in its scope and without bearing on the business of the companies they represent. The work is a voluntary and patriotic work un dertaken by the men and their com panies as a part in the National De fense Campaign. Inspections will be made of all classes of buildings and crops without regard to insurancee carried or anticipated. Valuable Historical Collection. The collections of the North Caro lina Historical Commission are be coming widely recognized as among the best collections of historical mate rial in the United States. The use of this material by mail has been exten sive for some time, but now historical students are finding it worth their while to come to Raleigh in order to pursue their investigations in person. The latest visitor is Prof. Chas. W. Ramsdell, of the department of history of the University of Texas, who is at work on a history of the civil admin istration of the Confederate States government. Another recent visitor who made extensive researches in the collections of the Historical Com mission was Dr. Charles M. Andrews of Yale University who is writing a history of the American colonies. Miss Mary Shannon Smith of Meredith Col lege is spending her vacation in the rooms of the commission at work on a history of Union sentiment in North Carolina during the Civil War; and Dr. D. H. Hill has now permanent quar ters with the Historical Commission where he is engaged in his history of North Carolina in the Civil War. Last week Mr Reaves of the Interior Department at Washington spent sev eral days among the commission’s col lections investigating the claims of the Tuscarora Indians to lands form erly belonging to their tribe in North Carolina Another historical student now at work in Raleigh is Miss Hat tie E Burch of Columbia University. Every historical student who conies to Raleigh is greatly impressed with the exten tand value of the Historical Commission’s collections and expresse Commission’s collections and ex presses delight with the excellent ■ -1 _ J nfotA fAT» tVlQ 1} Ud.I ICl a piu*iuv,u ^ j ---- Historical Commission Movies for Guardsmen. Special from Camp Sevier, Green vlile, S. C.—National guardsmen of North Carolina and Tennessee need have no fear that they will be depriv ed of the joy of seeing the “movies” while encamped here. “The pictures will be selected for the entertainmnt of the soldiers as well as for instructive purposes,” stated a Y. M. C. A. reprsentative. Only a small admission fee will be charged the guardsmen to defray ac tual expenses. The price will be much smalled than that charged by modern theatres. It is stated that a soldier may be admitted for a two cent postage stamp or the equivalent thereof. . According to a statement of Major General Leonard Wood in a recent ad dress the men will be encouraged to spend their “leaves” away from camp. Charters Issued for Railroad. A charter was issued for the Chim ney Rock Railroad Company, of Can ton Haywood county, the special pur. pose being the construction and oper ation of fifteen miles of steam railway from Rutherfordton to Chimney Rock. The capital is $300,000 authorized and $15 000 subscribed by M. Carland, T. C. Cole, J. H. Cole. G. L. Fortune, J. T. Horney and J. C. Cole. There is an amendment for the charter of the Warlong Glove Manu facturing Company, of Newton, auth orizing a change of office to Conover. 1—Two women victims of a German air raid on Loudon being taken to their homes from a hospital. 2—Pre mier Kerensky, now dictator of Russia, reviewing some of his troops. 3—Soldiers in the Gettysburg training camp being taught the most necessary French words and phrases. 4—King Vajirvudh of Siam, who has declared that a state of war exists between his country and Germany and Austria-Hungary. NEWS REVIEW OF THE PAST WEEK Secretary McAdoo Startles Con gress by Asking $5,000, 000,000 More for War. TRANSPORT PROBLEM IS BIG SFiipping Board Quarrel Ended by Change of Personnel—Russia's Mil itary Collapse in Galicia Complete —French Repulse Tremendous German Attacks. By EDWARD W. PICKARD. The United States is having im pressed upon it tlie magnitude of the war in which it has embarked, and is beginning to realize that it must be ■fought through to a victorious finish at tremendous cost in money, energy and, doubtless, life. The money end of it was brought sharply to the at tention of congress last Tuesday, when Secretary of the Treasury McAdoo in formed tlie lawmakers that $b,000.000, 000 more than had been estimated was needed, and needed at once. Much of this will be expended for ordnance. Senator Smoot informed the senate that by the end of the fiscal year the war expenditures by the United States are likely to amount to $20,000,000,000. The figures staggered the members of both houses, and there was a hasty calling together of the senate finance committee to revise its report on the war-tax bill. Transportation is now one of the administration’s biggest problems— transportation by both land and sea, but especially the latter. An immense number of vessels must be provided vast supplies they and the allied arm ies, must have, and efforts are being made to gather together all the avail able ships, even Janan being asked to release many of her merchantmen. Meanwhile the plan of building a mon ster merchant marine of our own was given added impetus last week. As had been predicted. President Wilson was compelled to take a hand in the dispute between General Goethals and Chairman Denman of the shipping board, and he settled the matter by ac cepting the resignations of both, and of Capt. J. P>. White as well. He then named E. N. Hurley of Chicago us chairman and Rainbridge Colby ns member of the board, and Rear Ad miral Capps, long chief constructor of the navy, as head of the emergency fleet corporation in place of Goethals. Of these appointments, only that of Colby was adversely criticised. Hur ley is an energetic business man and has been on the federal trade board. Though the elimination of Goethals is regretted by the innumerable admir ers of the great builder of the Pan ama canal, it is felt that no one bet ter than Admiral Cupps could be picked to manage the construction of the emergency fleet. It is understood that as many steel ships as possible will be built, which was Goethal’s plan. Later in the week the president ac cepted the resignation of Vice Chair man Theodore Rrent of the shipping board. Steps in Making the Army. The need for many vessels is em phasized by the semi-official announce ment that the United States plans to send to Europe not only 500,000 men, but more than a million as soon as they can be trained and equipped nnd as fast as transports can be obtained to carry them across. Two more steps in the making of this great army were taken last week. The men drafted for the national army began to receive their calls before the exemption boards, the city of Washington lead ing the way, and the National Guard of 19 states and the District of Co lumbia was mobilized to be taken into the federal service. After a few weeks of intensive training in camps, the best of the guardsmen will be sent to France to prepare for the spring of fensive. The shortage of railway transporta- i tion at home also is troubling the ad- [ ministration, though it doubtless will be remedied with the willing assist ance of the American railway execu tives. Tlie demand for cnrs already is tremendous, for the moving of materi als and supplies for the army training camps and for a dozen other purposes, and it will be increased immediately as tlie men of the National Guard and of the national army begin moving to their allotted places. Russia's Collapse in Galicia. The collapse of Russia’s offensive in Galicia, due to insubordination in stigated by German agents, developed into a general retreat, and the retreat into a virtual rout. Abandoning vast military stores and burning villages, tlie mutinous Slavs flew everywhere before tlie easy advance of the Teu tons, except on the Roumanian front, where for the time at least, they stood firm. Farther north, indeed all the way to the Baltic, tlie Russians gave ground. Premier Kerensky, armed with dicta torial powers, declared he would apply a policy of blood and iron to stop the mutiny and treason, and General Korn iloff ordered his loyal troops to shoot down any who deserted or refused to obey orders, but this was ineffectual to retrieve the disaster. Stnnislau, Halicz and other important cities were evac uated, and from the wooded Carpathi ans to the region of Tarnopol the country was full of long columns of fleeing Russians on which the Teu ton field guns played with merciless slaughter. One story from Petrograd told how ioval troops in Korniloff’s army blew to pieces an entire mutinous division with its own guns. On the demand of the military com manders at tlie front, the provisional government has again put in force cap ital punishment for treason, which was abolished at the time of the revolu tion. However, this second great Russian slump, serious though it be, is not fa tal. Kerensky and his colleagues are determined to rid their country of the German agents and their traitorous Russian aids. Lenine, the chief of the latter, is already under arrest, and it is believed he will be either executed as an agent of the German general staff or at least isolated as insane. Russians and their friends still believe their new republic will emerge tri umphant from the chaotic conditions that now hold it almost helpless. The “Guard of Death,” the battalion of Russian women raised by Vera Rutchkareff, was in action on Tuesday for the first time, at Krevo. The wom en fought well, gaining the respect of the male soldiers. No Military Success for Germany. Germany lias scored no real mili tary success of moment for a long time. The Galician affair is not a suc cess of arms, and though the kaiser decorated some of his commanders there, they gained no glory by the pur suit of mutinous and disorganized troops. Rather should Wilhelm have bestowed his decorations upon the spies who stirred up the insubordina tion. In the Champagne region the crown prince hurled his troops against the French lines with the utmost reck lessness ail week loner, but the onlv re suit was tremendous losses for the Germans, for the poilus were indomita ble and if now and then their line was bent, they counter-attacked so fu riously that the Teuton could not hold his small gains more than an hour or so. In some places, especially on the Californie plateau, the French ad vanced their lines considerably and re pulsed all attempts to drive them from the new positions. Germany’s hullabaloo over peace terms and internal reforms has sim mered down to a discontented discus sion of Chancellor Michaelis’ inten tions and policies, based on his speech to the reichstag, which is universally admitted to have been ambiguous and even secretive. As has been said be fore, the political upheaval there doesn't bring appreciably nearer the end of the war. Many of the opposi tion leaders and newspapers more than hint that the U-boat campaign is really a failure in that it is not starv ing England, and they realize that its continuance is reducing daily the num ber of friends Germany will have after peace is concluded. Hut the militar ists of Prussia can’t let go of that weapon, and the masses of the Ger man people, who have an astonishing capacity for self-deception, evince no j desire to throw these militarists out i and save their empire from ultimate disaster. Slam Joins Kaiser's Foes. One by one the smaller nations of the world are lining up with the ene mies of the kaiser and despotic mili tarism. Far-away Siam is the latest addition to the list. German vessels in Siamese ports were seized and Ger man citizens were interned. The in fluence of every country that comes j in on the side of freedom and justice will be felt, if not strongly now, at least after the war Is ended. The Teutonic economists well know this, and even now are holding a conference on post-war conditions, seemingly still hopeful that their armies can bring about the realization of that dream of a “Mittel Europe" that would be self-sustaining and self-contained and f that would always threaten the peace of the rest of the world. The frus- | tration of that hope is the great ulti- ; mate aim of the allies. Representatives of the entente allies met in Paris on Wednesday for the purpose of determining the course of their future policy in the Balkans, which Premier Ribot, who presided, ; said must be modified because Greece i is now ranged with the allies. The ! United States was not represented, the administration holding that this nation ! is not yet directly interested in Balkan matters. Food Control Bill Delayed. President Wilson’s strenuous objec tion to the senate amendment to the food control bill creating a congres sional committee on expenditures for the war, and the determination of the house to defeat the senate amend ments, caused a delay in the final pas sage of the measure. The prohibition ists were bound to have restored the “bone-dry” plan for which the house voted. The entente allies held a conference In Paris and adopted unanimously this declaration: “The allied powers, more closely united than ever for the defense of the people’s rights, particularly in the Bal kan peninsula, are resolved not to lay down arms until they have attained the end which in their eyes dominates all others—to render impossible a re turn of the criminal aggression such as that whereof the central empires bear the responsibility.” In accordance with the recommenda tion of General Pershing, the American army Is to be reorganized on the French plan of conformation. This will change a company from 150 to 250 men, a regiment from 1,800 to 3, 000 men, and a division from 28,500 to approximately 17,000 men. The government is planning a sys tem of war insurance that will pre clude the establishing of pension rolls as a result of this war. It is proposed that every man in the army, navy and marine corps shall be entitled to insur ance ranging from $1,000 to $10,000, paying a premium of $8 a thousand, the insurance being assumed by the ---l : .. l; „ c — i . •„ „ .1 dition, the families ami other depend ents will he provided for by allotments. Recruiting was given a big boost last week, partly by the announcement that drafted men would not be accept ed as volunteers after they were called before the exemption boards, and part ly by the concerted campaign of the American and British recruiting offi cers. The British mission is obtaining large numbers of enlistments in Chi cago, New York and other large cities. Despite the tremendous financial drain on the country due to war ex penditures and in the face of fervid protests from Senators Borah, Ken yon, King and a few others, the sen ate passed the annual rivers and har bors bill, carrying an appropriation of $27,954,000. Only eleven members of the upper bouse dared to vote against this “pork” measure which, iniquitous at any time, is especially so when the nation is engaged in a war that will demand all its resources. Ireland’s great ' opportunity is at hand. The convention to draft a home rule constitution is in session in Lon don. with Sir Horace riunkett in the chair, and if the delegates can reach an amicable and satisfactory agree ment, the government of Great Britain is pledged to put it through. The re sult is in the hands of the Irish them selves. DIFFERENCE IN MILK PRICES Until Recently Product Has Been Paid for Without Regard to Qual ity—Farmers Organizing. Discussing the cost of producing milk by dairymen and the cost of dis :ribution by dealers, Prof. Fred Ras mussen, head of the dairy husbandry lepartment at the Pennsylvania state allege, recently asserted that milk :ias until very recently been paid for vithout regard to quality, the cheapest ind poorest milk determining the [n-iee. The farmer, he said, has not made use of collective bargaining in the sale of milk, and as an individual lias accepted whatever price was of fered. “The fact that milk has always been obtainable farther away from the mar ket at less price than the difference 4-1, „ „„r,4- 4-«« n 4-n 4-J /-»« »» nnlil Professor Rasmussen, “has made it difficult to get a rise in price of milk for the farmer. The farmer as a class is slow to change and slow to organ ize. It has been the history through out the world that co-operation among farmers develops only under economic pressure. “The fact that milk producers in the eastern part of the United States are today organizing to save their in dustry from financial ruin is the best evidence of the economic pressure the Industry is suffering. In the solving of the crisis In the milk business today many adjustments must be made.” HOMEMADE CARRIER IN BARN Labor-Saving Device Easily Put To gether Greatly Assists With Chores Around Stables. The daily toil about the barn in do ing chores can be lessened if a few la bor-saving devices are installed. One of these devices is a manure carrier. [ made one as follows: The body of the carrier is made of pine boards for the ends, shaped as in the sketch, and onto these ends I nailed sheet-iron sides and bottoms, as shown, says a South Dakota writer in The Farmer. Then I bent an ordinary one-inch gas pipe into U shape, forming the frame, and bolted it to the body of the car rier, as shown. Then to the top of the gas pipe frame I fastened two piv oted sheave wheels, diameter six I--1 Homemade Litter Carrier. inches. A little retaining or trip lever was also fastened to the frame and engages in a suitable slot in the end of the carrier body. This lever is show’n in the sketch, and it is to keep the carrier body in place when loading, and to release the body so that it will swing on the pivots in unloading. The next thing was to put up the track. I used round steel cable pur chased from the local dealer and fas tened this to a post in the barnyard suitably guyed and anchored. The other end of the cable I ran through the barn door to the opposite side. There I fastened it to the wall securely and stretched it tight. Then I hung the carrier in place and the job was completed. It works fine and is about as good as a more expensive one. GOOD SANITATION IN DAIRY Five Practical Suggestions Made by Clemson College for Best Man agement of Herd. (Clemson College Bulletin.) 1. Have the herd examined at least once a year by a competent veteri narian. Promptly remove animals sus pected of being in bad health. Never add an animal to the herd until cer tain It Is free from disease, particu larly tuberculosis. 2. Never allow a cow to be excited by fast driving, abuse or unnecessary disturbance. 3. Clean the entire body of the cow daily. Hair in the region of the udder should be kept short by clipping. 4. Do not allow strong-flavored food, like cabbage or turnips, to be eaten except Immediately after milking. Changes in feed should be made grad ually'. 5. Provide fresh, pure drinking wa ter in abundance. INCREASED DEMAND FOR COW In Single Year She Produced Enough Protein for Three Steers and Fat for Two. Dairy products, like everything else, are increasing in price and we find now as never before an increasing de mand for the dairy cow. If we stop to consider a few of her performances we will find that in a single year she will produce enough protein for three steers, enough fat for two, ash enough to build the skeletons for three, over $40 worth of milk sugar, and manure valued at $30.