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Wilmington journal. [volume] (Wilmington, N.C.) 1844-1895, September 10, 1847, Image 1

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Published every Friday Morning, by
PRICE 8L nyiiTOW, Proprietors.
terms op subscription:
9 50 a-year. in advance, or 3 00 if not paid within
tlirce months alter subscribing.
No paper discontinued until all arrearages are paid.
No subscription received for less than twelve months.
Wc Will pay t,,c P0?,aSe 011 letters containing Thm
Hollars and upwards, and money may be remitted
IhcMUfhifc mail at our risk. The Pustmastt r s cer
nfkaeofsucli rentittance shall be a sufficient receipt
rx3r-.H Letters on business connected with 'his of
flee, must be addressed p-st paid to PBCI & fVLTOtt,
0r they will not be attended to.
KJ"Wb mean to keep the following paragraph stan
ding for the benefit of ail whom it may concern :
ADVERTISING. We would commend the following
lACtttO the attentian of the-advitising community.
Tha " Wilmington Journal" circulates upwards of 12
ftuNDBKD copibs weekly. Its circulation in the town
of Wilmington is as large as that of any otherpaper pob
tished in the place. We would further state that its
circulation in the counties which trade to this place is
tiikke times as large as that of any other paper puhlish
r ! in North Carolina, and thatits list is daily increasing.
We say, therefore, without the fear of contradiction,
that it is the bent vehicle for advertising which the peo
ple of Wilmington can select. One other observation
We think, that although a large majority of the read.-is
of the "Journal" arc Democrats, still thev ocean ion ally
tt little trading, as well as the readers of the whig pa
pers. We have written the above merely for the Infor
mation of those who are most deeply interested busi
ness men of all professions and all political creeds
Post Office, Wilmington.
Northern Mail., by Rail Road, due daily at 2 P. M..
a-id close at 10 every night.
Southern Mail, by Steamer from Charleston, is due
daiy at 8 A.. M., sndclosts at 1 1 A H. every day.
Faysttevuab Mail, by Kail Road, is due on Mondays
Wednesdays and Fridays, at 3 P. ML, and closes on same
lays at 10 at night.
I avstthvillb Mail, by Prosper;! Hall, Elizabeth! own,
Wesvbroolrs, and Robesons. is due on Tuesdays Thnrs
t.ivs and Saturdays, nl 9 A.. M , and closes an same days
at 10 P. M.
Smitiivii.le Mail, by Steamer, is due daily at 3 A. M.,
tad closes at 12J P. M. every day.
Ta vr.sn's IIridce, Lo.vn (.'keek, Moore's Crkbk, Ri ack
RiVU Chapel, and Haukei.i.'s Store Mail, is due evey
i hursday at 6 P. M., and closes same night at 10.
Onslow Cocsrr HaesK, Stump Soitnd, and Topsail
Mail, if doe every Monday at 4 P. M., and closes every
Tin us day nightat 10 P. M.
rx r- x
Xeally executed anil with despatch, on
liberal terms for cash, at the
Manufacturers $c Bealers
wholesale ash retail,
MA RKKT STREET Wilminffton, N. C
mm w. davis,
Commission and Forwarding
LONDON' WHARF, Wilmington, N. C.
Continue the AGENCY business, and will make
Itheral advances on c.oiiMgmneuts of
Lumber, Naval Stores. &.c &c.
Wilmington, August 1st, 1815.
Wilmington, JV. C.
J dy 16. 1817 41 12m
Of the Hon. Jno. Y. Mason, L. L. D , before the
Alumni Association of the University of
North Carolina, delivered in Gerard Hall,
June 2d, 1847.
Mr. President, If Gentlemen of the Association:
In appearing before you to-day, while I re
cret that your invitation had not found one
possessed of more leisure than 1 have had in
which to meet its requirements, I am glad of
the opportunity which has thus been afforded
me, to testify my continued interest in my Al
ma Mater, and my sincere regard for those
creat purposes of science and of virtue which
it is the fortunate office of an American Uni
versiiy to promote.
After intervals of absence some of litem
embracing more than a quarter of a century
we visit again, mindful yet of our literary
brotherhood, fhecherished scenes of our youth,
ful studies, and renew for a few brief hours,
amid the fragrant memorials of Chapel Hill,
our ancient companionship of letters, and our
old associations of classicjife. Turning aside
from our accustomed pursuits, we exchange
the greetings of friendship in halls long sacred
lo religion and truth ; and before the altars of
our early worship, we gather fresh motives of
gratitude to the venerable Institution whose
virtues they commemorate. We surrender
ourselves to the mild influences of the day and
the occasion. We forget the discords of pro
fessional strife; the hard competitions of busi
ness; the feverish thirst for fame : and hush
ing all the thousand voices of party zeal, we
bow ourselves in unresisting submission to the
divinity of the place.
In such influences we find our best prepar
ation for the Anniversary which we celebrate.
It is a festival less of the head than of the
heart. It has more concern with generous
ii!iMilses and warm affections, than with the
Al I li f i i
-uiu ueducuons oi reason, or tne ury specula
tions of metaphysics. It is wisely intended,
not so much for the exhibition of hoarded
knowledge and the discussions of abtruse
thought, as for promotion of kind feeling, the
strengthening ot good resolves, the awakening
and quickening of a spirit of improvement in
ourselves and in others It brings together,
from remote places and from various paths,
those whose only memories in common clus
ter around this seat of learning ; and it thus
perpetuates attachments which might other
wise lie buried for ever in the dust of years.
In this view of its character, it claims the re
wards of patriotism, no less than the regards
f)l friendship; and strengthens our union as
citizens, by reviving our connection as stu
dents The bonds which hold together our
extended confederacy of States, are not those
alone which are to be read in written constitu
tions and eathered fioin the enactments of le
gal codes; but those, rather, which are found
n the interchange of social kindness ; in ihe
attractions of literary intercourse ; and in the
manifold associations which spring from the
communions of religion and the pursuits of
"'"j 'Mauiuuon, tnereiore, wuicu,
- iiKe our own societv". P-:itVifr itc momKorc fit
Irequent periods from distant sections and dif
ferent States, forms a new link in that most
important chain of causes, upon which we
nni ,l.,d,, -t,. j ? i .
. hhcuj icij, uiiuci i lovuience, lor the
support and perpetuity of our republican sys
tem. J
In behalf of that system, how numerous and
Powerful are the motives which appeal to us
ri an anniversary like this. The tranquility
0 these academic walks, the circumstances,
ail oi them, under which we assemble, speak
to us of a beneficent Government and a pros
ed country. The experience, too, of every
n ot os enforces the same lesson with the
. ? .
f km j. jr w a
strength and vividness of a personal convic
In what other nation has honest ambition
so wide a range, and merit so certain and so
brilliant a reward ? Where else, in the civili
zed world, can a virtuous education be so sure
ly obtained, and lead to results of such tran
cendnnt worth ?
A distinguished illustration of this truth we
have present in our own companionship to
day. The youth, whom some of us remember
as a student of Chapel Hill in the class of
118, whose leehle health had threatened to i
'linn.ii ins anient tiiirst oi Knowledge, renirns
lo us now, the occupant of the highest politi
cal station which is known on earth. We re
cognise here no distinctions of artificial rank ;
no claims of lineage ; no assumptions of wealth;
hut we acknowledge that the honors confer
red upon our brother-in-letters are reflected
back upon our University and ourselves, and
we recognise them as the fruit of wise instruc
tion, and as incentives to eflbrts in others, to
whom opportunities arc offered, more favora
, K u : I a. .t: . e i , . j .
ble, even, than were his. We greet him on
this auspicious occasion, not alone as the Chief
Magistrate of the Republic, but in a more
near and friendly relation, as our ancient as
sociate in study, and a graduate, with us, of
the same honored institution. Here, where in
the bright morning of life he laid, in virtue,
in industry, and in science, the deep founda
tions of his subsequent success, he comes
back with us, to pay the sincere homage of
gratitude for those early privileges to which
he owes so much, and which he can now,
more than ever, value as they deserve. In his j
recollection, as in the memory of us all, this,
ancient place yet glows with its old attrac
tions, and our affections fondly turn to it, amid I
the wanderings oi earth, with something of!
youthful ardor, as well as of filial respect. '
However in other scenes and less tranquail I
"s the ear is all unstrunz,
"Still, still, it loves the lowland tongue."
But time, which matures and ripens, also !
destroys; and as our eyes wander over this
assembly, we mourn the absence of many a
familiar countenance and many a beloved form.
While we acknowledge new and welcome ac
cessions to our number from the youthful grad
uates ot the year, we are compelled to rcinem
i .i..i" .i .i-
ner mat uiey occupy trie seat ol earlier
pan ions, who have been swept away in the
lapse of years, and who repose now in the si
lent shadows of the grave. To those of us
who were together here, thirty years ago,
rati riantes in gurgite vasto" these mourn
ful recollections come home with peculiar
power. Like dim voices of the dead, they
speak to us from the chair of the instructor as
well as from the bench of the pulpit.
" Now kindred merit fills the sable bier ;
Now lacerated friendship claims a lear ;
Year chases year; decay pursues deca ;
Still drops some joy from withering life away."
And here I should do injustice lo the occa
sion and to my own feelings if IHid not pur
sue this painful theme for a moment, to pay
the tribute of my affectionate regard to the
memory of him who for many years, often un
der most adverse circumstances, but still with
signal success, administered the affairs of the
University as its presiding officer. No one, I
am sure, who has ever shared his counsels or
profited by his mild reproofs, can easily for
get the wisdom and the virtues oi" President
Caldwell. Uniting extended learning with
feound judgment, he possessed the rare and dif
ficult art to temper a (monition with kindness,
and !o ren ler discipline more effectual by ma-!
king it less repulsive.
" His life was- gentle ; and the elements
So mixed in him, that Nature might stand up,
At'd say to all the world, ' this was a man.' " !
His character and his usefulness what he j
was, and what he was enabled to do suggest j
a theme, which in this theatre of his labors, j
anil among these witnesses of his fame, it j
would be a grateful task under oilier circum-!
stances to pursue. But his own example j
would rebuke us, if we should al'ow even his j
merits lo turn us aside from contemplating
the jrreat obiects of his toil. Let us seek rath-1
er to understand and to do homage to those
vast interests of enlightened culture in our
own country, which he lived, and, I had al- !
most said, he died to promote.
To this general subject we are invited, not j
only by the proprieties of the occasion, but by 1
its own intrinsic dignity and worth. In its;
broad and oomprcucri.ive sense, tne woru oi
education is the grand business of human life ; j
and in these United Stales, I need hardly say, ;
it can never be neglected, but at the hazard of j
consequences which r.o patriot can contcm
plate without alarm.
This belief was present with America at its
very birth, and stamped upon its rising insfi
tutions the great impress of freedom and per- j
petuity. In the history of other nations, learn- j
ing his been the slow growth of a society al-
ready formed, and has existed. at last, only as!
the ornament of wealth or the champion of .
i . .i t".i r i" l.
power, tin; wim tne ramers oi our uepuo
lic, next to religion, it was the first thing
thought of ; not as a luxury, but as a necessi
ty; not as the handmaid of privilege, but as
the nurse of equality ; not as the child of en
dowment or the accident of place, but as the
urest basis of public prosperity and of private!
happiness. They planted knowledge, there
fore, in the wilderness: established schools
as soon as they builded habitations; and laid
the foundations of a University, while yet they
were struggling with the ravages of disease
and the apprehension of want. More than a
century ago the charter governments were cel
ebrate! for " promoting letters by free schools
and colleges' and to this feature of their
character has been traced the secret ol the.r
great success. " Every child born into the
world was lifted from the earth by the genius
of its country, and in the statutes ol the land
received, as "its political birthright, a pledge of
It has been said that, under a Government 1 ing are not always pure, they are seldom dan
like ours, whatever is gained in politics is lost ! gerous; for its errors are met by truth as soon
in learning, and that a nation becomes less j as they appear, and, like the lance of Achilles,
...,!,. ;f!liiY-aiit In- liocnminir mnr( tbnroil p-hlv I it has "the virtue to heal the wounds which it
FJennblir-nn Ypt no couiitrv has done so
ivv-j m.j.vw... J
much for learning in so short a time as Ameri
ca. Unexampled as has been its growth in
all the elements of physicial power, its means
of education have multiplied with its advan
cing population, and gone hand in hand with
its increasing wealth. When this institution
was founded in 1789, it had not more than
ten associate colleges in the whole Union ; and
many of these, in every thing but the name,
were hardly on alcvel with our modern acade
mies. There are now in the United States at
least ten times that number, with an aggregate
of nearly eight hundred instructors, an atten
dance of twelve thousand students, and a li
brary of six hundred and fifty thousand vol
umes. Independent of these, but laboring in
the same field of usefulness, are thirty-four
schools of theology, thirty-two of medicine,
and eight of Jaw, all ol them in successlul op
eration, and some of them munificently provi
ded with the most costly apparatus and most
valuable works. The true glory, hoyvever, of
republican culture is found in those less am
bitious nurseries of learning which, scattered
broadcast over the Union, extend the opportu
nities of free instruction to almost every farm
ly in America From the imperfect returns of
many oi tne otaies, ana me aifterent systems
adopted in various sections for accomplishing
the same end, an accurate summary on this
subject cannot well be obtained. Five years
ago, it was estimated that, in the whole coun
try, there were not less than two millions of
pupils, who attended common schools ; but a
hetter idea oi tneir
be gathered from the statistics of a single
c. t ; nn innnno mm-
.. . j rt
Mate. In iNew York, there are nearly eleven
thousand public schools; not less than half a
million of pupils : and district lihraries for ih
use nhkeof childrenand adults. mmnrUintr in
the ?ggregate more than a million of volumes
. . P
In that State, I am aware, the school system
has been the work of many years; but even the
system of Ohio, one of the youngest States in
the Union, may well attract our astonishment
and respect. Here, if any where in the land,
considering her late existence and marvellous
growth, we might have looked to see the cul
tivation of mind fatally postponed, if not
wholly overwhelmed, by the thronging de
mands of enterprise, and the pressing employ
ments of active life. Yet her constitution de
clares, in the genuine spirit of the Republic,
" that knowledge is essential to good govern
ment and human happiness," and that "schools
and means of instruction should be encouraged
in such a way as is consistent with, freedom of
conscience." Acting on the admirable senti
ment of this provision, she had established, as
long ago as 1840, eighteen colleges and nearly
six thousand schools, which were attended by
two hundred and twenty-five thousand scho
lars. These illustrations evince, at a single glance,
the extended interest of our people in the dif
fusion of knowledge, and the magnificent re
mits which that patriotic intesest has achiev
ed. If some States have done less than Ohio
for the cause of instruction, there are others
which have done-more and all of them, I be
lieve, without exception, have
recognized its
importance by wise constitutional or
provisions, ine public lunus set apart tor
this purpose in the whole Union, including
the generous grants of hind by the Federal
Government, to promote (he sales of its public
i domain, need not shrink irom comparison with
the boasted literary endowments of Europe ;
and yet thev fall very far short of the entire
expenditure in the United States for the edu-
tinn r f thn i-nii7inr I hn pnd rf ii--!i-o n
strnction iorms ot itsell an additional item oi
immense amount, wlme tne grand aggregate
is still further increased by the frequent, con
tributions of individual beneficence, for the
foundation of libraries, or the improvement of
schools. In the field of letters, as every
where else in oui country, the great principle
of voluntary effort is ceaselessly at work, and
constantly rivals, by the energy oi its move
ments and the magnitude ot its effects, the
most successful action on the part of Govern
ment. The exercise of their combined power
has pervaded the very heart of the people with
the influencesof moral and mental culture, and
has extended the means of education to every
grade of society and every condition of life.
Aided, however, by no combination with
the Stale, the religious teachings of America,
are the work purely of private beneficence.
In the republics of antiquity, religion was on
ly a part of their political system, and the head
of the State was also the father of the church.
This unnatural connexion, fatal alike to chris
tianity and to liberty, which even yet lingers
in the Old World, has been wholly repudiated
in the New and the land of Roger Williams
and Thomas Jefferson proclaims liberty of con
science from sixty thousand churches, and in
culcates virtue and toleration in as many Sab
bath schools. Free government is valuable,
after all, not so much for any direct exertion
of its own power, as for what it permits the
people to work out for themselves.
The Press began its work in 16o.9 : a cen
tury afterwards it had earned the prohibition
of England, and was strong enough to defv
it ; and at this day, it asserts its freedom by
an influence which is only not despotic because
it is not harmonious. Far outstripping by its
enterprise the fertility of our writers, the Ame
rican press appropriates unshrinkingly the
literary treasures of the whole earth ; while it
almost forbids importation of books by the
cheapness with which it reprints them, and the
facility with which it scatters them among all
classes of the reading community. But the
most striking displays of its activity and pow
er are only to be witnessed in the field oi Jour
nalism, where it more than equals France in
energy, and knows no other rival throughout
the world. Tt printed the first newspaper ni
America in the year 1704: in 1828 it had joined
an additional number of eight hundred and fif
ty; and, at this day, it acts upon the popular
mind through the teeming columns of more
than two thousand journals. Sharing, as well
as stimulating, the progressive spirit of the age,
it advances into the wilderness with our har
dy pioneers; keeps company with our com
merce among the islands of the sea ; and con
tends for supremacy with the sword upon ev
ery battle-field which is won by our victorious
arms. Already it sends us shipping lists from
the Sandwich Islands, chronicles the news of
the day in La Vera Cruz, and echoes back the
thunder of our cannon from the shores of the
far Pacific. Becoming thus the missionary as
well as the schoolmaster of republicanism, it
plants among other nations the seeds of free
dom, which u iiiisueu upeiteu upuu uiu sun,
and having first contributed to the glory ol A
merica at home, it crowns its labor of patrio
tism bv making it better known, and therefore
more honored, abroad.
With influences such as these, it more than
pays back to our country whatever of nurture
it has received from it, and richly atones for
all the imperfections or abuses by which-it so
often deserves the reproaches of society, and
somtimes seems, a'most, to require the censor
ship of law. The force of enlightened public
i l. : i l : i t ..: j . :
opinion constitutes, after all, its best restraint
! and the onlv one yvhich"would leave to it al!
i its va tie. L nder this guidance, it its teach-
I has itseli inflicted
In the higher branches of
literature, the goodwhich it confers is never
doubted ; and if it is less free from censure in
its lizhtei nublications, yet its agency even
there is on the side of virtue and in favor of
liberty. "Were it left to me to decide," writes
Mr. Jefferson, "whether we should have a
government without newspapers, or newspa
pers without government, I would not hesi
tate a moment to preler the latter." Paradox
ical as this may seem, it cannot be doubtedly
that no government can be maintained in the
spirit of liberty and purity, without the chas
tening influences of the newspaper press.
It is sometimes said that a rich source of in
struction is closed to us, because America has
I no monuments ; and if by this it :s meant that
she is not yet marked yvi'th the decay of age
and the ravages of time, the assertion is strict
ly true. But unless ruin is more desirable
than greatness, and the dim figures of antiqui
ty more precious than the fresh and glowing
forms of youth, this feature of her character is
rather her glory than her reproach. The
monuments of America are not found in the
scattered fragments of the duty past,' but point
all of them to the rising grandeurs ol the lar-
! off future ; and while older nations look
i i ;
N. C, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 1847. !
back through the twilight of ages
t Vi t Iaca
themselves in night," the genius of our Re
public goes forth in the dawn of morning, to
meet and welcome the approach of day. No
feudal castles, crumbling upon our hills, at
test the ancient violence of robber-lords, and
not for us, do the glorious relics of a noble an
cestry bear witness, in buried columns and
broken arches, to the degenerate spirits of their I
unworthy sons ; but in place of these, and far
belter than these, xce crown our landscapes, !
wiin contended homes, we build altars to
science by the hearthstone of every citizen,
and with the spires of thousands of churches
we point our children the path to Heaven.
V bile we can preserve, unimpaired to our
country, free instruction, free religion, and a
free press, we need ask no other support for
our instituions, and no other witnesses to our
To the means of instruction which; have
been already mentioned, I should do wrong
not to add that other and peculiar education
which springs from the very working of our
republican system, ami from which no mem
ber of the community can well escape, even
if he would. Under our policy, every citizen
is a part of the government, and some of its
most important duties are periodically devol
ved upon him, both by law and by necessity.
He wields the power of the elective franchise,
and determines by his vote the choice alike of
measures and of men; not only who shall rule
him, but what shall rule him; he sits in the
jury box, and the fortune, the fame, nay, the
very life of his neighbor, rest upon his deci
sion ; he is called as a witness, and iss sworn
to give true testimony on questions involving
the deepest interests and the most important
results; or, by the suffrages of his fellow-citi
zens, lie is clothed with still greater trusts,
and assumes responsibilities which belong on
to the highest stations in the gift of
people. A sovereign in his own right, the
symbols of nis authority are thus constantly
beiore his eyes, and from every new exercise
of his power, the American citizen derives
fresh excitement to his intellect, and increased
dignity to his character. In all his public acts j
the double motive presses upon him to ensure
reward and to avoid disgrace. Under a. free
government, he knows full well that, with in
telligence and fidelity, there are no plaudits
which he may not win, and no prizes of am
bition which arc- above his reach ; while, on
the other ham), no where else is corruption so
inexcusable, and ignorance so wholly out of
place. In other countries, where passive obe
dience is the fruit of despotism, a sto'.id peo
ple is the natural accompaniment of an educa
ted prince: but the genius ot our institutions
con tern:
ates no such
I, 4 k ,,,, ,1J
tin CL 1 1
man, and deems itseli defrauded of its just
claims when it finds a citizen faithless to his
duty. The large requirements, therefore, of
American politics, which are with superficial
observers the subject of hasty regret, consti
tute in reality one of the most valuable fea
tures of our republican system, a most affluent
source of ennobling instruction, and tend, with
inevitable certainty, not only to increase the
popular intelligence, but to give energy, ex
pansion, and elevation to the popular mind.
Tranquility and the repose of exclusive devo
tion to personal pursuits are not the most fa
vorable elements either for great conceptions
of distinguished action. The highest heroism,
on the contrary, springs from the strongest
excitements; ami the period of revolution is
also the period of awakened fc nius. The
same causes which break up ancient abuses
in societv, break up, with eciual efficacy, old
absurdities in science and in art; and from the
still-heaving waves of tumult and reform, e
merge side by side the warrior, the statesman,
the orator, and ihe poet. The sublime pro
ductions of Milton had their birth in the same
times which proluced the stormy character of
Oliver Cromwell ; and the harsh, passionate
voice of the one comes softened to our ears by
the lofty melody of the other. Amid the
fierce passions and new found energies of re
volutionary France, Mirabeau & Robespierre
announced together the rising fortunes of the
" man of destiny." And after convulsions,
such as the earth has rarely seen, Napoleon
comes upon the stage prepared for him, and
writes his name in iron characters, not only
upon the history of Europe, but upon the ve
ry forehead of the world. The experience of
modern times is confirmed upon ibis subject
by all the lessons of antiquity. The home of
freedom was every where the dwelling place
of letters, and we read the examples of suc
cessful genius, not among the subjects of des
potic Babylon, but among the democracy of
Athens. There was no literary fame, even
in Greece, until the era opened of her repub
lican principles; but then she became the
matchless land of civilization and refinement.
" Where science struck the thrones of earth ami heaven,
Which shook hut fell not ;and the harmonious mind
Poured itself forth in all prophetic sons,
And music litVd up the listen ing spirit.
Until it walked, exempt from mortal care,
Godlike, o'er the clear billows of sweet sound,
And human hands first mimicked, and then mocked
With moulded limbs, more lovely than its own,
The human form, till marble grew divine."
And the literature of Greece must prove for
ever the kindling influencesof Grecian liberty.
But as no people can continue indefinitely
in a s'ale of revolution, these excitations of
the popular mind in other ages and other coun
tries, always producing the same noble fruits,
have, after a brief and brilliant reign, been as
invariably iollowed by the paralyzing torpor
ol despotism. It was reserved for our happy
country to devise a system, our own incom
parable federative system, which, with the
liberalizing influencesof the Christian religion
in freedom and in purity, is constantly instruc
ting and stimulating the popular mind, and
developing all the energies of our nature. It
is a problem successfully worked out, which
justly commands the admiration of the world,
equally auspicious to literature and to liberty,
and promises blessings to mankind, which the
human imagination can hardly conceive. "At
this moment, the disastrous and ominous con
dition of Europe, which men of philosophical
enquiry and reflection begin to ascribe to in
veterate, radical, and permanent evils of po
liticarand social systems, but .renders more
vivid and dazzling the bright aspects of our
manifold prosperity." But this is not the oc
casion to pursue this train of thought."
Devoted in patriotism, and ever ready to act
on the noble principle salus Republics su
Drema lex our country men have yet neglec
ted nothing which was calculated to adorn
domestic life and promote individual happi-
. . 1 1 . 1. . 4 1.
ness. female education u, uicieiuic, al
ways been a subject ot primary attention.
Elevated to her appropriate position in so
ciety ; adorned, refined, and accomplished by
careful instruction, the American woman is
the happy companion of the American free
man: edaddenim? his hea"t by her smile of
fontidence and love, and cheering him in his
great career of public duty, by her voice ot
counsel and approbation.
Glorious as our institutions are, their fruit
would have turned to ashes, without the love
ly association of the softer sex, fitted by edu
cation to be the friend, the joy, the pride of
American patriots.
If our country, from the very nature of its
r.nirornmpnt rlemn nds much of its citizens, let
us remember that it makes them capable of
JMna much : and that, by giving to them the
c;rm,i., and nurture of free institutions, U
ClllUUi -
places within the reach, even of the most hum
ble", the highest attainments of learning and
the noblest achievements of mind.
The value of this nurture and of this stimu
lus is best attested by the great results which
they have already accomplished ; and thus
measured by the standard of results, our whole
Republic is but a monument to their praise.
Under their influence, constantly cherished
and constantly in turn exerted, it has not only
maintained successfully its fieedom and its
power, but it has pursued a career of progress
and improvement, which is without a parallel
in the history of the world. Fifty eight years
ago it elected its first President. It then em
braced a population of little more than three
millions, occupying thirteen Stales, on the At
lantic coast, and covering an area of less than
five hundred thousand square miles. Its popu
lation has .now swelled to more than twenty
millions, and it has added nearly a million of
square miles to its represented territory. It
has more than doubled the number of States,
and new sovereignties still form themselves in
the wilderness to claim its confederate honors.
With this astonishing increase of its numbers,
and of its peopled and cultivated territory, has
grown op, also in a ratio equally rapid, every
important interest which can possibly add ei
ther to national yvealth or national glory. In
agriculture, it has invented new implements
of industry, and applied them to fresh fields of
toil ; and from ihe rich abundance of its gath
ered harvests, it not only fills each avenue of
want at home, hut freights its storeships with
a people's tribute to the famine-stricken chil
dren of kingdoms abroad In commerce, it
whitens the very ocean with its enterprise, and
exchanges products with every climate under
the sun ; while in the rapid advancement of
its manufactures, it bids fair, at no distant day,
to rival even the skill of English industry, and
to transfer to this side of the Atlantic the
" workshop of the world."
Pursuing with boundless, because unfetter
ed, zeal each opening oi foreign traffics, it at
the same time unites its own territory by con
stantly extending and improving its means of
internal intercourse and trade
The remotest
inhabitant of the Confederacy is not beyond
the reach of its post office, and its civilization
travels not only with the marvellous power of
wind and - learn, but with the speed of electri
city, subdued by the art of man along ihe lines
of its Magnetic Telegraph.
Scarcely more than twenty years ago, it
was without a single mile of railroad ; in 1836,
its iron engines traversed a completed track of
sixteen hundred miles, and it has now more
miles of railroad than, in the time of Wash
ington, it had of post routes. In proportion
to its population, it has more than three times
as many as France ; and the canal connecting
the Hudson with the Lakes, is the longest of
these artificial rivers which has been construc
ted in the world.
In the year 1807, Robert Fulton attracted
ridicule by building its fust steamboat, and
ten years after, it had no regular line of steam
boats in all its western waters. They now
crowd in hundreds upon its ocean rivers and
its inland seas,"gathering the rich products of
the most remote and land-locked regions of our
country, and pouring them into the lap of com
merce ; they defy every form of danger upon
its Atlantic coast; they keep company with its
navy against the northers of the Gulf of Mex
ico; and, tin ier the fostering are of Con
gress, they will soon cross the Ocean with its
mails, and minister to the wants of our ships
of war, and protect our merchant marine in
every quarter of the globe. A single one of
its Western States possesses more steamboats
than the whole kingdom of France, and there
are said to be as many steamers on Lake Erie
as in the Mediterranean sea.
Its increasing means of communication thus
keep peace with its extending settlements, and
its whole Union is bound together in the strong
embraces of mutual intercourse, mutual knowl
edge, and mutual interest. In this way it ad
ministers with facility one Government for
twenty-eight sovereignties, and from a single
central heart diffuses the health y life-blood of
law and justice through all portions of the
body politic. Yet, with us, Paris is noj
France, and that heart would soon become cor
rupt, and the stream of sanitary circulation tor
pid, but for the purifying application of the
Federative principle, and the chastening and
correcting influences of the subdivisions of
power amongst the States and the people, to
whom so large a share in the duty of self-gov
ernment is wisely confided.
The same Influences, too, which have thus
dcvolope:!, with almost startling rapidity, the
various srmrccs of its physical power, have
adorned it at the same time with cheering
monuments ot its active benevolence, its sci
entific ingenuity, and its improving taste, lis
charities partake, at once, of ihe vigor of its
enterprise and the abundance of its means, and
no worthy object eve; yet appealed to it in
vain. Shrewd and unyielding as it doubtless
is in the concerns of trade, it is character
ized by the warmest s)"mpathy for human suf
fering, and the most generous disposition to
give it adequate relief. Its capacious heart,
sharing something of its broad nationality, has
gathered around it none of the iron of avarice
or the numbness of exhausted feeling, but nev
er fails to respond with warmth and feeling
to the voice of misfortune, no matter from
what clime it comes, or what disaster
may have produced it. In our own country
t attests the magnitude of its beneficence by its
charatable institutions, which attrack respect,
not only on account of the purposes to which
they are devoted, but from their elegant
construction and convenient arrangements.
Its care of its poor has been censured by for
eign writers as so extravagant as to invite pau
purism; and with equa.1 bouoty it embraces in
Its ministrations the aged and trie sick, the deaf
and the dumb, the blind and the lunatic
These institutions, so numerous and so well
adapted to their ends, excite our admiration,
not so much at their number, as that in so
new a country time has been found to estab
lish them. Firm in the maintenance of law,
its system of punishments is characterized by
christian benevolence, and the pecuniary fines
imposed on numerous classes of crimes are de
voted to the promotion of education beauti
fully taxing vice to support virtue.
If America has not yet equalized older na
tions by her advances in literature and art,
she ha4pt least laid a firm foundation for them ;
and bright examples of generous attainment
and lofty intellect arc not even now wanting
among her cultivate! citizens. Her states
manship has been proved in the strictest
school of diplomacy; and her public speaking,
in true eloquence, will not suffer from com
parison with that of any other country. In
history, in painting, and in sculpture, in poe
try, in the eloquence of the pulpit, in the se
vere reasoning of the bench, and in the impo
sing diction of Senatorial elocution, our coun
try has produced successful competitors for a
companionship vrilh the most gifted sons of
genius, m other regions ot the world.
But, whatever may be thought of its litera
ture and its taste, its contributions to science
and to mechanics can never be regarded as de
ficient, either in number or in value. Its dis
coveries in electricity, in galvanism, and in the
amplication of steam, are as bri lliant in theory
as they are useful in results, and thousands of
molels in our Patent office bear witness that
TEItyis : 50 in advance.
WHOLE NO. 156.
the genius which invented the cotton gin, and
new moulded the commerce of the world, is
still rife among the countrymen of Eli Whit
ney. In mathematics, in mineralogy, in geol
ogy, and in chemistry, the profound research
es of our countrymen have added to the na
tional character, and increased the means of
social happiness.
Trammelled by no fetters of ignorance or
superstition, the American child of genius
" comes forth with freedom into the glowing
sunlight of philosophy, as the servant and in
terpreter of nature; he looks abroad into the
rich and magnificent universe, calls the de
lightful scenery all his own the mountains,
the valleys, the ocean, the rivers, and the
sky ; through these xvide bounds he is free at
will to choose
Whate'er bright spoils the florid earth contains,
Whate'cr the water or the ambient air.
All present him with perfect instances of the
consummate yvisdom of the Almighty God,
who created a world so fraught with beauty ;
and by their examination he gains materials,
which not only enlighten and adorn, but ex
alt and purify his mind, teaching him to ap
preciate the miraculous yvorkings of an om
nipotent and eternal Power.'
But confederate America, after all, is not
yet a century old ; and it is unjust, therefore,
to measure her attainments by the ripened
knowledge which with other nations has been
the accumulation of centuries. The first con
dition of progress in every department of learn
ing is to appreciate its value, and this condi
tion, at least, she has generously fulfilled.
There is no object of mental improvement at
all worthy of human pursuit, upon which, in
some form or other, she has not set the seal of
her approval ; and her elevation, it should be
remembered, is not shown by the bright a
chievements of an isolated class, but by the
liberal culture of a whole people.
Without any deductions for her deficiencies,
she has done enough already to fix the grati
tude of her citizens, and to challenge the ad
miration of the world. And yet, she is but in
the morning of her existence ; and brilliant as
now is her star, it has only entered upon the
radiant career which it is destined under Pro
vidence yet to accomplish. Her population,
her wealth, her intellect, her power, are all of
them in the germ only of their first develop
ment, and are pressing forward to an expan
sion, whose majestic grandeur it is difficult for
the mind to realize. When we consider her
sparseness of population, her vacant territory,
her favored position, her unrivalled Govern
ment, and remember the momentum which she
has received from ihe past, and the increased
energy which she must acquire from every
succeeding step of her onward march, wc are
ready to believe nothing impossible in her fu
ture greatness.
It would be vain to expect that the work of
mere human hands, requiring the agency of
human means, should attain successful results,
without sometimes exhibiting the imperfec
tions of its authors, and the infirmities of their
In the progress of our experiment of self
go'vernment, we have encountered dangers
which appeared to threaten failure, and which
were exultingly hailed by the enemies of free
dom as the sure sign that our Federal Union,
the prolific source of all our blessings, would
prove but a " rope of sand." Through these
dangers we have successfully passed. Oth
ers must await us.
We know
" There is a divinity which shape's our ends,
Rough hew them as we may,"
and we will not despair of the Republic ; al
ways remembering that, if in the collisions of
interest, the wickedness of fanaticism, or the
frenzy of party, we recur to those feelings of
fraternal affection, forbearance, and concilia
tion, and to those great principles of justice
and. respect for the rights of all, which anima
ted our fathers, we will not fail to secure the
perpetuity of our institutions.
The magnitude of our country's destiny must
depend, however, under Providence, upon the
virtue and intelligence of her individual citi
zens ; and to all of us, therefore, she addres
ses the solemn appeal of patriotism and hu
manity. While, therefore, we endeavor to
appreciate as it deserves our glorious heritage
of liberty and happiness, let us also appreciate
the vast responsibility by which it is accom
panied ! Living under the only free govern
ment on earth, upon us arc concentrated the
dearest political hopes of man. .Wherever
glitters the crown of despotism, or faintly
throbs the heart of freedom wheiever toil
goes unrewarded, or human right is crushed
beneath oppression fi om patriots of all climes,
and the oppressed of every land come blend
ed to our ears, voices alike of warning and
entreaty ; all invoking us to be faithful to our
holy trust, and to preserve it sacredly for the
civil redemption of the world. The voices of
the past come mingled with the voices of the
present, and amid the graves of fallen empires,
and the splendid ruins of departed greatness,
we gather anew the solemn lesson of individ
ual duty. Let us receive it with submission,
and reverence, anil awe ; and let it increase
the warmth of our patriotism, the earnestness
of our virtue, and the devotedness of our toil.
If we would discharge aright the duty which
we owe to our country and to mankind, let us
begin by discharging aright the duty yvhich
we owe ourselves.
" This above all, to thine own self be true ;
And it must follow, as the night the day.
Thou canst not then be false lo any man."
To Dress Rice. A lady recommends the
following :
" Soak the rice in cold sait and water for
seven hours have ready a stew pan with boil
ing water, throw in the rice, and let it boil
briskly for ten minutes, then pour it in a cul
lender, cover it up hot by the fire for a few
minutes, and then serve. The grains are dou
ble the usual size, and quite distinct from each
We should like to see th newspaper that
would suit every body ; it would be a curiosi
r1 11
ty. Mich a thing never uiu, nor never can,
have a place among the things of the earth,
j yet thousands are astonished that the paper to
which they are subscribers does not contain
just such articles as they like to read best.-
One expects moral essays ; another love tales
and miscellany ; another mirth and anecdotes?;
another looks for a sermon ; while all wonder
that their particular taste is not suited never
for a moment supposing that an editor caters
for the mental appetites of thousands.
The common fluency of speech in many
men and most women, is owing to a scarcity
of matter and scarcity of words , for whoever
is a master of language and hath a mind full
of ideas, will be apt, in speaking, to hesitate
upon the choice of both, whereas common
speakers have only one set of ideas, and one
set of words to clothe them in, and these are
always ready at the mouth. So people come
faster out of a church when it is almost empty
than when a crowd is at the door.
Mrs. UyB says : " The ugly and the hand
some are sent into the world together, and if
the frd rrivea a share of the universe to both
of them, sure vre have no right to take it from ;
Terms for Advertising,
One squaie one insertion, i qq
do. 2 insertions, f g
do. 3 do. i j(j
do. 3 months without change, 3 on
do. 6 do. do. do. 4 50
do. 13 do. do. do. t 00
do. renewed weekly, 13 to
do. 12 lk A A A AM
A liberal discount win be mode on advertise
ments exceeding one squaTe, when puhhed S of
13 months, cam in advance.
(TjIf the number of inseittons are not marked
on the advertisement, they will be continued ontii
ordered out, and charged for accordingly.
OCT All advertisement required to be PAID
From the Home Journal.
An old man sat by a rlteless hearth,
Though the night was dark and chifJ,
And mournfully over the frozen earth
The wind sobbed low and shrill
His locks were white, and his eyes Were ptif
And dim, but not with years,
A nd his skeleton form had wasted away
With penury more than years.
A rusblicht was casting its fitful glare"
O'er the damp and dingy walls.
Where the lizard hath made bis slimy lair,
And the venemout spider crawls ;
But the meanest thing in this loathsome room
Was the miser all worn and hire,
Where he sat like a ghost in an empty tomb,
On his broken and onlv chair.
He had bolted the window and barrd the door f
And every nook he had scanned,
A nd felt the fast'nings o'er and o'er
With his cold and skinny hand.
And yet he sat gazing intently around
And trembled with silent fear,
And startled and shuddered at every sound
That fell on his coward ear.
Ha ! ha ! laughed the miser I am safe at last
From this night so cold and drear,
Fmm the drenching rain and driving blast,
With my gold and treasures here.
I am cold and wet with the icy rain,
And my health is bad, 'tis true.
Yet if I should light that Are again
It would cost me a cent or two.
" But I'll take a sip of this precious wine",
It will banish my cold and fears
It was given long since by a friend of mine,
I have kept it for many years :"
So he drew a flask from a mouldy nook
And drank of its ruby tide,
And his eye grew bright with each draught he took
And his bosom swelled with pride.
" Let rne see If t me see," said the miser then .
" 'Tis some sixty years or more
Since the happy hour when I Iwcan
To heap up the glittering store;
And well have I sped with my anxious toil,
As my crowded chest will show;
I've more than would ransom a kingdom's spoil,
Or an emperor could bestow.
" From the orient realms I have rubies bright
And gold from the famed Peru ;
I've diamonds would shame the stars of night,
And pearls like the morning dew ;
And more I'll have, ere the morrow's sun
His rays from the west shall fling ;
That widow, to free her prison'd son
Shall bring me her bridal ring."
He turned to an old worm-eaten chest
And cautiously raised the lid,
And then it shone like the clouds of the Wesf,
With the Sun in their splendor hid ,
And gem after gem of its precious store
Are raised with exulting smile,
And he counted and counted them o'er and dery
In many a glittering pile.
Why comes the flush to his pallid brow,
W hue his eyes like his diamonds shine '
Why writhes he thus in such torture now 1
What was there in the wine ?
His lonely seat he strove to regain-
1 o crawl to his nest he tried :
But finding his efforts were all in vain,
He clasped his gold and died !
The Musician's Pocket Hankerchiefs. We
hardly need say that the following amusing
story is a translation from the French :
An honest musician of Paris hail lived twen
ty years in the esteem of the leader of the or
chestra and fear of false notes. Whoever fie-
quented the opera might see his venerable head
bending every evening by the side of his pass
viol. Whether he accompanied his false friend
in the gamut, or whether he sustained the ten
ors with his faithful bow, for him the young
nysphs had no dangerous smiles nor the young
pages any refreshments. The only relaxation
he allowed himself during the pauses was
wiping his spectacles with a" corner of his pock
et-han kerchief. But one eveninar. on retur
ning home, our friend found his hankerchief
had been stolen. Our blameless arfist conso
led himself for the loss philorophicaiiy, but
the next day there was the same theft, which
was repealed on the days following and not"
withstanding that hi3 vigilance was fully rous
ed, all his eflbrts to surprise the robber wtre
vain. furthermore, as evils seldom come
singly, his instrument had for some time past
become strangely out of order. Every day he
lost a pocket-handkerchief, and every day his
bass viol lost a note. This could not be an
accident it was a disease. Filled with in-
quietude for his old Eurydice, the old mart
dried his eyes with the only foulard which
was lelt to him out of the two dozen ; he car
ried his instrument to the shop of the music
maker. In his presence the body of the inva
lid yvas delivered to the scalpel of the master
workman. They turned it; they thumped
upon it, and, as a last resort, finished by open
ing it. Oh ! wonderful, or rather, oh, crimi
rail! At the bottom of the disembowelled
abdomen they found what ? The twenty
three handkerchiefs of the poor man inhuman
ly stufled into the belly of the victim. The
bass viol was well nigh dead with undigested
pocket-handkerchiefs. J he pretended roboer
was only a joker. Restored to breath, Eury
dice again found voice, and M. X. found his
pocket-handkerchiefs but one thing he has
not found yet, and that is the name of the un
known who served him this provoking trick.
Women stronger than Oxen. It is related
of a certain New England divine, who flour
ished not many years ago, and whose matri
monial relations are supposed not to have been
of the most agreeable kind, that, one Sabbath
morning, while reading to his congregation
the parable of the supper in Luke xiv., in
which occurs this passage " And another
said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I
go to prove them ; I pray thee to have me
excused ; and another said, I have married a
wife, and therefore cannot come," he sudden
ly paused at the end of this verse, drew off his
spectacles, and looking around on his hearers
said, with emphasis
The fact is, my brethren, one woman can
draw a man farther from the kingdom of Hea
ven than five yoke of oxen."1
InsU way of putting a Horse into a Wa
gon. A few days since, a gentleman in Wor
cester county, who employs several Irishmen
in cultivating his grounds, ordered one of his
men to put his horse into the wagon. After
a short absence, Pat returned, exclaiming,
"I've got him in, sir, but it was a mighty
hard job though !" This answjjr somewhat
puzzled the gentleman, who, upon going into
the yard, found his horse actually standing
up in the wagon, trembling with fear at hi
elevated and unsafe position. After getting
the horse down upon terra firma, the gentle
man instructed Pat as to the proper manner of
a horse into a wagon. Journett.
An Irish fair one
wrote to her lover beg-
tw i 1 I
glhg him to send her some money. Me aoaea
by way of postscript-" I am so ashamed of
the request! have made in this lettsr that 1
sent after the postman to get it Jack, but the
i i . .....ri iL c him
I servant couin nui utumv

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