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BREEDING FOR MILK SUPPLY Breeds Improve the Thing for Which They Are Selected—Germany Makes Increase in Yield. Cattle used to be bred chiefly for work. Therefore the cows did not •'jive much milk. Breeds improve the hinga for which they are selected. If cows were used for stepladdera we should by this time have them seven feet high. In 1730 the work cows of Germany gave an average of a pint and a half a day. Interest in milk increased, and by 1800 the average yield was a quart and a half. Breeding went on milk ward, and in 1810 the German cows averaged two quarts of milk each per day. In 1820 three, in 1830 four—and there the gain stopped for 30 years. s 4 ;> ' % Sr Devon Cows. Put in 18C0 the production had in creased to six quarts, and by 1870 to eight. The breeders of the trotting horse found it tremendously hard to make their steeds go any faster after the 2:10 mark was reached, and it took years and years to get below two min utes—and at about the two-minute mark in all probability the record will always stand. So with the milch cows, as the yield increased it grew more difficult to breed record breakers, or to better the average; but now the aver age daily yield of all German cows is ■aid to be ten quarts. A thousand per cent gain in a cen tury and a quarter: that is what long period breeding will do. It is such work as this which alone will keep the world big enough for its increas ing numbers of people. SELECTING SIRE FOR DAIRY Breeds Standing at the Front In This Country Are Holstein, Jersey, Guernsey and Ayrshire. In choosing the sire choose one from any dairy breed which may be pre ferred. The straight dairy breeds that stand in the front in this country are the Holstein, Jersey, Ayrshire and Guernsey. There are other good dairy breeds but these are the four oldest and best of all. The choice being made don’t change the breed from which the sire is chosen, and exercise great care in choosing the sire. The individual points of a good dairy sire cannot be given In detail here, but two of these will be mentioned, because they are in a sense, indispen sable. The first is the evidences of much stamina and bodily vigor. The second is, an amplitude of soft skin ■ y-v:v'V<' V'.’ : ■ 'Vo.Ct - ~ V^'v. Splendid Type for Head of Dairy Herd. on the underline in front of the testi cles, distinctly traceable milk veins and miniature teats of good size and wide spacing. The performance of the ancestry of the bull should be exam ined. The more good performers in the upward line of ancestry the better. Good performance on the part of an cestral dams means the giving of large quantities of milk rich in quality and persislance In milk giving for a long period. The successive sires should be chos en from the same breed. If chosen from another breed disturbing factors are inevitable. This may not be ap parent at the first, but it will later. The antagonism likely to result cannot be explained hero. By adhering to this line of breeding the improvement should be rapid and continuous at least for several generations, but the Improvement will be less noticeable with each succeeding generation. Give Colt a Companion. If you have only one colt to wean, don t put it in a dark out-of-tne-way stable. Give It some companionship, a calf, or some live thing, and go to U often with some dainty. Keep Pigs Comfortable. Don't make the pigs sleep outdoors during the cold nights. Make the shel ters corofoitable, or let them run In the hog bouse to sleep. IMPROVING THE TOBACCO CROP BY SELECTION Seed Should Be Selected From Im proved Type Of Plante In Grow ers Own Fields. One of the simplest and cheapest methods of improving the value of the average tobacco crop In Maryland is to select good seed plants, choosing only those plants which conform to a definite type considered as the ideal. Having fixed on a definite type of plant as the ideal, it should be closely followed year after year and no plant should be used for seed which does not conform to this type. In this way the Inferior strains in the mixed type will be weeded out and the crop will become more uniform from year to year if the selection is done with proper care. The field should be gone over several times and a large num ber of plants selected In the beginning, By further observation and study the number of selected plants can be gradually reduced till the right num ber for seed is reached. The advantages of selecting good seed plants, true to type, are lost if crossing with other sorts is allowed to occur. Some crop plants appear to be benefited by free crossing between plants but this Is not the case with :o bacco. It is true, nevertheless, that under ordinary conditions crossing TOBACCO GROWN FROM SELECTED SEED. does occasionally take place between tobacco plants in the same or neigh boring fields. If crossing is to be pre vented special precautions must ho taken. Even crossing between select ed seed plants should be avoided, for plants which seem to belong to ex actly the same type may he different In their internal makeup and if allowed to cross the farmer will really be growing hybrids. A cheap and effective method of preventing crossing is to cover the flower head with a 12-pound manila paper bag such as is used in grocery stores. The bag should be placed over the flower head at about the time blooming begins. If any blossoms have already opened it Is Important that these be removed when applying the bag. The suckers and small leaves Just below the flower head proper are removed and the mouth of the hag securely tied to the stalk Just beneath the lower branches of the flower head. After a week or ton days the bags should be taken off temporarily, the dead blossoms shaken out and the bags readjusted to accommodate the growth of the seed head.. The seed heads should be examined from time to time and any bags which become torn should be replaced with new ones. It Is well to leave the bags on the seed heads till the seed are shelled out so as to prevent loss or mixing of seed. —Bulletin No. IRS, Maryland Agricul tural Experiment Station. FATTENING POULTRY. BOY H. WATTE, Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station. The principle of fattening poultry Is a rather simple one, although Its ap plication may seem somewhat com plicated. Naturally the thing desired Is to got the fowls to consume as large amount of feed as possible. It would seem that in order to do this, feed should be kept before the birds at all times so that they could help them selves at any time. This does not hold true. In order to get birds, or most any animal, for that matter, to consume a large amount of feed you will have to keep their appetites on edge. If you keep palatable food be fore them all the time they soon tire of It, They Just cat and eat and eat at first and finally the feed becomes distasteful to them. Fed this way they will eat a lot for a time, but In the long nu. will not eat nearly as much as If they were fed more Judiciously. In feeding fattening poultry alwp.yr see that they are hungry for each meal. This means that you will not at any time feed them more than they will clean up quickly. In as much as poultry is usually fat tened to sell as market birds we wish to get them in condition with as little expense as possible. We do not have the problems to contend with in grow ing the chicks or feeding for egg pro duction, therefore we can feed much simpler rations. We do not have to supply much protein to fattening birds, therefore the cheapest feeds can be used. Corn and its products arc favorite fattening foods. A simple and efficient ration 1b as follows: Corn meal and wheat middlings mixed up with milk or butter milk makes an almost ideal fattening ration. If milk is not available add about n pounds of meat scrap or meal to 100 pounds of corn meal and mid dlings and mix up with water. Profit In Fattening, The only way you ever will ue thor oughly convinced of the profit there is In fattening the poultry crop, the same as any farm stock, is to try it this sea son. Hasten Laying Pullets. . Working in a clean, dry litter now will hasten the laying of your early pullets. WEST VIRGINIA'S BAD ROADS Farmers Lose Immense Sums Each Year Through Their Inability to Get Products to Market. "Bad roads In West Virginia cost the state 150,000,000 a year,” declared A. D. Williams of Morgantown, state road engineer, to a Washington Post representative the other day. “I mean by tliis that at least that much money is wasted every year by reason of the Inability of the farmers to get their products to market. Thousands of tons of apples and other fruit, garden truck and food supplies are allowed to rot In the orchards and gardens because the roads are too bad to haul It to market. Just to Illustrate, Joe Swope, editor of a county paper, noted that ho was paying one dollar a bush el for apples. A-neighbor In an ad joining county, sixteen miles away, wrote the editor and said ho would j *1 Well-Graded, Finely Built Macadam Road In West Virginia. give the newspaper man all the ap ples he wanted If he would haul them away. "The building of good roads Is a tre mendous economical problem, not merely one of convenience. The au tomobile undoubtedly has been largely Instrumental in bringing about the good roads movement, or rather In giving Impetus to It. That and the high cost of living are principal fac tors in the general campaign now go | ing on in many states for good roads. West Virginia this year will spend $5,000,000 in Improving her highways, the different counties having voted j bonds to that amount, and la the whole United States the amount spent fo; good roads this year will probably reach $250,000,000. Last year we spent about $200,000,000, and the Increase this year will be fully 20 per cent, I be lieve.” DRAG THE ROADS ;j When the smiles of spring ap- ;; 1; |; I; Drag the roads; 1; ; When the summertime Is here, ; Drag the roads; 1 1 When tlie corn is In the ear, j I; In the winter cold and drear, ; 1 1 Every season of the year, ; - 1 1 Drag the roads, |; 1| When you've nothing else to !; do, || 1; Drag the roads; || 1; If but for an hour or two I; 1; Drag the roads; I; It will keep them good as new; !; With a purpose firm and true. 1; I; Fall In line; it's up to you— 1; !; Drag the roads. 1; !; —The Kansas Industrialist. 1| /-##/#♦#########*. 0 HANDLE THE BULL CAREFULLY Quiet Animal That Has Never Harmed Anyone Usually One to Attack Unsuspecting Attendants. The bull should always be handled kindly and firmly, and should under stand that his attendant is his master. It is always advisable to train the bull calf to lead, and a ring should be placed in his nose at an early date. Never permit the bull to have his own way about anything where you may differ with him and insist upon prompt obedience. It is very easy to spoil the dispo sition of a bull by permitting children, old as well as young, to play with him or tease him. The man who is al ways prepared for trouble never has any. It is the quiet bull that has never horned anything that usually does the damage, suddenly developing a vi cious spirit and attacking his unsus pecting attendants. Working in Salt. If you use a barrel churn, sprinkle the salt in on the butter after you have drawn off the buttermilk and washed the butter Then turn the churn as you do to gather the butter. You will find that you have worked in the salt more evenly than you can by the old method, and this way is easier and quicker. Children Cry FOR FLETCHER'S CASTORI A PIGEON FACTS FOR PRACTICAL BREEDER Runt Cross. (Prepared bv the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) A list of questions on profitable pigeon raising was sent by the poultry specialists of the United States de partment of agriculture to pigeon breeders throughout the United States, and, among others, replies were re ceived from 22 largo breeders who kept from 300 to 2,200 pigeons and produced squabs for market. The rec ords from these breeders are consid ered more applicable to the commer cial production of squabs than the re plies which were received from breed ers keeping only a few pigeons for home use or pleasure. These large breeders reported keeping the Homer and Carneaux varieties almost exclu sively for squab raising, with a com paratively small number of the Dra goon, Maltese hen. and White King mentioned. All except one breeder kept their pigeons confined. The birds were mated at from five to seven months old, the average mating age being 5.7 months. Wheat, corn, kafir corn, Canada peas, millet, and hemp were the grains most commonly fed, while a number of other grains Including peanuts, grass seed, oats, buckwheat, sunflower seed, rice, Egyptian corn, cowpcas, and mllo maize were also used. About one-half of the breeders reported the use of some kind of green feed, in cluding a wide range of such mate rial. The use of rock salt was re ported by one-half of the breeders, loose table salt by one-fourth, and ta ble salt baked into a hard lump by the rest. About 16 per cent used some ex tra feed, such as millet or hemp seed, during the molting period, while sev eral who did not use any special feed for assisting the molt supplied these grains In their regular rations. One third used hoppers in feeding the pigeons. About one-half supplied tobacco stems as the entire or for part of the nesting material, and hay and straw wore commonly used, while others used pine needles, cut pea vines, and alfalfa stems. One-half reported free " 11 Homer Pigeon. dom from all diseases and about one fourth gave canker us a common cause of sickness. The average annual profit per pair of breeders varied from 32 cents to $3.00, and averaged $1.52; the feed cost from 95 cents to s2.uo, with an average of $1.32. All sold squabs for market, while about one halt sold both as breeders and for market. The av erage price for the year received per dozen squabs ’ aried from $2.00 to $4.62 and averaged $3.43. The number of squabs marketed from each pair of pigeons varied from 10 to 20, and averaged 13.1; the weight per dozen squabs varied from 0 to 11 pounds, and averaged 9 pounds. Squabs were marketed at four weeks except from two farms where the av erage age of marketing was given as four and one-half weeks. Data Secured From Small Breeders. A large number of replies were re ceived from breeders who kept less than 300 pigeons Their answers in general agreed with those from the large pigeon breeders, although they were more varied. Many farmers ob jected to pigeons, claiming that they parried diseases and all Kinds of ver min among stock and fowls, dirted cis terns used for holding rain water, and ate grain from the fields and barns. A very tew farmers stated that the pigeons were beneficial to the farms and ate many weed seeds. The num ber of pigeons in farm sections not kept confined was reported to be di minishing greatly as the country be came more thickly settled. Other varieties of pigeons men tioned, in addition to those reported from the ’irge nlenon farms, were tne Runt and the common pigeon. A few breeders separated the sexes during the molting period; that is, during late summer and early fall. Slightly more than one-half allowed their pigeons free range. Barley, rye, sorghum seed, and prepared mixed pigeon feeds were additional feeds mentioned. Most farmers who did not keep their pi geons confined fed only grains which they raised, such as corn, wheat, and oats. Twelve per cent mixed fine salt with grit and oyster shell, and 5 per cent fed the salt dissolved In the drinking water. Oyster shell and grit were supplied by most breeders. A few used special tonics during the molting period. Only 33 per cent reported the use of tobacco stems or leaves, as against 50 per cent among the larger breeders, The diseases most frequently men tioned wore canker, going light, and roup. The principal method of treat ment was prevention; by keeping everything clean, using disinfectants freely, and killing sick or diseased pigeons. Remedies mentioned for pre venting sickness were the use of kero sene oil, permanganate of potash, lime, copper sulphate, carbolic acid, sulpho-napthol, quassia chips, epsoni salts, Venetian red, tincture of gentian, or a tonic in the drinking water. Dry sulphur and diluted peroxide of hydro gen were used in treating canker, and kerosene oil for roup. A few allowed diseased pigeons their freedom when they had been kept confined. About one-fourth reported some loss from rats, but most of the larger breeders made their pens rat proof. Losses from hawks and cats were reported in some cases where the pigeons were allowed their freedom. Tiie average yearly profit from each pair ol breeders varied from 20 cents to $7.50, and averaged $2,211. The profit from breeders who sold stock largely for breeding purposes varied from $lO to S2O per pair. The average yearly feed cost per pair varied from 40 cents to $4. and averaged $1.32. Fifty-five per cent sold squabs for market only, 33 per cent both tor mar ket and as breeders, and 12 per cunt far breeders only. The number of squabs marketed from each pair of breeders varied from 5 to 22, and av eraged 13.8; the weight per dozen squabs varied from 4 to 18 pounds, and averaged 10.1 pounds. Squabs were marketed at from 3 to C weeks; the average being 4,2 weeks. The av erage price for the year received per dozen squabs varied from 00 cents to $G and averaged $3.01. CLING TO DID IDEAS HOUSEWIVES SLOW TO ABANDON ANTIQUATED METHODS. But There Are Many New Ways of Cooking That Are Superior to Those That Have Been Long in Use—Here Are a Few. Most of us believe what we are told. If you tell a child a lie, It will believe It as readily as the truth very often. If you tell anybody that a tin pan on an asbestos mat is very hot. he will be lieve you, very probably, and be care ful not to touch the pan, although it may be cold. So it is with the lore of cooking—most of us believe It, take it for granted. It has descended to us, It has been told to us by others. And few of us experiment for ourselves to prove its truth. So It is that we beat eggs with a fork, laboriously, when we wish to have them especially light. We have learned to believe, because we have been told so, that eggs beaten with a fork are lighter than eggs beaten with a Dover egg beater. They are not. That is the decision of a very careful cook, who has experimented with both kinds of eggs. So why waste arm muscle usinir a fork, when an egg beater does the work in half the time and less? Another thing we have believed for years is that gelatin, if boiled, would not Jelly. It will. Boiling does not seem to affect it—again, according to careful experimentation. When Jelly, made of fruit Juice and sugar, will not Jelly, it sometimes needs less sugar, rather than more — that is to say, there is so much sugar that a thick sirup instead of a jelly results, and so more fruit Juice must be added to bring the right results. Another bubble to prick—it is not necessary to have cold oil and eggs, bowls and spoon for making may onnaise. What is necessary is uni formity of temperature. If the oil has been standing in the temperature of the room, let the eggs and bowl stand there until they are all approximately of the same temperature. If the oil has been next to the ice, put the bowl, the spoon or beater and the egg there to become equally cold. Apple Omelet. To eight large apples, stewed very soft and mashed fine, add one cupful ot sugar and flavor with nutmeg or cinnamon. When cold stir in three well beaten eggs ana one-half teaspoon ful cornstarch dissol red in two table spoonfuls of milk. Stir well and bake slowly tor 20 minu.es. Serve hot. C Idren Cry tJR FLETCHER'S CASTOR I A fnaciSlW | For Infants and Children. li iRBRIII Mothers Know That H y* 4ll wl Mf| Genuine Castoria |f J i| ALCOHOL 3 PEU CENT. ill AVcgelable Preparation forAs A1 WAVS # > i||| similalmg the Food and J Ay \ m II mm Bears the HI //lAj |k|s Promotes DigcsttonJCheerfid- 3X11X6 If .Jr Pill ness and Rest.Contains nciihcr r /l\ f \u ifeiiiil if Opium.Mornhine norMiaeral i Ot ft \) i V i|j|| Not Narcotic. ua tjjVlT t33:;il|!; jto&tfouiksiKwmm | i/VN (iflW? 1 ; fimi/Jtm Sted m . llf I •(tT jUx-Sema* | 1 A #D|,; ijjll JMcHeSails- / Btk I fe : e.. > (\ .Jfv In S*s fcSfc. U VI „ iSIi 1 I | A T II Q Q pi®o Aperfect Remedy for Consflpft tVI At* UVU 'iijK Ci tion, Sour Stomach, Diarrhoea I I If Kft : < Worms,CoiTVulsions.fcvcrish- I Ik/ a ’fco ness audLoss of Sleep. V k FflT II V P T |P RcSmule signature of iV/ IUI UIUI |j||y ThirtYears ISHCASTOIIIfI Exact Copy of Wrapper. THE CENTAUR COMPANY, NEW YORK CITY. 3TAL SHINGLES yve lasted ZByears. 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Copy, Premium uJ I’aUera CaUiofu* frw, I Foley’s Kidney Pills ! What They Will Do for You They will cure your backache, strengthen your kidneys, cor rect urinary irregularities, build up the worn out tissues, and eliminate the excess uri& acid that causes rheumatism. Pre vent Bright’s Disease and Dia- and restore health and •trength. Refuse substitutes. 4 HOME WARRANTED FOR ALL TIME. If yon purchase the NKW HOME you will have a life asset at the pi iee you pay, and will Hot have an endless chain of repairs. alg: ~~TT~ ; ?‘ Q ua,ity ~ Considered If you want a sewing machine, virile tor our latest catalogue before you purchase. Du New Home Sewing Machine Cfl, Ofaip, Mass. PEES LESS Paper MEAL Sacks An s.fe a? -a ,it kij -ereli, DM If the si" e ■" t.j oi sack .... . 1 ft- _ - >' . v-w4*:se^ %Cs> *. - ;.-m : V .:-; ' - k mj/ m : Iff 4 ' m i It 'I \| v i.'' , ! |gr 4r> 'O' A < s<*t’ii a> ".11 .cv . imked, In the c gpi, c* if 1 .v 'll- ‘piier fly puts In an ap ptwuiP’d >!•■■• •: 1 :i .iin >iu k ‘bt ilmple till, fti.-ns i. rtri’ijon each one, ? j you ran r<ist hsm I .' 1 •;t • >Oll will not be botnfroc wi!h worms In t a . ••Peerlefs** rip* : "ht Sark-' art* mart** from a ipecUllr pr<*fa er 1 > ■ v uikli, pliable, strong, floss rrpsned’, hßv\ i.;t wth our pPrfact *>: 1 -n. wiitt i- s :.. id wa-.ei tight, and with ca r* Cat ;f n-etl '1 -J*. yrars TUt > are mad* In thr*f i7es to "Hi of uoal, ami aril at 5,4 an.) 'cfiit.s I .re, unliiiL' to ‘lze. Tin large ®r i .. hi si/.<> I,•k 1* tl" hm .tnd shoulders of hoga wm lilnr (li' wt* -ifiom 3f>o to (KK) pounda, m cording to how *!n • it s trimmed; medium wl cent size from •-.** noundi and the email or I cent size from IM i>* p- unda. A fair trial w ill 1 ■ ? '.-tain every claim for our jacks, and wc ter. ::at nhere once need tkev will l 'f(’<iin(' hon*f!imi ,k c -sUv. fcjA you 1 gr.f. for teem, price 3, 4 rti.i ? r.l ..yilece, according to atre MAM'FA* : ONI-T HV THE Great • outl; n Ptj A Kfp f n • I 1 *’ • <’K ’WH THE BALTIMORE NEWS Dai!}’ and Sunday If A live, independent news paper, published every aft ernoon cdlailv and Sunday). *>rs ti'opnn 'b.w d'C evniri- v : ;,;e ally. ..iko am. oumvj. fA newspaper for the home—for the family cir cle, the confidence and respect of its readers. If One cent everywhere. Buy it from your local Newsdealer or order by mall. One month $ .30 Six months $1.75 | One year 3.50 The Baltimore News BALTIMORE, MU.