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Catoctin clarion. [volume] (Mechanicstown, Md.) 1871-1940, November 25, 1915, Image 4

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Breeds Improve the Thing for Which
They Are Selected—Germany
Makes Increase in Yield.
Cattle used to be bred chiefly for
work. Therefore the cows did not
•'jive much milk. Breeds improve the
hinga for which they are selected. If
cows were used for stepladdera we
should by this time have them seven
feet high.
In 1730 the work cows of Germany
gave an average of a pint and a half a
day. Interest in milk increased, and
by 1800 the average yield was a quart
and a half. Breeding went on milk
ward, and in 1810 the German cows
averaged two quarts of milk each per
day. In 1820 three, in 1830 four—and
there the gain stopped for 30 years.
s 4 ;> ' %
Devon Cows.
Put in 18C0 the production had in
creased to six quarts, and by 1870 to
The breeders of the trotting horse
found it tremendously hard to make
their steeds go any faster after the
2:10 mark was reached, and it took
years and years to get below two min
utes—and at about the two-minute
mark in all probability the record will
always stand. So with the milch cows,
as the yield increased it grew more
difficult to breed record breakers, or to
better the average; but now the aver
age daily yield of all German cows is
■aid to be ten quarts.
A thousand per cent gain in a cen
tury and a quarter: that is what long
period breeding will do. It is such
work as this which alone will keep
the world big enough for its increas
ing numbers of people.
Breeds Standing at the Front In This
Country Are Holstein, Jersey,
Guernsey and Ayrshire.
In choosing the sire choose one from
any dairy breed which may be pre
ferred. The straight dairy breeds that
stand in the front in this country are
the Holstein, Jersey, Ayrshire and
Guernsey. There are other good dairy
breeds but these are the four oldest
and best of all. The choice being made
don’t change the breed from which
the sire is chosen, and exercise great
care in choosing the sire.
The individual points of a good dairy
sire cannot be given In detail here,
but two of these will be mentioned,
because they are in a sense, indispen
sable. The first is the evidences of
much stamina and bodily vigor. The
second is, an amplitude of soft skin
■ y-v:v'V<' V'.’ : ■ 'Vo.Ct - ~ V^'v.
Splendid Type for Head of Dairy Herd.
on the underline in front of the testi
cles, distinctly traceable milk veins
and miniature teats of good size and
wide spacing. The performance of the
ancestry of the bull should be exam
ined. The more good performers in
the upward line of ancestry the better.
Good performance on the part of an
cestral dams means the giving of large
quantities of milk rich in quality and
persislance In milk giving for a long
The successive sires should be chos
en from the same breed. If chosen
from another breed disturbing factors
are inevitable. This may not be ap
parent at the first, but it will later.
The antagonism likely to result cannot
be explained hero. By adhering to
this line of breeding the improvement
should be rapid and continuous at
least for several generations, but the
Improvement will be less noticeable
with each succeeding generation.
Give Colt a Companion.
If you have only one colt to wean,
don t put it in a dark out-of-tne-way
stable. Give It some companionship, a
calf, or some live thing, and go to U
often with some dainty.
Keep Pigs Comfortable.
Don't make the pigs sleep outdoors
during the cold nights. Make the shel
ters corofoitable, or let them run In
the hog bouse to sleep.
Seed Should Be Selected From Im
proved Type Of Plante In Grow
ers Own Fields.
One of the simplest and cheapest
methods of improving the value of the
average tobacco crop In Maryland is
to select good seed plants, choosing
only those plants which conform to a
definite type considered as the ideal.
Having fixed on a definite type of
plant as the ideal, it should be closely
followed year after year and no plant
should be used for seed which does
not conform to this type. In this way
the Inferior strains in the mixed type
will be weeded out and the crop will
become more uniform from year to
year if the selection is done with
proper care. The field should be gone
over several times and a large num
ber of plants selected In the beginning,
By further observation and study the
number of selected plants can be
gradually reduced till the right num
ber for seed is reached.
The advantages of selecting good
seed plants, true to type, are lost if
crossing with other sorts is allowed
to occur. Some crop plants appear to
be benefited by free crossing between
plants but this Is not the case with :o
bacco. It is true, nevertheless, that
under ordinary conditions crossing
does occasionally take place between
tobacco plants in the same or neigh
boring fields. If crossing is to be pre
vented special precautions must ho
taken. Even crossing between select
ed seed plants should be avoided, for
plants which seem to belong to ex
actly the same type may he different
In their internal makeup and if allowed
to cross the farmer will really be
growing hybrids.
A cheap and effective method of
preventing crossing is to cover the
flower head with a 12-pound manila
paper bag such as is used in grocery
stores. The bag should be placed over
the flower head at about the time
blooming begins. If any blossoms
have already opened it Is Important
that these be removed when applying
the bag. The suckers and small
leaves Just below the flower head
proper are removed and the mouth of
the hag securely tied to the stalk Just
beneath the lower branches of the
flower head.
After a week or ton days the bags
should be taken off temporarily, the
dead blossoms shaken out and the bags
readjusted to accommodate the growth
of the seed head.. The seed heads
should be examined from time to time
and any bags which become torn
should be replaced with new ones. It
Is well to leave the bags on the seed
heads till the seed are shelled out so
as to prevent loss or mixing of seed.
—Bulletin No. IRS, Maryland Agricul
tural Experiment Station.
Maryland Agricultural Experiment
The principle of fattening poultry Is
a rather simple one, although Its ap
plication may seem somewhat com
plicated. Naturally the thing desired
Is to got the fowls to consume as large
amount of feed as possible. It would
seem that in order to do this, feed
should be kept before the birds at all
times so that they could help them
selves at any time. This does not
hold true. In order to get birds, or
most any animal, for that matter, to
consume a large amount of feed you
will have to keep their appetites on
edge. If you keep palatable food be
fore them all the time they soon tire
of It, They Just cat and eat and eat
at first and finally the feed becomes
distasteful to them. Fed this way they
will eat a lot for a time, but In the
long nu. will not eat nearly as much
as If they were fed more Judiciously.
In feeding fattening poultry alwp.yr
see that they are hungry for each
meal. This means that you will not
at any time feed them more than they
will clean up quickly.
In as much as poultry is usually fat
tened to sell as market birds we wish
to get them in condition with as little
expense as possible. We do not have
the problems to contend with in grow
ing the chicks or feeding for egg pro
duction, therefore we can feed much
simpler rations.
We do not have to supply much
protein to fattening birds, therefore
the cheapest feeds can be used. Corn
and its products arc favorite fattening
foods. A simple and efficient ration 1b
as follows:
Corn meal and wheat middlings
mixed up with milk or butter milk
makes an almost ideal fattening
ration. If milk is not available add
about n pounds of meat scrap or meal
to 100 pounds of corn meal and mid
dlings and mix up with water.
Profit In Fattening,
The only way you ever will ue thor
oughly convinced of the profit there is
In fattening the poultry crop, the same
as any farm stock, is to try it this sea
Hasten Laying Pullets. .
Working in a clean, dry litter now
will hasten the laying of your early
Farmers Lose Immense Sums Each
Year Through Their Inability to
Get Products to Market.
"Bad roads In West Virginia cost
the state 150,000,000 a year,” declared
A. D. Williams of Morgantown, state
road engineer, to a Washington Post
representative the other day. “I mean
by tliis that at least that much money
is wasted every year by reason of the
Inability of the farmers to get their
products to market. Thousands of
tons of apples and other fruit, garden
truck and food supplies are allowed
to rot In the orchards and gardens
because the roads are too bad to haul
It to market. Just to Illustrate, Joe
Swope, editor of a county paper, noted
that ho was paying one dollar a bush
el for apples. A-neighbor In an ad
joining county, sixteen miles away,
wrote the editor and said ho would
Well-Graded, Finely Built Macadam
Road In West Virginia.
give the newspaper man all the ap
ples he wanted If he would haul them
"The building of good roads Is a tre
mendous economical problem, not
merely one of convenience. The au
tomobile undoubtedly has been largely
Instrumental in bringing about the
good roads movement, or rather In
giving Impetus to It. That and the
high cost of living are principal fac
tors in the general campaign now go
| ing on in many states for good roads.
West Virginia this year will spend
$5,000,000 in Improving her highways,
the different counties having voted
j bonds to that amount, and la the
whole United States the amount spent
fo; good roads this year will probably
reach $250,000,000. Last year we spent
about $200,000,000, and the Increase
this year will be fully 20 per cent, I be
;j When the smiles of spring ap- ;;
1; |;
I; Drag the roads; 1;
; When the summertime Is here, ;
Drag the roads;
1 1 When tlie corn is In the ear, j
I; In the winter cold and drear, ;
1 1 Every season of the year, ; -
1 1 Drag the roads, |;
1| When you've nothing else to
!; do, ||
1; Drag the roads; ||
1; If but for an hour or two I;
1; Drag the roads; I;
It will keep them good as new;
!; With a purpose firm and true. 1;
I; Fall In line; it's up to you— 1;
!; Drag the roads. 1;
!; —The Kansas Industrialist. 1|
/-##/#♦#########*. 0
Quiet Animal That Has Never Harmed
Anyone Usually One to Attack
Unsuspecting Attendants.
The bull should always be handled
kindly and firmly, and should under
stand that his attendant is his master.
It is always advisable to train the bull
calf to lead, and a ring should be
placed in his nose at an early date.
Never permit the bull to have his own
way about anything where you may
differ with him and insist upon prompt
It is very easy to spoil the dispo
sition of a bull by permitting children,
old as well as young, to play with him
or tease him. The man who is al
ways prepared for trouble never has
It is the quiet bull that has never
horned anything that usually does the
damage, suddenly developing a vi
cious spirit and attacking his unsus
pecting attendants.
Working in Salt.
If you use a barrel churn, sprinkle
the salt in on the butter after you have
drawn off the buttermilk and washed
the butter Then turn the churn as
you do to gather the butter. You will
find that you have worked in the salt
more evenly than you can by the old
method, and this way is easier and
Children Cry
Runt Cross.
(Prepared bv the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
A list of questions on profitable
pigeon raising was sent by the poultry
specialists of the United States de
partment of agriculture to pigeon
breeders throughout the United States,
and, among others, replies were re
ceived from 22 largo breeders who
kept from 300 to 2,200 pigeons and
produced squabs for market. The rec
ords from these breeders are consid
ered more applicable to the commer
cial production of squabs than the re
plies which were received from breed
ers keeping only a few pigeons for
home use or pleasure. These large
breeders reported keeping the Homer
and Carneaux varieties almost exclu
sively for squab raising, with a com
paratively small number of the Dra
goon, Maltese hen. and White King
mentioned. All except one breeder
kept their pigeons confined. The birds
were mated at from five to seven
months old, the average mating age
being 5.7 months.
Wheat, corn, kafir corn, Canada
peas, millet, and hemp were the grains
most commonly fed, while a number
of other grains Including peanuts,
grass seed, oats, buckwheat, sunflower
seed, rice, Egyptian corn, cowpcas,
and mllo maize were also used. About
one-half of the breeders reported the
use of some kind of green feed, in
cluding a wide range of such mate
rial. The use of rock salt was re
ported by one-half of the breeders,
loose table salt by one-fourth, and ta
ble salt baked into a hard lump by the
rest. About 16 per cent used some ex
tra feed, such as millet or hemp seed,
during the molting period, while sev
eral who did not use any special feed
for assisting the molt supplied these
grains In their regular rations. One
third used hoppers in feeding the
About one-half supplied tobacco
stems as the entire or for part of the
nesting material, and hay and straw
wore commonly used, while others
used pine needles, cut pea vines, and
alfalfa stems. One-half reported free
" 11
Homer Pigeon.
dom from all diseases and about one
fourth gave canker us a common cause
of sickness.
The average annual profit per pair
of breeders varied from 32 cents to
$3.00, and averaged $1.52; the feed
cost from 95 cents to s2.uo, with an
average of $1.32. All sold squabs for
market, while about one halt sold both
as breeders and for market. The av
erage price for the year received per
dozen squabs ’ aried from $2.00 to
$4.62 and averaged $3.43.
The number of squabs marketed
from each pair of pigeons varied from
10 to 20, and averaged 13.1; the weight
per dozen squabs varied from 0 to 11
pounds, and averaged 9 pounds.
Squabs were marketed at four weeks
except from two farms where the av
erage age of marketing was given as
four and one-half weeks.
Data Secured From Small Breeders.
A large number of replies were re
ceived from breeders who kept less
than 300 pigeons Their answers in
general agreed with those from the
large pigeon breeders, although they
were more varied. Many farmers ob
jected to pigeons, claiming that they
parried diseases and all Kinds of ver
min among stock and fowls, dirted cis
terns used for holding rain water, and
ate grain from the fields and barns.
A very tew farmers stated that the
pigeons were beneficial to the farms
and ate many weed seeds. The num
ber of pigeons in farm sections not
kept confined was reported to be di
minishing greatly as the country be
came more thickly settled.
Other varieties of pigeons men
tioned, in addition to those reported
from the ’irge nlenon farms, were tne
Runt and the common pigeon. A few
breeders separated the sexes during
the molting period; that is, during late
summer and early fall. Slightly more
than one-half allowed their pigeons
free range. Barley, rye, sorghum seed,
and prepared mixed pigeon feeds were
additional feeds mentioned. Most
farmers who did not keep their pi
geons confined fed only grains which
they raised, such as corn, wheat, and
oats. Twelve per cent mixed fine salt
with grit and oyster shell, and 5 per
cent fed the salt dissolved In the
drinking water. Oyster shell and grit
were supplied by most breeders. A
few used special tonics during the
molting period. Only 33 per cent
reported the use of tobacco stems or
leaves, as against 50 per cent among
the larger breeders,
The diseases most frequently men
tioned wore canker, going light, and
roup. The principal method of treat
ment was prevention; by keeping
everything clean, using disinfectants
freely, and killing sick or diseased
pigeons. Remedies mentioned for pre
venting sickness were the use of kero
sene oil, permanganate of potash,
lime, copper sulphate, carbolic acid,
sulpho-napthol, quassia chips, epsoni
salts, Venetian red, tincture of gentian,
or a tonic in the drinking water. Dry
sulphur and diluted peroxide of hydro
gen were used in treating canker, and
kerosene oil for roup. A few allowed
diseased pigeons their freedom when
they had been kept confined. About
one-fourth reported some loss from
rats, but most of the larger breeders
made their pens rat proof. Losses
from hawks and cats were reported in
some cases where the pigeons were
allowed their freedom.
Tiie average yearly profit from each
pair ol breeders varied from 20 cents
to $7.50, and averaged $2,211. The
profit from breeders who sold stock
largely for breeding purposes varied
from $lO to S2O per pair. The average
yearly feed cost per pair varied from
40 cents to $4. and averaged $1.32.
Fifty-five per cent sold squabs for
market only, 33 per cent both tor mar
ket and as breeders, and 12 per cunt
far breeders only. The number of
squabs marketed from each pair of
breeders varied from 5 to 22, and av
eraged 13.8; the weight per dozen
squabs varied from 4 to 18 pounds,
and averaged 10.1 pounds. Squabs
were marketed at from 3 to C weeks;
the average being 4,2 weeks. The av
erage price for the year received per
dozen squabs varied from 00 cents to
$G and averaged $3.01.
But There Are Many New Ways of
Cooking That Are Superior to
Those That Have Been Long in
Use—Here Are a Few.
Most of us believe what we are told.
If you tell a child a lie, It will believe
It as readily as the truth very often.
If you tell anybody that a tin pan on
an asbestos mat is very hot. he will be
lieve you, very probably, and be care
ful not to touch the pan, although it
may be cold. So it is with the lore of
cooking—most of us believe It, take it
for granted. It has descended to us,
It has been told to us by others. And
few of us experiment for ourselves to
prove its truth.
So It is that we beat eggs with a
fork, laboriously, when we wish to
have them especially light. We have
learned to believe, because we have
been told so, that eggs beaten with
a fork are lighter than eggs beaten
with a Dover egg beater. They are
not. That is the decision of a very
careful cook, who has experimented
with both kinds of eggs. So why waste
arm muscle usinir a fork, when an egg
beater does the work in half the time
and less?
Another thing we have believed for
years is that gelatin, if boiled, would
not Jelly. It will. Boiling does not
seem to affect it—again, according to
careful experimentation.
When Jelly, made of fruit Juice and
sugar, will not Jelly, it sometimes
needs less sugar, rather than more —
that is to say, there is so much sugar
that a thick sirup instead of a jelly
results, and so more fruit Juice must
be added to bring the right results.
Another bubble to prick—it is not
necessary to have cold oil and eggs,
bowls and spoon for making may
onnaise. What is necessary is uni
formity of temperature. If the oil has
been standing in the temperature of
the room, let the eggs and bowl stand
there until they are all approximately
of the same temperature. If the oil has
been next to the ice, put the bowl, the
spoon or beater and the egg there to
become equally cold.
Apple Omelet.
To eight large apples, stewed very
soft and mashed fine, add one cupful
ot sugar and flavor with nutmeg or
cinnamon. When cold stir in three
well beaten eggs ana one-half teaspoon
ful cornstarch dissol red in two table
spoonfuls of milk. Stir well and bake
slowly tor 20 minu.es. Serve hot.
C Idren Cry
| For Infants and Children.
li iRBRIII Mothers Know That
H y* 4ll wl Mf| Genuine Castoria
ill AVcgelable Preparation forAs A1 WAVS # >
i||| similalmg the Food and J Ay \ m
II mm Bears the
HI //lAj
|k|s Promotes DigcsttonJCheerfid- 3X11X6 If .Jr
Pill ness and Rest.Contains nciihcr r /l\ f \u
ifeiiiil if Opium.Mornhine norMiaeral i Ot ft \) i V
i|j|| Not Narcotic. ua tjjVlT
t33:;il|!; jto&tfouiksiKwmm | i/VN
(iflW? 1 ; fimi/Jtm Sted m . llf I
•(tT jUx-Sema* | 1 A
#D|,; ijjll JMcHeSails- / Btk I
fe : e.. > (\ .Jfv In
S*s fcSfc. U VI „
iSIi 1 I | A T II Q Q
pi®o Aperfect Remedy for Consflpft tVI At* UVU
'iijK Ci tion, Sour Stomach, Diarrhoea I I If
Kft : < Worms,CoiTVulsions.fcvcrish- I Ik/ a
’fco ness audLoss of Sleep. V k FflT II V P T
|P RcSmule signature of iV/ IUI UIUI
|j||y ThirtYears
Exact Copy of Wrapper.
yve lasted ZByears. Stormproof 1
and Ereproofall the while
and still in flood condition.
Thais the kind of roof you want.
| tjse them and Jo away with
for Sale hy 4
Q. L. Winebrenner,
McCall's Magazine
S rft r* - s *> *,
aiid iU€\..m raiterns
For V/ormn
Hr [ 7 m ' F-Vr.-U Uyn nrv other
nwn.i?.ii!?-.T ' i-:i ■•.. ~u( iH -i i -the
tellable Push:■ • i in.r —:ln!\- in
* one n• ,11 on <>:■■■ Imnrtrtd thousand
honv.g H s, ; i '• \ : :g ;•!! the latest
design;; oM . : i ■ ;.s, each i-sue
is l.rnnf’cl ■■■; r i g ■. o;t st ties
andl. i. ful t..ib u.-.i for women.
Save Money es-.J K.-cr i•. £s, i.- s.-harriMg
for M Call’s S e : < ( •;• o !y
cents a \ i c : „a ry olc oi the cc*eL)raUa
McCail J •t'-rijs free.
McCa'! Pi f v*rr.s Lam* all others in style, fit,
Binn ii uv, <■ •• y i mm 1 r sold. More
dealers • 1 M P.i, .rna !*•-• n any other two
makes own • ! . N vo hinder iliail 15cents. 13 ay
from your d-.i.cr, cr by man from
238-246 W. 37th Si., New' York City
!t t—Su;p'. Copy, Premium uJ I’aUera CaUiofu* frw,
Pills !
What They Will Do for You
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strengthen your kidneys, cor
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eliminate the excess uri& acid
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•trength. Refuse substitutes.
If yon purchase the NKW HOME you will
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Hot have an endless chain of repairs.
alg: ~~TT~ ; ?‘ Q ua,ity
~ Considered
If you want a sewing machine, virile tor
our latest catalogue before you purchase.
Du New Home Sewing Machine Cfl, Ofaip, Mass.
Paper MEAL Sacks
An s.fe a? -a ,it kij -ereli, DM
If the si" e ■" t.j oi sack
.... .
1 ft- _
- >' . v-w4*:se^
%Cs> *. - ;.-m :
V .:-; ' - k mj/
m :
Iff 4 '
m i It
'I \|
v i.'' , ! |gr
4r> 'O'
A < s<*t’ii a> ".11 .cv . imked, In the c
gpi, c* if 1 .v 'll- ‘piier fly puts In an ap
ptwuiP’d >!•■■• •: 1 :i .iin >iu k ‘bt
ilmple till, fti.-ns i. rtri’ijon each one, ? j
you ran r<ist hsm I .' 1 •;t • >Oll will not be botnfroc
wi!h worms In t a .
••Peerlefs** rip* : "ht Sark-' art* mart** from a
ipecUllr pr<*fa er 1 > ■ v uikli, pliable, strong, floss
rrpsned’, hßv\ i.;t wth our pPrfact
*>: 1 -n. wiitt i- s :.. id wa-.ei tight, and with ca r*
Cat ;f n-etl '1 -J*. yrars TUt > are mad* In
thr*f i7es to "Hi of uoal, ami aril at 5,4
an.) 'cfiit.s I .re, unliiiL' to ‘lze. Tin large ®r
i .. hi si/.<> I,•k 1* tl" hm .tnd shoulders of hoga
wm lilnr (li' wt* -ifiom 3f>o to (KK) pounda, m
cording to how *!n • it s trimmed; medium wl
cent size from •-.** noundi and the email or I
cent size from IM i>* p- unda.
A fair trial w ill 1 ■ ? '.-tain every claim for our
jacks, and wc ter. ::at nhere once need tkev will
l 'f(’<iin(' hon*f!imi ,k c -sUv.
fcjA you 1 gr.f. for teem,
price 3, 4 rti.i ? r.l ..yilece, according to atre
Great • outl; n Ptj A Kfp f n
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paper, published every aft
ernoon cdlailv and Sunday).
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..iko am. oumvj.
fA newspaper for the
home—for the family cir
the confidence
and respect of its readers.
If One cent everywhere.
Buy it from your local
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by mall.
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Six months $1.75 |
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