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The Washington times. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1902-1939, December 03, 1907, Last Edition, Image 10

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8tit Sttte e food Ol and dairy commissioners commissionersElQwed com conniIsonersnwed 1s810ncrs 1s810ncrss
s ElQwed owed In striking fashion hoto JO ¼ v muoli muoligood muoh1tood muoltg4Od
good for the whole people roBulta rO r ult from fromthe fromthe fromth
th the hoarty oooporation of the Federal Federaland Foderaland Foloraland
and State officials ot clal In securing eecurIii a given givenreform givenntonn givenrZorm
reform It Is I primarily to the action actionof actionof ct1onof
of those the e Stato commissioners commla luners that we weovo weowe WBove
owe the enactment of this law for they
Elastic Currency Laws LawsAre LawsAre LawsAre
Are Urged as Pressing
In my maasago mo to the Congress a yoar yoarogo yoartso Ar I
ogo I spoke aG follows of the cur curxi currt curX
xi X ncy ncyI ncyI flCYI
I especially call your attention to tothe tothe tothe
the condition of our currency laws The Thenational ThenaHonal TheiaHonal
national bank act has ably served a agreat agreat agreat
great purpose in aiding the enormous enormousbusiness enormousbusiness enormousbusincs
business development of the country countryand countxyand couutxyand
and within ten years there has been beenan beenan i ian
an increase increasein in circulation per capita capitafrom capita1 capita1from I I II Ifrom
from 2141 214 to 53308 3308 For several years yearsevidence yearsevidence
evidence has as been accumulating that thatadditional thatadditiona thatadditional I
additional legislation is needed The Therecurrence Therecurrence
recurrence of each crop season empha emphasizes emphasizes emphasizes ¬
sizes the defects of the present laws lawsThere lawsThere lawsThere
There must soon be a revision of them thembecause themI thembecause thembecause I
because to leave them themas as they are means meansto meansto meansto
to incur liability of business disaster disasterSince cisaster cisasterSince isasterSince
Since your body adjourned there has hasbeen hasbeen hasbeen
been a fluctuation in the interest on call callmoney callmoney callmoney
money from tz per cent to 30 per cent centand centand centaI1
aI1 and the fluctuation was even greater greaterduring grelterduring greaterduring
during the preceding six months monthsThe monthsTllc monthsTiic
The Secretary of the Treasury Treas had hadto hadtt badjr
to jr step in and by wise 1M acUon put a stop stopti slopt
ti t the most mo t violent Iolent period p X10d of oscillation oscillationKven oscillationHn osclllaUonFsen
Kven Hn worse thansuch than such fluctuation Is tho thoadvance thou theziUvaflCe
advance u ance In commercial rates and the thavnctrtalnty thelictrtalnty thetnctrtalnty
vnctrtalnty felt in the sufficiency of ofcredit otend ofcrcdit
credit end it even at high rates rat All commer commercial commercial coinmerciLl ¬
cial interests suffer during durln each crop cropperiod cropffrlod croprriod
period Excessive Exce tve rates for call money moneylu moneyiii
lu New York attract money mone from the theinterior the1nttrior theintrIor
interior banks bAnk Into the speculative field fieldTliis lleldThis fieldrl1s
This depletes the fund that would oth othwise othwlse othwise
< wise be available for commercial uses usesnn USeInot usesnnL
nn not < l commercial borrowers are forced forcedVi forcedt
Vi t 1 pay abnormal rates so that each eachlall eachfall eachfall
fall a tax tax in the shape of Increased Increasedinterest IncrORSed1ntfrest increasedjritreet
interest charges Is placed on the wholo wholof wholocmmerce
f C mmerce of the country countryThe countQThe countryThe
The more statement of these facts factsshows factssIIOWS factssnows
shows that our present system is serl seriously serl11sly serlUSIy ¬
ously 11sly defective There is need of a achange alange aci
change ci ange Unfortunately Unfortunate however how ver many manyof manyc
of c f the proposed changes must be ruled ruledfrom rul ruledftnrn d dfrnT11
from consideration because they are arem arer aremplicate4i
< < m mpUcated plica ted are not easy ea y of comprehen comprehension comprehenEIJn ¬
sion 2 EIJn on and tend to disturb existing rights rightstml nghtstm rightstfl1
tml tm tfl1 interests We Ve must also rule out outary outnr outplan
ary nr plan which would ould materially matArlall Im 1mjxT Imlair imI
lair I air the value of the United Stat68 Stat68Ir 2 2jr
jxT cent bonds now pledged to secure securet secureIrr1lation
t u I relation the issue of which was made madeia madeldl madet
ia t xi1r lpr fr conditions peculiarly creditable
t th th4 < > Treasury I do not press any anyt anyp anyepela1
t special p dal plan Various plans have re recently recpntly recntly ¬
cently been n proposed ed by b expert com committees comJnlttees cornittes ¬
mittees ittes of bankers Among the plans planswhich plansiiiCh 1aD 1aDblch
which blch are possibly feasible fea tble and which whichcertainly whichrtalnly whichrtainly
certainly rtalnly should receive your considera consideration conslderaton consideraton ¬
ton I Ia that repeatedly brought to your yourrvtti YOUlttlnUon yourttrntIon
rvtti ttlnUon ntlon by the present Secretary of the theTreasury thefna theTsury
Treasury fna ury the essential features of which whichtiuva whichbtve
tiuva 18 been approved by many prominent prominenttankers rromlmmt1mker promintntb
tankers b tnkers and business men menOne menOne menOne
One Plan Suggested SuggestedAccording SuggestodAccordlnc SuggestedAccording
According to this plan national banks banksshould bankashould bankss1iuld
should be permuted to issue a specified specifiedproportion speciflodIroporllon specifiedroport1on
proportion of their capital pl l in notes of ofa ora ofa
a given kind the issue l to be taxed at atso ats atSi
so s Si high a rate as to drive the notes back backnli baek1n beekwin
win nli 1n on not wanted in legitimate trade tradeTli tradelJIs tradeThis
Tli This IK plan would not permit the issue of ofcurrency orCrrfncy ofcrrency
currency to give banks nks additional profits profitsl profit5l1t
l l1t jt to meet the emergency presented presentedty presentedtimes ruented ruentedb
ty b times of stringency stringencyI
I do not ot fcay that this i is the right rightF
F stom > tm I only advance It to emphasize emphasizemy
my m belief J UeC that there is need for the theadoption therJ0IJLlon therLpUn
adoption of some ome systen sy ten which shall shalle
1 e automatic and open o all sound soundVanks soundlanktl soundiaiks
Vanks so as to avoid all possibility of ofdis or1i ofdi
dis 1i < rimlnation and favoritism Such a apai aJiL apai
pai would tend to prevent the spasms spasmsof spasmIt spasmsof
of high money and speculation which whichnow Whichnow tiich tiichnow
now obtain in the New N w York market marketf marketfIr marketfr
f fIr > r at present pre ent there Is too much cur currency currency curr2ncy ¬
rency at a certain seasons e of o the year yearana yearand yearand
and Its accumulation at New York Yorktempts Yorkmpte rorkmpte
tempts mpte bankers to lend it at t low lowrates lowrates lowrates
rates for speculative purposes e whereas whereasat whereuat
at bther times when the crops are being beingmoved belngmoed beingnoved
moved there is urgent need for a large largebat largeblt largebut
bat temporary increase In the currency currencysupply curroncyuppl currencye1PPb
supply supplyIt e1PPbIt uppl
It must never n er be forgotten that this thisQuestion thisquestion thisquesUon
Question concerns business men goner genorrily bon gonereLy or orl
eLy l y quite as much aabankors especial especially ¬
ly J is this true of stockmen farmers farmersanl farmersaIl farmersaid
aIl business men in the West for at atpresent atTSfnt atesent
present TSfnt at certain c rtin seasons of the year yoartuo yearthe ear eartho
the difference in Interest rates between betweenUse betweon1fA betweentA
Use Kast 1 st and the West Veat Is from 6 to 10 10ri 10r 10Yr
ri Yr > r cent ct > nt whereas in Canada the cor corr corpondlu curI
r I ponding pondlu difference Is but 2 per cent centAry contAry centAry
Ary plan must t of course our < guard the theInterests the1ntlrfts thelnttrests
Interests of Western and Southern bank bankers bankJS ¬
ers e JS as carefully as it guards the Inter Interets Interts interets
ets ts of New York or Chicago bank bankTS bankrs bankT
< TS T and must be drawn from the stand standpoints standxonts standlnts ¬
points lnts of the farmer and the merchant merchantno
no nq lens than from the standpoints of ofthe orthe ofthe
the city banker and country banker bankerHeed bankerNeed bankerNeed
Need More Elastic Currency CurrencyI
I again urge on the Congress the need needof needDf needof
of immediate attention to this matter matterWe matterWe matterWe
We need a greater elasticity in our cur currency cur1cncy currency ¬
rency provided of course that we werecognize werecognize werecognize
recognize the even greater need of a acafe aei actfd
cafe ei e and secure etur currency There must mustalways mustalways mustalways
always be the most rigid examination examinationby
by the national authorities Provision Provisionshould ProvisionE110uld ProvisionhouId
should be made for an emergency cur curirncy curIncy currncy
irncy irncyTho Incyf rncyrho
Tho f 16 emergency issue I8 tIG should of ofcourse orcurse ofCrjurae
course b be made with an effective guar guaranty guarU1t guarartv ¬
anty U1t and ll1du andupon upon n conditions carefully pro proFnlbPd profrlbr prorrIbc1
FnlbPd > d by the Government Such emer emergency emergency ornergency ¬
gency issue i aue must bo based on adequate adequatef adoquatefcurltl adequateerurit1es
f fcurltl erurltles approved by the Government Governmentand Governmentand Governmentand
and must be Issued under a heavy tax taxThis tax1hls taxThis
This would permit currency being 1s 1sBud Issued s sBut
Bud But > d when the demand for It was ur urgent urJtnt urgent ¬
gent while securing Heurln Its retirement as aatlif astl1f astftc
tlif demand 1Cfli5fl fell off It Is worth In Inlitigating 1nIUgatIn ine5tigating
litigating IUgatIn to determine whether of officers otIert officr ¬
ficers Iert and directors of national banks banksshould banksthuld banksshiuld
should over e r be allowed to loan Jo n to them themsflvcs tbemftl themi1ves
sflvcs ftl < s Trust companies should bo sub subject subjfct subjct ¬
ject to the same supervision penlalon as banks bankslgIaUon I Il
Inflation l Ilatlon to this thl effect should be on onretort onF j jf
retort f tNl for the District of Columbia and andtin andthc I Itill
tin Territories TerritoriesYet TerritoriesYet I IYft
Yet we must also remember that even eventhe oventhe ven I It
the t e wisest legislation e laUon on the subject subJ < can cancnly cannly canfly
cnly fly accomplish h a certain amount No NoJ NorIBlat1on Nolrgllatlon
J rIBlat1on gr I Mat Ion can by any possibility I guar guarantee gnarM1pe guarnniee ¬
antee the business community against againstthe
the results of speculative folly any more morethan moreIhan
than 1 han It can guarantee an individual individualBsrainst IndividUAlain individualsgainst
Bsrainst ain t the results of his extravagance extravaganceWhen exlra8tDceWllfn extravaganceWlen
When an Individual mortgages his house houseo
o buy bU an automobile be invites disas disaster dlsasttpr disastsr ¬
ter and when wealthy men or men menwho monwho menwho
who pose as such or are unscrupulously unscrupulouslycr
cr fooliahjy eager to become unscrupulouSlYj such ueb in indulge Ino indige ¬
dulge o age In reckless speculation speculaUonespeclaUy speculaUonespeclaUyf especially
aroused the people first to demand the theenactment theonoctment theenactment
enactment and enforcement of State Statelaws Statolaws Statelaws
laws on the subject and then the enact enactment enactment enactinent ¬
ment of the Federal j edorRl law without which whichthe whichtbo whichthe
the State Inws wore largely larb Jy ineffective ineffectiveThere Incttc ineffectiveThere tIve tIveThero
There must be the closest cooperation cooperationbetween cooperatlonbetween cooperationbetween
between the National and State govern governments governments governnients
ments in admlnisterinsthese admlnlstorlngt esc laws
r If itn it It is Accompanied by dishonesty dlshonostythey they I
r Jeopardize not only their own future but
the future of all their Innocent fellow fellowcitizens fellowcltlzons fellowcitizens
citizens for they expose the whole bust business buslne bustsass ¬
ness s community to panic and distress
3465000000 of Revenue RevenueTho RevenueThe RevenueThe
The income account of the Nation Is Isin 15in IsIn
in a most satisfactory condition For Fortho Fortho Forthe
tho six fiscal n cal years ending with the 1st 1stof 1stor letof
of July last Jast the total expenditures and andI andrevenues
I revenues of the National Government Governmentexclusive Government Governmentexcluslvo Governmentexclusive
I exclusive of thd th postal revenues and ex expenditures exI cxpenditures ¬
I penditures wore In round numbers numbersrevenues numbersrevenues numbersrevenues
revenues 34Ir 3465000000 OOOOOO and expenditures expenditures82i5000OOO
8275000000 The net excess of Income Incomeover Incomeover incomeover
over expenditures including In the lat latter lattor mtter ¬
ter the 60000000 00 expended for the Pan Panama Panama Panama ¬
ama Canal Cana was 5150000000 00 for the six sixyccrs sixyets sixyezrg
yccrs yets an average avore of about about 531000000 + OO a ayear ayo ayear
year yo r This ohl represents rpreents an approximation approximationbetween approxImaton approxImatonbetwon approximationbetween
between betwon income Incme and outgo which It Itwould Itwould itwould
would be hard had to improve improveThe 1mprove ImproveThe
The satisfactory satsfactory working workin of the te prep present pro proont prepont ¬
ont tariff art law has ha been bn chiefly chioCy respon responsible reson resonIble responsiblo ¬
sible Ible for this tis excellent ecelent showing howng Never Nevertheless NevortheeN levorthebes ¬
thebes theeN there thre is an n evident and Cnd con
Income and Inheritance InheritanceTaxes InheritanceTaxes Inherit cince cinceTaxes
Taxes Should Be Levied
When Wen our tax t laws are revised the thequestion thequeston thequestion
question queston of an income icome tax ta and an in inheritance inhertance inheritance ¬
heritance hertance tax ta should receive recivt the careful carefulattention carefulattention
attention attenton of our legislators leglator In my myjudgment myjudgnt myjudgment
judgment judgnt both of these taxes tae should sould be bepart bepa bepart
part pa of our system of Federal Federa taxation taxationI tation tationI
I speak diffidently dfdenty about tHe income tax taxbecause taxbecause
because beause one scheme sceme for an income icome tax taxwas taxwas
was declared unconstitutional unconsttutionl by the theSupreme theSupreme theSupreme
Supreme Court Cour while whe in addition addton it i is isa ba isa
a difficult diclt tax ta to o administer admnister in its it prac practca prac practical practical ¬
tical tca working workg and great geat care cae would wouldhave woud woudhave wouldhave
have to be exercised eercsed to see that it i was wasnot wasI wasnot
I not evaded by the very vet men whom it itwas itwas Itwas
was most desirable derb1e to have taxed taed for forif fori forif
if i so evaded eaded it would woud of course be beworse bewore beworse
worse wore than tn no tax tu at all al as the te least leastdesirable leastdesirable leastdesirable
desirable of all taxes is tho tax which
bears heavily heaviy upon the honest as com compared compaed compared ¬
pared paed with wt the dishonest man manNevertheless ma maNevenhele manNevertheless
Nevertheless Nevenhele a graduated gduate Income Incme tax taxof taxr taxof
of r the proper prolr type tp would be a a desirable desirablefeature desirablefeature < elrabtl elrabtlfCIurc
feature of Federal j eel taxation mato and It is to tobe tob tobe
be b hoped hpe that one may m bo devised dov e which whichthe whichthe
the Supreme Spre Court Curt will wUdeclare declare consti constitutional const coastitutlonal ¬
tutional The Inheritance InhorJaC tax t however howeverU
U I both lth a far fa better bAter method Jethod of taxation taxationand taxationand Baton Batonand
and far ta mere Important Imporant for th t purpose purposeof PPrOIO PPrOIOof
of having th the fortunes of tin th J Gentry Gentrybear contrybear
bear b In proportion proprLlon to their tlelr Ir Ircroaso croaso cro i isize In InIZ Insize
size IZ a corresponding crresponding Increase Incree and bur burden burden burden ¬
den of fr taxation taton The Government Goernmet has hasthe hasthe
the tb absolute abslut6 right to decide as u to to the theterms Uet theterms
terms t rms upon upn which a man shall shal receive re elve a abuet abequest j jbequest
bequest buet or devise dl e from trm another Cnotu and andthis andthi andthis
this thi point pint In the he devolution devoluton of property propertyis prpert
is especially otoclaly appropriate appopriato for the im imposition Im0lton imposition ¬
position 0lton of a tax taxLAWS tx txLws taxLaws
LAWS imposing such taxes tes have re repeatedly repetelY repoatedly ¬
peatedly Lws Impsing been placed upon the national nationalBtatuto nationalstatute
petelY bon pJace
statute books and as repeatedly rP ltdly de declared dodared ¬
dared etuto constitutional onsUtuUoa bok by the courts court and andthese andthee andthese
clo these thee laws contained cntaned the progressive progressiveprinciple proses progressiveprinciple le leprnciple
principle prnciple that is after afer a certain crtan amount amountla I Iis
is reached recbCl the bequest or gift in life lto or ordeath ordeth r rdeath
death deth Is l Increasingly Increaingly te burdened bur eno and tho thorate thorte therate
rate rte of taxation taton is increased Inced In propor proportion prpor prporton proportlon ¬
tion to the remoteness rmoteness of blood blod of tho thoman thoman theman
man ton receiving rceiving the to bequest beuest These Tese prin principles prIncples principles ¬
ciples cples are recognized roollzed already alreay In the theleading te teloding theleading
leading civilized nations of tho world worldIn worldI
In I loding Great Gret clJlo Britain Btan natons all 01 the to estates esate worth worh worhO worth5ooo
35000 or less les are ae practically pUcalY exempt exemptfrom exempttrom exemptfrom
from O death duties while whie the increase Inceo is iseucli 186UCl Isouch
ouch that when an estate estt oxcoeds Qced 5000 O
000 6UCl in valuo and passes to a n distant dstt kins kinsman kns knsmn dnsman ¬
0 vluo JS0
man mn or stranger strager In blood blod the govern government gve governmeut ¬
ment receives recelv8 all al told told an amount amountequivalent aount aountequivaent amountequivalent
the whole wholeestate whole0tte wholeestate
equivalent to nearly nealy a fifth of
equivaent 0tte estate In France Frnce so much of an a in inheritance Inboritonco inheritanco ¬
heritance as 8 exceeds 10000000 000 pays pys ove ovea oe over overa
a a fifth ffth to the state if it passes passo to u udlbtant U Udiotant
dlbtant relative relativeGerman relativeGerman
c1tantreaUvo c1tantreaUvoGean
German Gean Tax Scheme SchemeThe SchemeThe SchemeThe
The Gorman Gormnn law Is especially especialY interest interesting 1ntorestIng Interesting ¬
ing to us because bocuse it I makes maes the Inherit Inheritance Inheritance inheritance ¬
ance tax ta an Imperial Jmpero measure meaure while whie al allotting allottng allotting ¬
lotting lottng to the individual states of the theempire theempire theempire
empire a portion porn of tho te thopOceeda proceeds p ocs and andpermitting ad adrmlttIn3 andpermitting
permitting rmlttIn3 them to Impose Impso taxes taes in ad addition a additlon ¬
dition diton to those thos Imposed by the Imperial Imperialgovernment Imperal Imperalgovernmet Imperialgovernment
government governmet Small Sml Inheritances 1nhertace are ex exempt e eumpt cxempt ¬
empt but tho tax tx is 1 so sharply haly pro progressive progressivo ¬
gressive ges8h0 that tt when tho Inheritance Inheitce is isstill isstl Isstill
still stl not very er large Jago provided it is not an anagricultural an anaricuturl anagricultural
agricultural aricuturl or a a forest land lad It is 1 taxedat taxed taxedat
at the rate oT c 25 2 per cent If It goes to todistant todstt todistant
distant dstt relatives rlatves There is no reason reasonwhy reaon reaonwhy reasonwhy
why In the United Unite States state tho National NationalGovernment NationalGovernment
Government Goorment should not Impose Impoe In Inheritance Inheritac inheritanco ¬
heritance heritac taxes tes In addition adition to thoso im imposed ImpH unposed ¬
posed pH by the State and ad when wo last lasthad J lathad t thw
had an Inheritance Inheritce tax t about abut onehalf onehalfof onehar oneharof
of the States sttos levied levie such 1uch taxeaconcur taxeaconcurrently txC taxcsconcurrently concur concurrenty
rently renty with wit the National Government Governmentmaking Governmentmaking
making a combined combled maximum mamum rate rte In Insome inomo Insome
some omo cases CRtS as a high as 25 Z per cent centThe centThe centThe
The French law has ho ono teature featurewhich teaturewhch teaturewhich
which whch Is to bo heartily healy commended commendedTho commeded commededTho commendedThe
Tho progressive prgreslvo principle prlncple Is so applied appliedthat appled appledthat appliedthat
that that each higher hl her rate ia 1 Imposed only onlyon onlyon onlyon
on the excess cCOH abovo the te amount subject subjectto
to the next net lower rate so that each In Increase Incree Increase ¬
crease cree of rato will wl apply only onli to a a a cer certain cr crtnamout certam ¬
tain tnamout tam amount above a certain oertln maximum maximumThe maximumThe maximumThe
The tax should if possible be made to tobear tobe tobear
bear be more heavily hcvly upon those residing residingwithout residingwithout
without Wf10ut the country than within wlbln It It A Aheavy Aboay Aheavy
heavy progressive prgesslve tax tx upon a a very large largofortune largeturtuno largefortune
fortune is in no way a such a tax upon uponthrift uponthrft uponthrift
thrift thrft or industry Industr as a 0 like lke tax tx would wouldbe woule wouldbe
be on a small smtl fortune No advantage advantagecomes advantagecomes
adyatce adyatcecome
comes come either eiter to the th country cout as a a a whole wholeor wholeor wboIeor
or to tho Individuals fndlvlduas inheriting Inhelng tbo tbomoney tbomoney thomoney
money by permitting perittng the transmission transmissionIn trnsmIssion trnsmIssionIn transthlsslonin
In their thor entirety of the enormous cnonous for fortunes fortunes fortunes ¬
tunes which would wuld be affected atcted by such sucha
a r tax t and ad as a an incident Incdont to t its func function function function ¬
tion of revenue raising rising auch uc uch a a tax taxwould taxwould
would help to preserve presere a measurable measurableequality meurnlo meurnloequnt measurableequality
equality equnt of opportunity for the people peopleof peopleor peopleof
of the te generations genertons growing to man manhood manhod manhood ¬
hoodWe We have toot iot ot the slightest el htet sympathy sympathywith 83mpay 83mpaywIt sympathywith
with wIt that socialistic socialstc Idea Idea which would wouldtry wouldt wouldtry
try t to toput put laziness 13los thriftlessness tritessess and ld in inefficiency Inemcency Inefficiency ¬
efficiency emcency on a par with wt Industry Industy thrift thriftand thrIt thrItand thriftand
and efficiency which would strive stvo to tobreak tobre tobreak
break bre up not merely private privae property propertybut propert propertybut
but what Is far more Important Imporat the thehome thehome thehome
home the chief prop upon pon whicfc whic our ourwhole ourwholo ourwhole
whole civilization clllaUon stands stads Such Suc a the theory theory ¬
ory If I ever adopted aopt0 would mean the theruin te terin theruin
ruin rin of the entire entrp country cunta countrya a ruin rin which whichwould whichwoud whichwould
would woud bear ber heaviest upon the te weakest
I stanty stantly growing feeling among aong our pea people peaplo p50plo ¬
gowinG fcolg
plo that tbnt the to time tmo Is 1 rapidly rpidly approaching approachingwhen approacing approacingwhen approachingwhen
when our system of revenue legislation legislationmust legislaton legislatonmust legislationmust
must bo revised revisedTariff revised revisedTariff
Tariff Tarif Revision Revsion After Ater Election ElectionThis
I This 18 country fs definitely defnlely committed commted commtedI to tothe f fthe
I the protective prot tve system stem and any effort to touproot toI touproot
I uproot uprot Jt could not but cause uBe widespread widespreadindustrial widespreadIndustrial
industrial djpaster dfstor In other words wors the theprinciple
I principle prnci lo of the to present tariff tad law could couldnot couldnot couldnot
not with wit wisdom be changed changed But in a acountry acountry
country of such phenomenal growth gwth as asoura asours
ours our it is probably well wel that every Ccr dozen dozenyears doenyears dozenyears
years or i izo 10 o the tariff tlt laws should be becarefully becarefully
carefully carfuly Bcrutlnizod scnlzod so as n to see se that tat no noexcessive noexcesive noexcessive
excessive excesive or Improper Imprope benefits boneft are con conferred conferred ¬
ferred thereby therby that that proper revenue reveue la laprovided Isprovided
provided provIde and that our foreign forIg trade Is Isencouraged isencouraged
encouraged onc There Ter must mut always awaS be aa aaa asa
a n a minimum urag a tariff trit which will wU not only onlyallow onlyaUow onlyallow
allow for tho collection coUeclon of an ample rev revenue revenue revenue
enue but which will wU at least Jeot make good goodtho goodtho goodthe
tho difference dlterenco In the labor cost cst here and andabroad ad andabroad
abroad 0 for tho wellbeing welbeing of the te wage wageworker wageworker
worker orker must mus ever be a a cardinal dlnal point of ofAmerican orAmercan ofAmerican
American Amercan policy policyTho polcy polcyTho policyThe
Tho question queUon should bo approached approachedpurely approachedpurOhy
purely pualy from a buslnoss busloss standpoint tdplnt both boththo bth bththo boththe
tho time tme and the te manner maner of the change changebeing chan chanbeIng chanbeing <
being such aa a to arouse the minimum minimumof
of agitation and ad disturbance in the bnsl business bnslJeS bnslJ4088 ¬
ness agitaton world and to give the least lft play playfor playfor lay layror
JeS for solfish and factional fational gvo motives moU c Tho Thosolo Thosoh Thesole
solo consideration cnsideraton should be b to see ee e that thatthe thatthe thatthe
the sum total of changes represents repreenl the thepublic thepublc thepublic
public publc good This means that the sub subject subject subject ¬
ject cannot cnnot with wisdom wisom bo dealt with within wIthIn
in 11 the year yeal preceding prceding a a Presidential Presidentialelection pre Presidentialelection ldenUal ldenUalelecton
election electon because bfCaUSO as a a matter of fact factexperience fat fatQxporJouce factexporleiice
experience has conclusively shown that thatat thntI thatat
I at such suol a a time tme it Is impossible to get getiron gettren
iron Ion to treat tret it from 1mpssible the standpoint wf wfthe u uI ofthe
I the ijubllo IJublo good In my Judgment judgmet the thowise tl tlI thewise
wise time tmE to deal < with wih the matter matte IB IBimmediately 11 isImmediately
I immediately tmledlatcly after uter such election eleton
upon upn those toso least le8t able to shift blt for them themaolves tcm tcmIclves themsolves
solves Iclves But proposals proposal for legislation legislationsuch leglaUon leglaUonsuh legislaUonsuch
such suh as this herein advocated adoce ore ae di directly dlrU dirocti ¬
rectly rU rocti opposed to thltt tlt class cla of o socialistic socialistictheories soalltc soalltcthere socialistictheories
theories there Our aim Is to recognize reooglze what whatLincoln whatLincoln whatLincoln
Lincoln poInteC plntf point out outThe outThe outThe
The fact thu there are some lomc respects respectsIn rpect
In which men ar > obviously not equal equalbut equalbit qualblt
but also al to insist taat t t there ter shoild shoJd be bean beau bean
an equality cuaUty of artfrespect BIrepet ccid d of ofmutual otmutual ofmutual
mutual respect rpec an equality euly of rights rIght be before beore before ¬
fore ore the law and at least let an a approx approximate appox appoxImate approxImato ¬
imate equality eualy in the te conditions cndition under underwhich und undwhic underwhich
which whic each man obtains the chance to toshow tohow toshow
show how the eo stuff stut that ia In hln hl when whencompared wbencompae whencompared
compared compae to his follows lollowsWealthy followsWealthy UOWs UOWsWealhy
Wealthy Wealhy Offenders Ofender Punished PunishedA Pnished PnishedA
A A few years yers ago ag there was w loud 00 com complaint complaint cornplaint ¬
plaint that tho to law 3W could coul not be Invoked Invokedagainst 1nvoke invokedagainst
against aganst wealthy woJh offenders o endos There Tor is no nosuch nosuch nosuch
such complaint complant now Tho course coure of the theDepartment te teDopament thetiepartment
Department Dopament of Justice Justc during the th last lastfew Int Inttew lastfew
few years eaB has been such 8uc as a to jnako Joke it itevident 1 Itevident
evident that tat no man ma stand std f above ave the thelaw the1w thelaw
law 1w that that no corporation corraton ia 00 wealthy wealthythat w1y w1ythat wcamthythat
that it i can cn not be held hed to account The TheDepartment Te TeDeprent TheDepartment
Department of Justice has been aa aaprompt asprompt
Deprent Juso ben benprmpt
prompt prmpt to proceed poe against agnst the he wealthi wealthiest weaJtl weaJtl0t wealtlileat ¬
est 0t malefactor mtaacor whose whse crime crme was one of ofgreed otgreed ofgreed
greed and cunning cunnng as to proceed prod against againstthe agant agantthe againstthe
the agitator agittor who Incites Jnot6s to brutal bt vio violence vo volence yb yblence ¬
lence Everything Evetng that can be done un under un undor uiider ¬
der the existing law and ad with wIt the t ex existing exIsUnb cxistthg ¬
isting IsUnb state stte of public pUblc opinion which so soprofoundly soprofoundly
profoundly prounly Influences Infuence both bt the te courts courtsI cour courtsand
I and Juries jures has been done done But the te laws lawsthemselves lawstemelv lawsthemselves
temelv themselves need no strengthening stengeng In more morethan morethan
than tn one important tport point they should shouldbe shoud shoudbe shouldbe
be made mad more doflnlte dlnle so that no hon honest honet honcBt ¬
est et man can be led 10 unwittingly unwt1nglr to brook brookthem breakthem
them and gd so s that the te real re wrongdoer wrongdoercan wrngdoer wrngdoeroan
can be readily r dh punished punishedMoreover punlhed punishedMoreover
Moreover llore er there must be the te public publicopinion pUblo pUbloopinion publicopinion
opinion back bck of the te laws lw or the te laws lawsthemselves Jaw Jawthcmsolves
themselves will Hl be of no avail aal At pres present pre present ¬
ent while whle the average juryman jurmn un u ¬
doubtedly doubtely wishes wshe to see 8e trusts ts broken brokenup brken brkenup brokenup
up and If 1 quite uite ready ry to fine fne the te cor corporation corporation corporation ¬
poration itsolf 1tlf he is very 0 reluctant relnct to
find the te facts raCs proven prven beyond a reason reasonable reon reonable reasonable
able doubt when it comes B to
dou1t Co sending ledng to tojail toji tojail
jail ji a member of the business buies com community 1 oemmunity ¬
munity munly for indulging Indulgg in practices practce which whicharo wblchare whicharo
aro are profoundly prtundlY unhealthy unet but which whichunfortunately whichunfortur4ely
unfortunately unforlutely the te business bules community communitynormal cmuniy
has gown grown to reoglz recognize a3 weUn1gh weUn1ghnormal wellnighnormal
normal normal Both Bot the present preent condition c dton of ofthe orthe ofthe
the law law and the to present pret temper tempr of Juries Juriesrender juies juiesrender juriesrender
render it i a a task tk of extreme extme difficulty dlt ult to toget toget toget
get at at the to real wrongdoer wngdoer In n any such suchcose suchoe suchease
ease oe especially epecialy by Imprisonment fpreonent anY Yet it
is from frm every eve standpoint tadpo1t for ta preferable preferableto prerble prerbleto
to punish punIs the prime prme offender o ender by Impris Imprisonment 1prs 1prsonment Ixnprisonment ¬
onment rather ratlu r than ta to t fine the corpora corporation crpor corporalion ¬
lion tIonwth with the attendant atendant damages damge to tostockholders tostocKolders toetocitholders
stockholders stockholdersThe stocKolders stocKoldersThe etocitholders etocitholdersThe
The two great get evils evls in the execution executionof exetion exetionof
of our o criminal cn laws laws today toay are send sentimentality sent sendment11t ¬
mentality menti and technicality teccait For the thelatter te telatter thelatter
latter the remedy r me y must come from the thehands thehan thehands
hands han s of the legislatures legisatres the courts courtsand cou courtsand
and an the lawyers lawers The Te other oter must depend de depend depend ¬
pend for its it cure ce upon the gradual gradualgrowth gradualgrowth gradualgrowth
growth of a sound public publc opinion which whichshall whch whchshal whichshall
shall shal insist insst that tat regard rega for the law lawand lawand lawand
and the demands demads of reason reaon shall sha con control contol control ¬
trol tol all al qither ther influences infuencs and emotions emotionsin emotionsi
in i the te y box box Both Bot of these evils evilsmust evs evsmut evilsmust
must bo b reanoved roed or public publc discontent discontentgrith disontent disontentth discontentqith
grith th the criminal cal Jaw will continue continueWonld continueVIoald
w contu contuVrond
Wonld Vrond Limit Lit Injunctions InjunctionsIn Ijuctions InjunctionsIcstance
In IZHlaces Icstance stances of Abuse bWe in I tb t itlngj itlngjof itlng itlngof Ug Ugor
of injunctions InjunclD in labor dls con continue on ontInue ontinue ¬
tinue to occur ocr and the read ree t in inthe Inthe Inthe
the minds Inds of thoso who feel that tat their theirrights teir teirright theirrights
rights right are being beig Invaded Inve and their teir lib liberty Uberty liberty ¬
erty of action ation and ad of speech spec unwar unwarrantably unwa unwarrantably ¬
rantably rtblY restrained retined continues contues likewise likewiseto lkewise lkewiseto
to grow gow Much of tho attack attac1 on the theuse thewe theuse
use of the process pOCeS of Injunction is iswholly 1swhoJly iswholly
wholly without wihout warrant warrat but I am con constrained constained constrained ¬
strained stained strained to express eress the te belief bne that for foreomo torsomo forsome
some of it there is warrant wrat This ques question queston question ¬
tion ton is becoming becoming bccomin more mor and ad moro one oneof oneof oneof
of prime Importance Importanc and unless unle tho thocourts thocourt thocourts
courts court will il themselves thems lvs deal with wt It ItetecUOo Mn Mneffective Ineffective
effective etecUOo manner it is certain cerin ultimate ultimately ultimately ultimately ¬
ly to demand some slme form of legislative legislativeaction lesslatvQ lesslatvQacton legislativeaction
action acton It would be most unfortunate unfortunatefor unforunate unforunatefor
for our social welfare welare If we should shouldpermit shouldperit shouldpermit
permit perit many may honest J10nestan an anQ < l lawabiding lawabidingcitizens Jawabidingcitzens lawabidingcitIzna
citizens citzens to feel that tat they had just cause causefor cUf causefor
for regarding regango our courts coup with wit hostility hostilityI hosWIt
I earnestly eresty commend comend to t the attention attentionof attonton attontonot
of the Congress Congo this matter moto so 10 that thatBomo thatBomo thatsome
Bomo way oa may be devised which will willlimit willlimit
limit the abuse of injunctions Injuncton and od pro protect proteot proteot ¬
teot those tose rights right which whch from frm time tme to totime totme totime
time tme It unwarrantably uworrantJy invades Invaes More Moreover Moreover tore toreover ¬
over discontent is often oten expressed with withtho withto withtho
tho to use of the process of injunction Injucton by bythe b bI bythe
the te courts cour not only onl in I labor Jab disputes disputesbut dsute disputesbut
but where State laws Jws are concerned I Irefrain Ircrral Irefrain
I cncee
refrain rcrral from discussion dscusion of this ths question questionaa queton quetonas
as I am informed Inored that it will U soon re receive tecetve ¬
ceive the to consideration conslderUon o ot the Supreme SupremeCourt SupremeCourt SupremeCourt
Court CourtThe Court CourtThe
The Federal Federcours courts must of course de decide dedde
cide ultimately what are o tho respective respectivespheres rcseoUve rcseoUvespheres respectivespheres
spheres of State Stte and ad nation ntIon in cornice connection cornicetion ¬
tion with wih any ay law State Stte or national nationalaid natIonaJqd nationalard
aid qd they tey must decide definitely defnitlY and andfinally ad adfnJy andfinally
finally fnJy In matters matte affecting afectig individual individualcitizens Individualcizens indtvlduaicitizens
citizens cizens not only as to the rights and andwrongs ad adwrongs andwrongs
wrongs of labor but as a to tho rights rJbs
and wrongs wrng of capital capial and tho Na Naticnal NaUcnnl Naticnal
ticnal Government Goverent must always see that thattho thatthe thatthe
the decision of the to court is put into intoeffect Intoetect intoeffect
effect etect The Th process proces of Injunction Is an anessential anessential
essential clenUal adjunct aunct of tho courts doing doln dolnIs
its Is work well wel and as a preventive prev ntvo mans measures mca mansuros ¬
ures are ar clways better bter than tIla remedial remedialthe remedlaJthe remedialthe
the wise ie use oi o this process proces Is from fromevery trm trmever fromevery
every ever standpoint commendable comondable But Butwhere Butwhere Butwhere
where it Is recklessly rcid6sly or unnecessary unnecessaryused unneossnCy unneossnCyuced unnecessariyused
used uced the abuse should soud be consumed consumedabove cens censabce consuedabcve
above all by the very ver men who are areproperly ar areproperly
properly prperly anxious anous to prevent prvent any an uffort uffortto uffortU tort tortto
to to U shear sher the courts of thin necessary necessarypower nccdssar necessarypower
power powerThe powerI
I I The courts cours decision must mut be final fnal fnalI
I the protest protet Is only against 8aln the conduct conductof conduotot conductof
I of individual judges In n nA4dle fdlely dlessly sly an anticipating antcipatng anticlpating ¬
ticipating tcipatng such final fnal decision or In the thotyrannical thetyrnicl thetyrannical
tyrannical tyrnicl use use of what whal Is nominally nOmnaly a atemporary atompra atemporary
temporary tompra injunction Injuncton to accomplish accomplishwhat accomplsh accomplshwhat accomplishwhat
what is in fact tat a permanent poranent decision decisionThe docslon decisionThe
The loss of life lte and limb 1mb from rom rail rl
solely upon him and ad on the other otnerhand oter oterhand otherhand
hand there ther aro whole classes clsse of attor attorneys ator atornos attornays ¬
nays who exist exst only onl by Inciting Incitng men memwho mo menwho
who may mayor or may my not have been wronged wrongedto ned nedto
to undertake suits for negligence neglgence neglgencen As Asa Asa
a n matter mater of fact a suit ult for negligence negligenceis neglge neglgeIs
is generally generly an Inadequate Inaeuate remedy remey for forthe torthe forthe
the person Injured while whie it often oftencauses oftenCuses oftencauses
causes Cuses altogether otogeter disproportionate dlprporonato an annoyance a annoyance ¬
noyance to the employer employerThe emploerThe employerThe
nynco The law should be b mode such that tat the thopayment themet thepayment
payment met for accidents addenl mae by b the t employ employor cmploor
or would ud bo b automatic autmc Instead Insted of be being be bejug ¬
jug Ig a matter mattr for lawsuits lault Workmen Workmenshould Vorkc Workmenshould
should receive certain and ad definite dofnle com compensation cornponsation ¬
pensation pnUon rovo for all 01 cran accidents acient in Industry Industryirrespective Indue industrYirrespective
JrpUve irrespective of negligence negligenceCommunity neglgenc nogligenesCommunity
Community Comunt Should Shoud Bear Bea Burden BurdenThe BurdenThe BurdenThe
The employer opO is the te agent ant of the thopublic thepublc thepublic
public publc and ad on his hs own T responsibility responsibilityand sn8IbUt
and for his hs own ow profit prft he serves sere the thepublic te tepblc thepublic
public pblc When Ven he starts eta In motion motionagencies motionagencies
agencies 8Jneles which whic create crat risks rk for others othersho otr othersho
ho h should sould lake tae all al the te ordinary orina and andextraordinary ad adorna andextraordinary
extraordinary orna risks rsks Involved Invhoe and d the therisk thek thertsk
risk k he thus u at the moment assumes assumeswill aue auew1 assumeswill
will w1 ultimately uliatelY be assumed asmed as a it ought oughtto oght oghtto oughtto
to be by the te general gener public pblc Only Oly In Inthis Inthi inthis
this thi way can c the shock Ih of the te sect accident acI acIdot sectdent ¬
dent be diffused dtd instead ist of falling tg upon upontho uponthe
tho man ma or WOn least let able ae to bear bearIt be beIt beerIt
It It as 8 is i now nw tins tt case cC The T community communityat cmunty cmuntyat
at large should 8hold chare ehr the burdens brens brenswel as aswell aswoll
well wel aa the t benefits net of industry lndut By Bytho Bytho Bythe
tho proposed propose law employee empoe would wouldgain wld wldgin wouldgain
gain gin a desirable deslrJe certainty certnty of o obligation obligationand olgon olgonand obligationand
and got gt rid o o of litigation Jlgalon to determine de1rin It Itwhllo It itwhile
while who the te workman and ad his h family familywould ta familywould
would woud be relieved rUted from rm a n crashing crhg load loadWith 1 loadWith
With such a e a policy pUc would com CS coins in increased Incree increased ¬
creased cree core CC and ad accidents acient would wd be bereduced bereduced
reduced rduc in number nuber The national ntol laws lawsproviding lwsprovlcng lawsproviding
providing provlcng for employers employe liability abUt on onrailroads onrira onrailroads
in interstate com commerce cornznercc ¬
railroads rira engaged enGo Interltte cm cmmerce
merce and nd for safety sae appliances aple as aswell aswell
well as 8 for diminishing dlmlnhtn the th hours h any anyemploye ay ayempJo18 an anemploye
employe of a a railroad rild should shuld be b per permitted pr prmlte permitted ¬
mitted to towork work should all al be b strength strengthened stnth stnthened strengthened ¬
mlte tOlork
ened wherever In actual actua practice prat they theyhave theyhn theyhave
whrver weakness they should be bekept bekept
have hn e shown tey soud
kept on a1w tho statute sttut waes books bok in thorough thoroughgoing trugh trugholng thoroughgoing ¬
going going olng form formThe ror formThe
The constitutionality constutionity of the employ employers emply emplyu employera ¬
ers liability act at passed paed by the pro proceding proceding
u labit
ceding Congress has l been n carried ced be before before ¬
fore cOig the Cnses courts cout In two Jurisdictions Jurisdictionsthe julIctone julIctonethe jurisdictionsthe
the law te has been ben declared deae unconstitu unconstitutional uncnstItu uncnstItutot unconstitutbonal ¬
tional and ad in three Jurisdictions jusdctos Its It con constitutionality cn cnsttutonaly constitutfonality ¬
tot stitutionality has ha tree been affirmed a ed The Thequestion Te Tequeston Thequestion
sttutonaly question queston has ha been ben carried ced to t the te Su Supreme Supreme Supreme ¬
preme Court Cour the case Ce baa ha been ben hoard hoardby hed hedb hoardby
by b that tribunal trbunal and ad a decision deision Is ex expected expcled oxpected ¬
pected at an a early early date date In the event eventthat eentt1at eventthat
should affirm the con constitutionality eonstitutlonality ¬
that the court cur boud afr on onsUuUonUy
stitutionality of th the act I urge urg turtnerlegislation further furtherlegislation r rlegllaUon
t g
sUuUonUy legislation along the to lines lne advocated advocatedin
in legllaUon my m message mesago ooni to the preceding prctg Con Congress Conges Congrese ¬
gress gressThe greseThe
ges The practice practc of putting putUnl the entire entr bur burden buyden ¬
den of loss to t life or limb 1mb upon thft thftvictim t thbvictim
victim or the victims Iclms family famiy is a form formof fonnof formof
victm of social soIal Injustice to In which the United UnitedStates Unit UnitedStates
States stands in unenviable prominence pxominencoIn
In I both our Federal Federl and ad our State Stte leg legIslaton legislatlon
Islation we have with few exceptions exceptionsscarcely excetons excetonsSrcQly exceptionsscarcely
scarcely SrcQly Islaton gone farther than ta the repeal repealof repealof repealof
of the to fellowservant feloweent gno principle priciple of the old oldlaw oldlaw oldlaw
law of liability and in some cf our ourStates ourSttes ourStates
Uoblty an
States Sttes even this slight slght modification mdIfcUo of a acompletely aompletely acompletely
completely ompletely outgrown principle prnciple hi hb his s not notyet notI notyet
I yet boon secured The Te legislation legslaton of the therest theI therest
rest rst of the industrial lndmstria world stands stads out outJn outIn outIn
I In striking contrast contrat to our backward backwardness bckar backwardness ¬
ness in i this respect Since 1S95 16 prac practically pra practically ¬
tically every country count of Europe to together t together ¬
gether tcal with wt Great Britain Britau New Zen Zeathe Zenland
land land l IUa etrnl1a Brlh British Coumbla Columbia and andthe andthe
the Cape Cpe of Good Hope has enacted enactedlegislation enated enatedlegislaton enactedlegislation
legislation legislaton embodying emboying in ono form for or oranother oranother oranother
another the complete complet recognition roglon of the theprinciple to toprlncple theprinpla
principle which whch places upon upn the em employer employer employer ¬
ployer the entire entre trade tdo risk In the vari various vai vaious van vanous ¬
ous ous lines line of Industry Indust I urge urg upon upn the theCongress theCongrss theCongress
Congress Congrss the enactment enatment of a law lw which whichwill whch whchwJ whichwill
will at the te same 8ame time tme bring Federal Federallegislation Fedorallegslaton Federallegislation
wJ legislation up to the standard already alreadyestablished alreadyestabJlbed alreadyestablished
legslaton established estabJlbed by all al the te European coun countries cou countries ¬
tries and ad which whIc will wl serve as a o I stimu stimulus stmu stmuJus eUmulus ¬
lus to the te various vous States Btat9 to t perfect their theirlegislation teir teirlegJatIon thelrlegislation
legislation legJatIon In i this regard regardExtend regr regardExtend
Extend Exed EightHour Law LawThe LawThe LawThe
The Congress Congess should consider conside the te ex exteision e etesion cxteaslon
teision tesion of the eighthour law The Theconstitutionality Te TecQ Thecoastitutionality
constitutionality cQ stittonlt of the te present law has hasrecently hasrecently
recently been ben called caed into ito question queston and andthe andte andthe
the te Supreme Court Cou has decided ceded that the theexisting te teetig theexisting
existing etig legislation legiaton is unquestionably unquestionablywithin unqestionab1ywtn unqestionablywithin
within wtn the powers of Congress Congc3s The Theprinciple Theprdp1e Theprinciple
principle prdp1e of the t eighthour day should shouldas shoud shoudas
as rapidly rapidy and as far fa as practicable praccble be beextended beexended beezended
extended to the entire ent work carried cared on onby onby onb
by b the te Government Go rnt and the present presentlaw presentlw presentlaw
law lw should shoud be amended aended to embrace con contracts contcts contracts ¬
tracts tcts on those tose public pUblc works wk which the thepresent te tepreent thepresent
present preent wording wordig of the act has been beenconstrued beenconted beenconstrued
construed conted to exclude excludeTho ecude ecudeTo excludeThe
The To general gneral introduction IntducUon of the eight eighthour elshthour eighthour
hour day should be the goal gal toward towardwhich tow towardwhich d dwhich
which we should steadily stealy tend and ad the theGovernment theGemment theGovernmcht
Government Gemment should set tbo tho th example exmple in inthis intb1s Inthis
this respect respectWould rsect rsectWoud respectWould
Would Woud Investigate Strikes StrikesStrikes Ste StrikesStrikes
Strikes Strkes and Cnd lockouts Iocou with wil their telr at attendant attendat attendant ¬
tendant tendat less lcss and suffering Buterng continue contnue to toIncrease toIncae toincrease
Increase Incae For Itr the five fve years yers ending Do December Docember j jccmber
cember 31 1905 10 the te number nuber of strikes strikeswas stikes stikeswas strikeswas
was greater geater than tha those In any an previous previousten prevIousten previousten
ten years yea and ad was double the number numberin
in the te preceding preedw five fvo years These Tese fig figures fg fgDroa figares ¬
ares Indicate Indlcto the te increasing 1nccaslg need of pro providing proI prov1dinr ¬
I viding vld soxnn omo om machinery machlner to deal with wIt thisj t this
road accidents nccident In this country cuntry has ha be become become ¬
come appalling appolnG It I is a subject of which whichtho whic whichthe
tho National Natonal Government Gvernment should take takesupervision tko tkosupen1slon takesupervision
supervision It I might be well wel to be begin begin begin ¬
gin by providing for for a Federal Fedom inspec inspection inpec inpecton inspection ¬
tion ton of Interstate Intertate railroads ralroads somewhat somewhatalong somewhatalong somewhatalong
along the lines Ino of Federal ederal Inspection Inscto of ofsteamboat otseabootu ofsteamboats
steamboat seabootu although not going co 10 far farperhaps fa faperhaps farperhaps
perhaps at first frst all that 1bat it would be benecessary beno80ry benecessary
necessary no80ry to t have bvo would be some of offleer offeer offleer
fleer feer whose wh0e duty dut would be to Investigate Investigateall Investgte InvestgteaU
all accidents aident on Interstate Intertate railroads riroas and andreport andrevor andreport
report revor in detail deti tho causes cuses thereof thereofSuch thoror thereofSuch
Such an officer ofcer should shouJd make 1ae It his hisbusiness blsbuslnf hisbusiness
business buslnf to get Iel Into Int dose c0e touch with withrailroad WIUlrira withrailroad I
railroad rira operating operting men so 8 as a to tobcomo tobcomothoroghly become becomethoroughly becomethoroughly
thoroughly thoroghly familiar flmUar with every side sde of oftho orthc ofthc
thc thc question qUOtIon the Idea Ide being to work workalong workulong workalong
along Inspection Inspeton the lines 1n0 law of the present preent steamboat steamboatInspection steambat steambatInspeton steamboatinspection
Government Should Lead LeadIn LeadC I IIn
C In Insuring Employes Emplo yes
The National Natonal Government should be a amodel amodel ainodol
model employer It I should demand deand the thohighest thehihest thehighest
highest hihest quality Qualty of C service from each of ofits otIt ofIts
its It employes emplOYe and It should care cae for all allof aUot allof
of them properly pr rly in return rtur Congress Congressshould Cong6 Cong6should Congressshould
should adopt legislation providing urn limited urnited ¬
aopt lehlaton lm lmIe
Ie ited but definite dofnlte compensation compnaton for acci accidents acc accidents ¬
dents dent to all ul workmen within witin the scope scopeof spe speor scopeof
of the th Federal Feer1 power pwer Including InoludlnG om omployes omploye employes
ployes ploye of navy na yard yarE and arsenals alnals In Inother InOt1E Inothey
other Ot1E words wors a model employers employer liability liabilityact llblty llbltynt liabilityact
act nt farreaching farrchng and thoroughgoing thoroughgoingshould toruggoing toruggoingsboul thoroughgoingshould
should sboul be enacted enate which should apply applyto applyto applyto
to all CU positions psitons public publc and ad private prvate over overwhich overwhic overwhich
which whic tho National Natonal Government Goverent has Ju Jurisdiction juridcton lurisdiction ¬
risdiction ridcton The number nubr of accidents 8cldent to towageworkers tow towageworkers
wageworkers w worker including IncludlP inoludin those that are arepreventable areprventable arepreventable
preventable prventable and those thole that ta are ar not not has hasbecome h hbecome hasbecome
become appalling Cppalng in the mechanical mechanicalmanufacturing mechanicl mechaniclmautaturn mechanicalmanufacturing
manufacturing mautaturn and 5nd transportation tpron oper operations op opatlons operatlons ¬
ations atlons of the te day dayIt dayI dayIt
It I works worlt grim lm hardship harshp to tho or ordinary ordiny ordinary ¬
dinary diny wageworker wageworker and ad his family famiy to tohn tohavo tohavo
hn havo th the Afr effect < t of such an accident fall
class ela of dtstuibances dlatU dlatuz bnees bances in 1f the Interest Interestalike Interostalke interestalike
alke alike of the employer the te employe and andthe andthe andthe
the general geer public I renew reew my previous previousrecommendation previousreommedatin previousrecommendation
recommendation reommedatin that the Congress Conge fa favorably favorbly a avorably ¬
vorably vorbly consider cnsker the matter mater of creating creatingthe crting crtingthe creatingthe
the machinery machine for compulsory comptsor invest Investigation lnvcst investcation ¬
gation Uon of such Industrial Inustil controversies controversiesas cntroveres cntroveresu
as are of sufficient suUcent magnitude magiude and of ofsufficient ofsuffcient ofsufficient
sufficient suffcient concern cncern to the people of the thecountry thocuntr thecountry
country cuntr as a a whole whle to warrant wrrant the to Fed Federal l1ed l1ederl Fedoral ¬
oral erl Government Goverment In taking action ation
The need nee for some > me troven provision for 8Ucn such
Investigation invetgton was forcibly Illustrated 1wtte
during the past 19t summer swnmer A A striker strIke of
telegraph telogaph operators seriously Interfered Interferedwith
serously Intefere
with wIt telegraphic tlegpmc communication comunieaton cans ¬
lag Ing great sBt damage d e tGbBness to business interests interestsard Interet interestsa1 cs
ard aJd serious sou inconvenience incoveniene to t the general gener
public ptblc Appeals wore made 1de to me from fromcouncils frommy frommany
my many pt parts or the country from city
ouoUs councils from boards bad of trade from fromchambers fromoabrs fromchambers
chambers oabrs of commerce comerce and from labor labororganizations labororgltIons labororganizations
organizations orgltIons urging urglg that tt steps teps be
taken taen to terminate tenlnae tho strike stIke Every Evey ¬
thing that that could cou1 with wIh any propriety prprety be
done do no by a representative rereentUve of the Govern Government ¬
ment ment was wa done done without wtout aval ava ava Gvern and ad for forweeks forweu forweeks
weeks weu thfc ta th public pUblo stood stc by and ad suffered sufferedwithout sufferedwihout sufferedwithout
without wihout recourse reuno of any kind Had H the Hienachinery te
machinery machIner existed eted and had hw there the been beenuthorlty ben benauthority beenauthority
authority for t01 compulsory investigation inypetigationof
Indtgton Indtgtonor
of the t dispute dsput the public would woul have have
been ben placed plc In possession pseaion of the merits meritsof mert meritsof
of the controversy contoversy and ad public opinion opinionwould opinionwuld opinionwould
would wuld probably probbly have brought bou bt about abut a aprompt a aprompt aprompt
prompt adjustment adjustmentBach ajustet
Bach B successive 8ueeSle succesalvestep step st creating catg machin machinery mcin mcine macbincry ¬
cry e for the te adjustment adjustet of labor Jabr dUll difficulties dm dmcltes dUllculties ¬
culties must be taken with
cltes mut b tke wit caution cuton but butwe butwe
we 0 should shoul endeavor edeavor to 1 make progress in
this direction directionTh dlroUon dlroUonThe directionThe me prose1
Th The provisions prvl810n of the to act of ISM ore oreaUng oreating
I e
aUng atn the t chairman car of the te Interstate 1n t
Commerce Commission Cmml on and the te Commis Commissioner Coms Comsstoner Commlssioner ¬
sioner of lAbor Lr a board bord of mediation Iaton In Incontroversies Inontoersles Incontroversies
controversies ontoersles between ttw6en Interstate Intertate rail railroads railroads ¬
roads roas and ad their tol employee eployos has ha for 101 r the
first time been t
flrt Umer be subjected 8ubjet to serious seriousdom
tt ioats within the past year and the wie
wthIn te pt e ad te wis
dom of the experiment expriment has ha been ben fully
demonstrated demonstate The creation Crtion of a board
for compulsory cmpulry Investigation Ineatstlo In cases caseswhere CM caseswhere
where wloro mediation meiton falls ad d arbitration abtaton Is Isrejected I isrejected
rejected reete Is tho thP th next net logical step It in 11 a aprogressive aproesfve aprogressive
progressive proesfve program programCapital pNgramCap41 pro gram gramCapal
Capital and ad Labor LaborIt LaborI
It I la certain certI that tt for some lome time U e to toconae t tocome
como there tre wi wft be a a constant cnstant increase increaseabsolutely 1n9 1n9ab increaseabeoluteiy
absolutely ab lut y and ad perhaps relatively reatvely of ofthose ofto ofthose
those to among a ong our citizens citzens who wh dwell twel in inottlos Inotos inotUos
ottlos otos or towns tOWS of some Imo size IJe and ad who whowork whowork whowork
work for wages aes This Thi means mea n that there therewill therewill
will wn be b an a everIncreasing ever1esing need to con consMor cn cnI coneider
I eider sier tHe t problems Inseparable Inseprble from frm a agreat agreat
great set industrial Indutrll civilization Where ere an animmense animmense I IImQuJe
immense ImQuJe and an complex cmpe business bsness espe especially ep espedaily ¬
daily oly in those to branches brces relating reatng to tomanufacture tomautatre tomanufacture
manufacture mautatre and ad transportation t2prtatIen is istransacted S istransacted
transacted tnscte by bY a large Jrge number numbo of capi capitalists oapltllts capitaliats ¬
talists tllts who wh employ eply a very Tel much muh larger largernumber larer larernum largernumber
number num of wageearners wgeeer the te former formertend forer forert formertend
tend t more zr and a more mre to t combine combne into intocorporations Intocorporations I
r corporations crUons and the te latter Jater into unions unionsThe unIonsThe
The Te relations reaUonl ef the te capitalist cpitl and an wage wageworker wageworkM wageworker
worker workM to ORe another 3te and ao o o of each ec to tothe toUc toWe
the Uc general public ubc ubllc are ae not always easy easyto easyto
to adjust adst and an to put them and keep keepthem kep keptem keepthem
them tem on a satisfactory stlsaotory basis bsis is 1 one of ofthe ofte ofthe
the te most important Imprtt and ad one oe of the te most mostdelicate mostdelcte mostdelicate
delicate delcte tasks tsk before our whole civiliza civilization ch1IJa ch1IJaUon clvilization ¬
tionMuch Uon
I Much Iuc of the work for the accomplish accomplishment aeompsh aeompshmet accomplishmeat ¬
meat met of this t end must be b done dne by the theIndividuals theIndividuals
Individuals idividua concerned cncee themselves themolves wheth whether whet whethor tCI ¬
er singly fngl or in 1 ouabnaton combination and the theone theone
one f undamen al a foot fn that tht must never neverbe neverbe I
be lost track tk of is I that the character characterof cater 1
i of the average aor man m whether whete he be b a aroan amD aruns
roan mD of means or a Q a man who works workswith workswith I
I with wit his hs hands bad is the most Important Importantfactor Imprtt importantfacton I Itton
factor tton hi I solving 8h1ng the te problem prblem aright arightBut arightBut i iBut
But it is almost amost equally eusy Important Import to toremember tormembr toremember
remember rmembr that tt without wihout good laws it itis itIs itis
solution solutionIt soluton solutont is also 110 impossible Impsibe to reach reh g the t0 proper propersolution pope popesoluton propersolution
It t is Idle to hold that without wtout good goodlaws good1aws goodlaws
laws 1aws evils ell such as a child cUd labor Jar as a the theoverworking theoverorkng theoverworking
overworking overorkng of women woen as a the te failure failureto falure falureto failureto
to protect prolot protect employes from frm loss los of life lifeor lre lreor lifeor
or limb 1mb can cn be b effectively etlvely reached rced any anymore anyIr anymore
more Ir than the evils of rebates rete and andstock andstwatering andsteakwatering
stock stwatering steakwatering watering can c be b reached reahed without withoutgood wihout wihouto withoutgood
good o laws Javs To fall 111 to atop these tee prac practces pac pactc practces
tces tc by legislation Jeps1Uor means mens to force forcehonest tore torehonet forcehonest
honest honet men into them tLem because becuse other otherwise otherwi otherwise ¬
wise wi the dlsh9neat dls9net dish neet who surely Burly will w1 take takeadvantage te teaante takeadvantage
advantage aante of them will il hvo have everything
their teir own ow way W If I i e States States will w1 cor corroot eo eorct coIr coIrroot
root rct these evils evls well and good but the thenutlon thentlon thenktlon
nutlon ntlon must stand s n ready rady g to aid ad them themAsks themAsk themAsks
Asks Ask Child Chld Labor Laws LawsNo Lawso Lawsljo
No o question questoc growing gowIng out of our rapid rapidand rpd rpdad rapidand
and ad complex comple industrial Industra development is ismore Ismor isroom
more mor Important Importt than ta that that of the em employment emploment employrnont ¬
ployment ploment of women and children chUdn Thepsece Thepresence
presence psece of Woo woinen woiAen In industry Indust reacts reactswith reactswith
with wit extrjne ee directness dlotess upon upn the te ca ohar oharautcr
aotcr of the te home and upon upn family faly life lifeand lifeand
and a the conditions contons surrounding surudJng the em employment em0ment employment ¬
ployment 0ment of children chUdrr bear ber a vital vIt rla rlaton rela relation
tion ton to our ur future rutur citizenship cltzonshp Our OtIe Ogrlegis OgrlegislaIon legis legislation ¬
lation Jajon In those areas o under unde the control controlof COJtrol COJtrolot coptrolof
of the Congress Conge is very ry much muc behind behindthe behlnl behindthe
the legislation legislaton of our ou more mor progressive progressiveStates prgeslo prgesloState progressiveStates
States State A thorough torugh and comprehensive comprehensivemeasure comprhensle comprhenslemeure comprehensivemeasure
measure meure should bo b adopted opte at this ti see session SMon seeslon ¬
sion on of the Congress Congess relating Teatng to the em employment employment m mplent ¬
ployment of women wome and an children chidren 11n 11nthe in intho Inte
the te District of Columbia ColumbIa and the te Ter Territories Terrlora Territorles ¬
ritories ritoriesThe rlora ritorlesThe
The investigation 1nestsUon into the condition conditionof condIon condIonof
of women and children
ad cUdren wageearners wageearnersrecently wageearnersrecently
recently rcenty authorized authorled and directed dirte by the theCongress te teCongss theCongress
Congress Congss is now being blnG carried cared on in the thevarious thevarous thevarious
various varous States and ad I recommend rommend that thatthe thatthe thatthe
the appropriation appropration made mde last year ye for forbeginning forboglnlns forbeginning
beginning boglnlns this ts work be renewed In Inorder Inorer inorder
order orer that we may my have the to thorough thoroughand thoroughand
and comprehensive comprensive investigation InctstIon which whichthe whichthe whichthe
the subject demands demds The National Natonal Gov Government Government Qovornment ¬
ernment has ha as a an n ultimate ultmte resort for forcontrol forcontl forcontrol
control contl of child labor labr the te use ue of the theInterstate theIntertte theinterstate
Interstate Intertte commerce clause cluse to prevent preventthe prent prente preventte
the e products product cf c child chid labor Jaor from frm enter entering enterlag ¬
lag Irg into Int interstate Intersto commerce commere Cut 1ut be before before ¬
fore using this thi It ought certainly cranly to toenact toanct toenact
enact anct model laws on the te subject sbjot for the theTerritories te teTertories theTerritories
Territories Tertories under Its It own immediate Immeiate con control contl control ¬
trolThere tl
tlTher There Ther Is one fundamental fundament proposition propositionwhich prQpslon prQpslonwhich propositionwhich
which can c be laid lad down as regards all allthese allthese
these thee matters mater namely aely While Wfe regIs honesty ho ey by
itself Iset will wl not solve the the problem proble yetthe yettheinsistence yette yetteinistence yettheinsistence
insistence inistence upon honesty honetnot honestynot not merely
technical honesty hones but honesty horety in pur purpose purpose purpose ¬
pose and nd spirit spiriIs spiritis Is an essential element elementin
in arriving at a right conclusion cncusion Vice Vicein VIce1n Vicein
in Its Is cruder crder and ad more mre archaic archac forms formsshocks fonnsshocks formsshocks
shocks everybody everbody but bu there tee Is very ver ur urgent urget urgent ¬
gent get need ne that public publc opinion should be besevere bejJt bejust
jJt just as severe In condemnation condomnatIon of the thehlch thq
vice ice which hlch hides itself Itelf behind bhind class or orprofessional orproCesonl orprofessional
professional proCesonl loyalty yty or which denies deies deiesth deniestht
that th it is vice voo if It can escape escp conviction convictionin cnvicon cnviconi
in i the to courts couts The To public publc and an tie C e repre ¬
sentatives senttves of the te Tibllc bUc the te high gh offi officials of cmoials ¬
cials whether whter on the te bench benc o ia exec executive oxecutive ¬
utive utve or legfilatlve Jeglslatve positions potn need 6e to re remember remember remember ¬
member that often ofen the mosfdangerous mosfdangerouscriminals Jtdangeron JtdangeroncrfmlQa moetdangerouscrfniirials
criminals s so far as the life of the theNa theNation Na Nation Nalion ¬
tion Is concerned are not those who com commit commit coatsilt
mit the crimes known to and condemned condemnedby
by the popular conscience for cTwituries 1enturiesbut cTwituriesbut ntUriCe ntUriCebut
but those who commit crimes only ren rendered rendered randered ¬
dered possible by the complex conditions conditionsof conditionof
of our modern Industrial Jndu trlal life lifeIt WeIt lifeIt
It makes not a particle of difference differencewhether dltfer6Dcewbetherthe differencewhether
whether wbetherthe these e crimes are committed by bya bycapltaUst bya
a a capitalist or by a laborer by y a lead leading JeadInG leading ¬
ing banker or manufacturer or railroad railroadman ra11rOdman railroadman
man or by a leading Jeadln representative e ttive of a alabor alabor alabor
labor union Swindling in stocks cor corrupting corrupting eecrupting ¬
rupting legislatures making fortunes fortuneeby tortunMby fortunesby
by the inflation cf t securities by wreck wreckIng wreckIng wrecking
Ing railroads Jy oy destroying dt troylng competi competitors competitors competitore ¬
tors through rebut rebltwsthe 6 these e forms or ofwrongdoing orwrongdoing orwrongdoing
wrongdoing in Inae the capital cpKlst t t are ar far farmore tarmore f fmore
more infamous than any or Grinsny l nary form formof formot formof
of embezzlement or forgery rOllfe yet it is a amatter amatter amatter
matter of extreme dlfflcul > to secure securethe securethe securethe
the punishment punl hment of the man most guilty guiltyof lul1tyoC guiltyof
of them most m HIt < responsible re for them themThe themThe j
The business bu tness man who ho condones such suchconduct suchconduct suchconduct
conduct stands on a level Jevel1itk with the labor laborman laborman laborman
man who deliberately supports a corrupt corruptdemagogue corruptdemagogue corruptdemagogue
demagogue and agitator whether head headof beadof headof
of a union or head of some municipality municipalitybecause municipalitybecauBt municipalitybecause
because he lg I said to o have stood by the theunion theunion theunion
union The members of the business businesscommunity bu businesscommunity lneu lneucommunity
community the educators or clergymen clergymenwho elergyntellwbo clergymenwho
who condone 00000 and nd encourage the first firstkind ratklncl flrstkind
kind of wrongdoing are no more dan dangerous danecous dangerous ¬
gerous ecous to the community but are moral moralare DIOralIy moraliy
Iy even worsi than the labor men who whoare whoare
are guilty of the second type of wrong wrongdoing wroncdoing wrongdoing ¬
doing because less is I to be pardoned pardonedthose trc1oftecltho pardonedthose
those e who have no such excuse as a is isfurnished Isurnl3hed Isfurnished
furnished either by ignorance or by dire direneed direneed direneed
need needFarmers
Farmers and Wage Workers WorkersWiitn WorkersV1Kn WorkersWAion
Wiitn the Department ef C Agriculture Agriculturewas
was founded there was u much sneering sneeringas eerf eerfastu sneeringazto
astu as Jo its usefulness u No department t of ofthe oftht ofthe
the Government however how er has hasemphatically mow mowemphatically moreemphatically
emphatically vindicated its usefulness usafuloeasand usefulnessand s sand
and none eave the PostoJflce Department Departmentcomes DepartmeDtcomes Departmentcomes
comes so continually and intimately in intc Inte Intc
tc touch with the people The two cit citizens ntizens 1t 1t1ens ¬
izens whose welfare is in the aggregate aggregatemost ag aggregatemost r gac gacmost
most vital Ital to the welfare of the nation 1IUonand nationand nationand
and therefore to he h welfare of all other othercitizens o odtizc otlercitizens
citizens dtizc IJ are ar the wageworker who does doesxuanual tI6es tI6esmanual J6eenanual
manual labor and the tiller of o the soil solitht oUthe soiltht
tht > farmer There are of course course kinds kimlaof ktndeot kindsof
of labor where the work must be purely purelymental purelymental purelymental
mental and there are other kinds of oflabor ofJIlbJr ofiabr
labor where under existing condition conditionvery conditionsvery UOnE UOnEvery
very little demand indeed is made upon uponthe upontho upeitthe
the mind though I am glad to say y that thatthe thatthe thatthe
the proportion of men en engaged en ed la thte thtekind ttJioktn1 trakind
kind of work is diminishing But in any an ancommunity anycommunity
community with 1th the solid healthy qual qualities qualtt10tS qualfiles ¬
files which make up a really great na nation BaUon naLion ¬
Lion the t e bulk of the people should do dowork duwork dowork
work which calls for the exercise of ofboth oCboth ofboth
both body and mind rnin Progress Pr cannot cannotpermanently cannotpenuaBtJlUy cannotpernianentiy
permanently exist in the abandonment abandcnmencof a nmen nmenor
of physical bystca labor but ia th the develop development HftIopmt1L developmeat ¬
meat of physical labor so that it shall shallrepresent BNLlIrepr shallrepresent
represent repr zent more and more the work cf cftha Llha f fthe
the trained mind in the trained body
Our school ICboolly system tem is 1 gravely lrv 17 defective defectivein
in so far aa a it puts a premium upon uponmere upJIUcro uponmore
mere literary training and tends there therefor thereIons ¬
I for ton to train the boy away from the thefarm Uten1 theferal
> farm n1 and the workshop Nothing is ismore Ismore
more needed than the best type ot in industrial Industrlal lxidustnial ¬
dustrial school the school for mechan mechanical mecheaical hI nleal ¬
ical industries In the city the sobool soboolfor eciicolfnr
for practically teaching t3Cb agriculture m mthe inthe
the country The calling of the skilled skilledtiller sldlkdUUer skllkdtiller
tiller of the soil the calling > cf the theskilled theJldlled thealdlled
skilled mechanic should alike be recog reeogniztsd recognlz recognizec
niztsd nlz as professions Just as emphatical emphatically empbtJ I Ily ¬
ly as the callings of lawyer 1awy r doctor doctormerchant docturmerchant doctormerchant
merchant or clerk The schools should shouldrecognize BboutdrecuglIze abouldrecognize
recognize this fact and it should equally
be recognized r in popular opinion opinionThe opinionThe
The young oung man who has the far farsightedness fursightedness ¬
sightedness and courage to recognize r l it itand itand Itand
and to get over the idea that it makes makesa nutesdltruenee
a 8 difference whether bethr what he earns is iscalled jsI iscalled
I called salary or wage Wt 8 and who 00 re Teus
fiaua us to enter the crowded Held of the thesocalled thesocalled
socalled professions and take take to totrueUve con constructive constructive ¬
structive industry try instead is reasonably reasonablyaurc r4l reesonglrsurG Oftblr15Ur
aurc 15Ur of an ample reward rewa d In earning t in
health Jn opportunity to marry early arly
and to establish a home with a fair fairamount fukamount fairamount
amount of freedom freed m from worry It Itshould ItstuuJd Itshould
should be one of our prime objects ob ts to toon o oput oput
put both the fanr farmer r and the mechanic JIMChanicon
on a higher plane of efficiency Y and re reward re ¬
ward so as to increase their effective effectiveness efIeeUycnes effectiveness ¬
ness nes in the economic world and there ¬
fore the tk dignity the remuneration adB
the power of their th lc positions in the sjcial sjcialworli sJe1aIworl1 seialworlt
Need Farming F3rminJ Farxnln Class ClassNo Clas ClasNo ClassNo
No growth of cties no growth of ofwealth otwtaltb ofwealth
wealth can make up for any toss in laeither Ineither
j either the number or th the character of
I the fanning population Wa Ve of the theI
United States Sl8t 8 should realize this above abovealmost
almost all other peoples We began boffanour beganour beganour
I our existence as a nation of farmers amers
Wealth Given by Nature NatureShould NatureShould IVatureShould
Should Be Safeguarded Sa fefuarded
The conservation of our natural natura re resouroos re reSOUroB nosources
sources and their proper use e constitute constitutetho ooMtttutetho constitutethe
tho fundamental problem which hich under underlies underlies underlies ¬
lies almost evey other problem of our ournational ournational ournational
national life We must maintain for forOUr foro1r foroxr
OUr civilization the adequate material materialboats materialbnals materialbasis
boats without which that civilization civilizationcan
can not exist We must show foresight foresightwe foresightwe
we must look ahead As a nation we wenot wenot wenot
not only enjoy a wonderful measure of ofpresent otpreaent ofpresent
present prosperity but if this prosper prosperity prosperity prosperRy ¬
ity is used aright it is an earnest of offuture otfuture offuture
future success sum suc n as no other nation nationwill nationwill nationwtU
will have haveThe haveThe haveThe
The reward of foresight for this na nation 11tlon naion ¬
ion Is great aid 1d easily foretold But Butthera ButI Butthere
there must be the look ahoad thero theromust theromwst theremust
must be a realization of the faot that thatto thatto thatto
to waste to destroy our natural re resources resources resources ¬
sources to skin and exhaust the land landinstead JandI landInstead
instead Ins toad of using > it so as to Increase e its itsusefulness Itsuaculness itsusefulness
I usefulness will result in undermining in inthe Inthe inthe
the days of our children the very pros prospertty prosparity ros roserity
parity > erity which we ought by right to hand handdown handdown and anddown
down to them amplified and developed developedi developedFor
i For the last few fe years through sev several several sevcml ¬
eral agencies the Government has been beenendeavoring beenendeavoring beenondeavoring
endeavoring to get our people to look lookahead lookaheoo lookahead
ahead and to substitute a planned and andorderly andorderl andorderly
orderly orderl development of our resources re in inplace Inplnce inplace
place of a haphazard striving for 1m 1mmediate immediate letmediate
mediate profit profitOur profitOur profitOur
Our great river systems should be de developed developed developed ¬
veloped as national water highways highwaysthe 1 highwaysthe hways hwaysthe
the Mississippi M1ssls lppl with its tributaries tributariesstanding tributariestanding tributariesstanding
standing first In importance and the theColumbia theCoJumbia theColumbia
Columbia second although there are aremany aremany aremany
many others of importance on the Pa Pacific Pacific Paelite ¬
elite cific the Atlantic and the Gulf slopes slopesThe slopesThe slopesThe
The National Government should under undertake undertake undertake ¬
take this work w rk and I hope a beginning beginningwill beGinningw1ll beginningwill
will bo bomade made in the present pre ent Congress Congressand Conr886and Congressand
and the greatest of all our rivers ni ers the theMississippi the111S8IssI111I theMississippi
Mississippi should receive re lve especial at attention attention attention ¬
tention tentionVftmld
Vftmld Deepen Mississippi MississippiFrom MississippiFrom MississippiFront
From the Great Lakes to the mouth mouthof mouthof mouthof
of the Mississippi there should be a adeep adeep adeep
deep waterway with deep waterways waterwaysleading waterwaysleading waterwaysleading
leading from it to the East and the theWest theWest theWest
West Such a waterway would prac practically pracI practicaily ¬
I tically mean the extension of our coast coastline coastline coastline
line into the very heart of our country countryIt
It would be of incalculable benefit to toour toour toour
our people If begun at once it can be becarried becarried becarried
carried through in time appreciably to torelieve torelieve torelieve
relieve the congestion of of our great greatfreightcarrying greatfreight greatfreightcarrying
freightcarrying freight ing lines of railroads ra oads The Thework Thework Thework
work should be systematically systema cal1y and con cant cana conI
and in every ery gnat crisis hr of the past pasta
a peculiar dependence has heA had to be beplaced 1ter1ced berilaced
placed upon the fanning tarmt population populationand populationand
and this dependence has hitherto been
justified But it can not be 1JU b justified tl ustIei ed in inthe
the future if agriculture is permitted to tosink tonk tosink
sink nk in the scale as compared with withother withother
other her employments We Vo can cu not af ¬
ford to lose that preemtneatly preeml tJ typical typicalAmerican typicalAmerican
American the farmer who owns his hisown binOwn 8 8own
own mediumsteed farm To have his hisplace hisplace
place taken by either a class of s 8IIIa1t 8IIIa1tpeMnt smaitpeesant aK aKpeasant
peasant proprietors proprl tors or by a daas c4ec ef efgreat etgreat I Igreat
great landlords with tenantfarmed es estate e etate5 estaten ¬
tate tate5 would be a veritable calamity
The Th t growth or our cities i Is a a j good
thing but only in so far as it itthe doe doenot doesnet
not men a a growth < rowth at tM expense of
the country farmer arJll4r W We must welcome welcomethe weleoMthe welcoesthe
the rise e of physical sciences in I their theirapplication thGtrappUeatlOIl thej thejapplication
application to agriculturel practices practicesand raCticaaad practicesand
and w we must do all we can to reader renderco readercumtry readerculntry
cumtry co in try conditions more easy ea y and andpleasant andplEaaant andpheasant
pleasant There are force forcetJ wbfeh which now nowtend BOWtend nowtend
tend to bring about Jx oth oth > th these results resultsbut reMiltabut resultsbut
but they are as yet in their infancy
The National Government through throughthe tIIroaghbe throughthe
the Department Dep rtment of Agriculture Agricult1 rc should shoulddo oulddo shou1ddo
do all I Jt can by joining joInln with the State Stategovernments Statepenwt Stategovermnnts
governments penwt nta and witri 1 independent IDdep mdeitt as associations uIIOCJaUona associt1on ¬
sociations of TarnfoiT arn to cHcrurags CIICC Ur8 the thegrowth tMIPOwth thegrowth
growth in the open farming country of oftucls otuck ofsuck
suck uck institutional and social raevdmoots raevdmootsas 138vemoatswlU rsavemontas
as will meet the demand oi o the t e best besttype tty beettype
type ty of farmers annuli both for the improve improvement 1JDpIOement improvemint ¬
ment of tb th4lAr r farms farn and for the bet betterment 1tetnnent bettorment ¬
torment nnent of the life Jlf itself The Depart Departperhaps De Departmeat 8rt 8rtJnellt
meat oC Agriculture has In DUUI many nieces Dlaeerh niecesperha
perhaps perha rh especially in certain diatHets diatHetsof dWtIIIctaot dietrlctof
of the South Soutk accomplished accompU lMd an extra extraordinary ctraor extraordinary ¬
ordinary or taary amount by oooperitijig with withand Withand withand
and teaching test king the farmers through throu their theirascociatrons tAeIrauociatona theiraaeocIatons
ascociatrons auociatona on their th r vwn vn Il sol soil how to toIncrease toIncreue toincrease
Increase then income by managing
their farms better than they tbe were htth htthAdvice WtkW10 Itherie
erie managed managedAdvice
Advice to Farmers FannersThe FarmersThe FarmersThe
The farmer must t not lose his lade independence Jepe ladependence ¬
pendence pe his initiative LItIaU hie rugged self selfreliance MItreliance selfreliance
reliance yet t he must lean to work workin w workIts rk rkI
in I the heartiest 1Nl cooperatiou with his hisfelfews 1 hisfeMpwe 8 8re
felfews re w exactly exacU as as the business busaa man manhas manhas
has learned to w wrk > rk and he must pre prepare pre prePare pmpare ¬
pare to use to constantly better advan advantage ulvantaC advantag ¬
tage tag the Lb knowledge kBowJed tutU t cast be ob obtained ob obtalDed ohtamed ¬
tamed from agricultural colleges while whllohe whUohe whilebe
he must uat insist upon s i practical curri curriculum currlcuum earn earncuhan ¬
culum cuum in the schools in which w eft his chil children children chitdren ¬
dren are te taught The Department DfS > rtJlumt of ofAgriculture orsriculhlre ofAgriculture
Agriculture and the tb Department Df t ef efCommerce otCommerce ofCommerce
Commerce and Labor both deal with withthe W1tht withthe
the t fundamental tun4ame la1 needs of our people peopleto pOJtIein peopiein
in the production pr vlCUOa < ef raw material mater1aland mater1alandits and andits andits
its mauafticture maalIt ture and distribution and andtherefore aDdtheret andtherefjre
therefore theret re > with the welfare ef those thesewho thosewoo thosewho
who pradue 1JOo3 it in the raw state and andef aadot andof
ef those who manufacture m and distri distribute dUtribute discsihuts ¬
bute it itThe It ItThe itThe
The Department ep rtmeot of Commerce and aadLabor IUtdLabor andLabor
Labor has but recently been founded foundedbut foun foundedbut ed edbut
but has already read Justified ju tffted its existence existencewhile oxIstenetwhUe existencewhile
while the Department of Agriculture Agricultureyield Agricultureyield Igrlcultureylelde
yield to no other in tho Government Governmenttat
In the practical al benefits which it pro pr0 ¬
duces ia I proportion to the public money moneyi moneyexp moneyexpended
i expended exp It must continue in in the thefuture thefuture
I future to deal with growing crops as it
has h dealt in the past pa t but It Jt must still stillfurther sUIlturther stiltfurther
further extend its field of usefulness usefulnesshereafter usett1lneaberMtter usefulnesshereafter
hereafter by dealing with live men menthrough menthrough menthrough
through a a farreaching farreac Ing study and treat treatment trefltment treatmeat ¬
ment of the problems of farm life alike aUkefrom a1Ilfefrom alikefrom
from the industrial I uetrtl and economic C aDd aadsocial aDdocIRl andoelil
social standpoint standpointFarmers stUMIpoilltFarJIHors standpointFarmers
Farmers must cooperate with one an another mother another
other and with the Government and andthe andthe andthe
the Government Gt vernmeot can best give its aid aidthrough aidthtnujh aidthtnuh
through associations a of farmers so as asto asto asto
to defiver deliver to the farmer the large body bodyof bodyof bodyof
of agricultural knowledge which Ch has hasboot hasber1t baabecu
boot accumulated by the National and andSlate aDdSate andState
Slate Governments and by the agricul agricultural a agnicultural l ltural ¬
tural colleges eges and schools schoolsFavors schoolSFavors schoolsFavors
Favors Federal Grain Gr in Inspection InspectionThe Insp tion tionThe
The grain producing uoing industry of the thecountry theCOUIttr thecountry
country one of the most important lm orlant In Inthe 1athe Inthe
the United Staten deserve 48HlVGBsp special con consitteratloa con8ItaeraUOI1 conslOeratlon
sitteratloa at the hands of Congress CongressOur CongrosOur CongressOur
Our grain Is sold almost exclusively xclu tvEly tvElygra4le hy hygrades bygrades
grades To secure satisfactory results resultsin reeult1ft resultslit
in our tsr hem beuie markets and to laclUtto laclUttoecr facl1ittor faciticateocr
ocr trade abroad thee grades should shouldApproximate sbouldapproximate shouldapproximate
Approximate the highest degree degr e of uni uniformity unIfOlJDtty nutfOernity ¬
formity aDd certainty ty The present 11 11v4e dlw4e < il ilv
v v4e < e methods of iaepeztion tjea an aH grading gradingthroughout gradlnJthrucbout gradingthrugheut
throughout the counby counb T under different differentlaws duterenttn differentkss
laws tn and boards result ru lt In confusion confusionand confiIslonaM confusionand
and lack of unliormlty destroying that thatconfidence thatcon thatconddence
confidence con dence which ia necessary for health healthful he1thtul healthful ¬
ful trade tradeComplaint tradeComplaints tradeComplaints
Complaints against the present moth methods melhod8 mothode ¬
ode have continued for years and they theyare theyare theyare
are growing in volume and d intensity intensitynot intensitynot intensItynot
not only only in this country but abroad
I therefore suggest to the Congress the theadvisability UteadYkablltty theadvisability
advisability of 8 National tlonal system syst syst1ns ef
inspection 1ns tfon and grading of grain entering eDterln
into Interstate and foreign commerce commerceas commerceasa as asa asa
a a remdy for the present evils e
j tinuously carried forward in accordance accordancewitb accordancewith accordancewith
with some wenconceived plan The Themain Themain Themain
main streams should be improved to the thehgihest thehgihest thehgihest
hgihest point p int of efficiency before the theimprovement theimprovement theimprovement
improvement of the branches is at attempted attempted attempted ¬
tempted and the th work should be kept keptfree keptfre keptfree
free fre from every taint of ofre recklessness klessne53 or orj orjobbery orjobbexy
j jobbery jobberyThe jobberyThe jobbexyThe
The Inland waterways waterw s which Ha l1 just justback justback justback
back of the wh whole le eastern and southern southerncoasts BOUtkwncoats southerncoasts
coasts should likewise be developed developedMoreover developedMoreove eve1oCd eve1oCdYoreovf
Moreover the development of our ourterwa wa waterways waterways ¬
terways terwa s nvoivoe many other important importantwater mporbntwater Importantwater
water problems pttj ems all allot of which should be beconsidered beOORsldend beconsidered
considered aa part of tho same general generalscheme generalscheme generatscheme
scheme The Government dams should shouldbe ahool1be shouldbe
be used to produce hundreds of thou thounds thounds thouends
ends nds ef horsepower as an Incident tc tcimproving tcIn toInprot1ng
improving In Inprot1ng pro1ng navigation for the annual annualvalue annualalue annualvalue
value alue of the unused waterpower of the
United States perhaps exceeds the an annual aanual annual ¬
nual value alUft of the products of all our ourmines
mines As an incident to creating the thec1eep
deep waterway waten down the Mississippi
the th Government should shouJ build along its itswhole Itawbole Itswhole
whole lower length levees which taken
together tog6th r with the control of tho head headwatt headwatErs beauWaters
watt watErs rs will at once and forever put a acomplete Lcomtte acotniete
complete stop sto to all throat of floods in
the luunensely fertile Delta region regionThe regionThe regionThe
The territory lying adjacent nt to the tb tb11861881pp
Mississippi along its lower JO lr course wilt wiltthureby wUltbtreb wiltthtreby
thureby tbtreb become one of the most pros prosperous Profpe1OU8 prosperotis ¬
perous and populous as it already Is Isone Isone isone
one of the most mo t fertile farming regions regionsin regionsIn regionsin
in all the world orId I have appointed an
Inland Waterways Commission Contml on to study studyand
I and outline a comprehensive scheme of ort1celopment
development along all the lines indi indicated Indlcated mdicated ¬
cated Later I shall lay its report be before he hefOnt before ¬
fore the Congress CongressReclamation Con CongressReclamation e58 e58RecIamtion
Reclamation Work WorkIrrigation WorkIrrigation I IIrrigation
Irrigation should be far mere exten extensively ext8tslve1y exteesUrely ¬
sUrely developed than at present not notonly notonly notonly
only in the Staates o of the Groat Plains Plainsand Plalasand Plainsand
and the Rocky mountains but in mai maly malyothttS xnaxyothers > y yothers
others as for instance in large por portions portions pertiona ¬
tions of the South Atlantic and Gulf GulfStates GulfStateswbere GulfStates
States Stateswbere where it should go 0 hand In hand handwitii handwl handwita
witii wl i1 the reclamation of swamp land landThe JandTbe landThe
The Federal Government should serious sorlowly soriOtIJCIy seriously
ly devote Itself to this task realizing realizingthat realizingthat albingo albingothat
that utilization of t waterways and wa waterpower W8tltrpower wetsrpower ¬
terpower forestry Irrigation and the thereclamation tberecJwnatlon thereckunation
reclamation of lands threatened with withoverflow withoer withoveriloir
overflow oer ow aro all interdependent ports of ofthe otthe ofthe
the same problem problemTi problemTiH problemThe
Ti The e work of the Reclamation Reclam tlon Service ServleeIn
In developing < the larger opportunities opportunitiesof opportunitiof
of the western half of our country for

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