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mt:ri: ti THE WASHINGTON TIMES, SUNDAY, AUGUST 23, 1914. 14 i i-y- WashingtonBritish Prize Century Ago Confusion Among American Commanders Permitted Enemy to Enter City Practically Unopposed. Torch Put to White House and Capitol. By LEONARD ORMEROD. It will be 100 years tomorrow since the flames started by British torches wrapped the Capitol, the White House, and other' public buildings in the smoke of wanton pillage. Not in all the stirring years of the intervening century has anything occurred that reflects so seriously on American valor. A one historian aptly puts it, there is nothing in the burning of Washington, August 24, 1814, which can be a matter of pride to either nation, and indeed the actions of General Ross, Rear Admiral Cockburn, and others in this matter were the subject of much adverse comment in Lon don and Europe generally. The blame, so far as the British are concerned, rests squarely on the shoulders of Admiral Cockburn. BRITISH GENERAL ASHAMED OF WORK. Major General Ross was loath to rr.arcb on the Capital and to burn the rublic building alter lie occupied the city. Indeed his manner while here was r.pclc-Fotlc and tho resident at whose 1'cuee he stayed said that he did not smile while In the city. In his official report General Boss i.aid: To Rear Admiral Cockburn. who i-ufgciltd th attack on Washington anfl accompanied the nrmy, I confess the greatest obllKatiun." The responsibility ou the American rMe Is not so easy to flx. but President Madison and his Cabinet must bear the prcater partlon of it- Hris. Gen. Wil liam 11 Winder, who uommanded the American troops, was possessed of at luet ordinary courage, but lia lacked a commanding personality and military Cinlus. and it has been said that he wa too tender heartsd to order his neighbors into a tierce conflict where many of them would le ure to be killed or wounded. Kor more than two months there were jiers'stcnt rumors thai tlij British would attack Washington, but the President and his Cabinet refusi-d to regard tne vamini: seriously. On one occasion President Madison asked "What the o'evil would the Mrltish do in Washing ton?" addlnp that llaltunoic was their cHecllve point. British ships manned by more than S.000 fighting men had been in Chesa peake Bay for a year, but there seems to have been no real alarm in Wash ington until Thursday, August IS, when Commodore Joshua Barney, in charge of the little American force oa the bay, ent word that Rear Admiral Cochrane had boasted he would eat his Sunday dinner In Washington. Barney Told to Bum Shipj. Cotnmodore Barney, veteran navy of ficer, was In command of fourteen small barges manned by 00 men, and with this small force he had harassed the British ships for months, making several Important captures. When the British menaced Washington, he sailed up the Patuxent to Nottingham, where he had a skirmish with the enemy, who had disembarked at Benedict and marched on to Nottingham. August 3) the Secretary of the Navy sent the commodore orders which read: "Should the enemy dash for this place (Washington), des'troy the flotilla and proceed with the men to this place. This order was typical of the American officers' procedure in the entire affair, making defeat almost certain by pre paring for it Accordingly, on August 21, Barry has tened with his men to join the forces of General Winder, loavinst a small foice to destroy the on'y flsluin? vessels the. Americans h.iJ in Ciesipeake wateis. The moral effert n the Anv-iKan -"d was depressini;. anl the enemy was greatly encoumsed. Winder male his headi'ir.ors in what is now Anaco.itia, cx:ectin the British to approach ly lliat roij. Thlzher .-iit President Mad-svn and lii whole t'ab; net at daybcei-v iiKust ZA. The lailer included James Monro;, j. Revolutionary veteran, Sec,eta--v of Stale, J hn Ann Mron? Secretary -if ''ir; William Jones, Secretarj jf !- Navy; George W Campbell, Secretary af the Tiaury. and Richard Rush, Attorney General. Debate in Face of Foe. As a gather..,- .-f ihii.j1;3 it way im pressive, bui as a council of war it as farcical President Mj1lto issued an order putting the Secret-irv of War in eharge of the defi -. of ill- ity. and i a few houis rcs'-imle-J i While !-.: debated what was to be done. to:rt was -ought thai G-.i-ral Ross .1 iiukIi I b on Bladensburs and there wns a great scurrying to nw hiiii tlitn Here they found a very respectable ' rce of Americans drawn up in tne Washington side of the little stream -ar Bladensburg. Brig. Gen. Tobias B. .'ansbury had thrown up earthworks nd had distributed his men In what is .-'knowledged to be an effective defense. ' ut ijecretarv of State Monroe sum "uril changed the alignment, bringing hre- regiments back to the real fui a fcf-ond line of defense in an exposed position Then had a Washington, a Napoleonc a Le. a Sheridan, or even a military leader of relatively smaller lallber arisen. American valor might ha- e been vin-llt-nted Cm on th- evs of UiAU. General Stansbury and General Smith cere disputing as to their relati.-e rank. General Winder giving orders to a cuij 1. In of artillery aid. '"when you re treat retreat b the Georgetown roaa " - retar of the Navy Jones was still 'jrther antlcipatinR defeat by hlnwim; jp the navj yard Attornej Genet nl njj-h started to make a speech of en largement to the troops, lJt was han'l admonished by an offici that is men needed no exhortation to tight. Impeded By Red Tape. In Washington, a clerk in the War Department was furnishing 709 Vir ginians under Colonel Minor, with flints for their guns, but his Insistence on going through all the .departmental tape kept the entire force from the front till the rout was complete. The ieautiful "Dolly" Madison, naclne the ""Anil House n or. n anxiety for her I'rcsldent-husband, sensed the general 'onfuslon. and writing to a friend at neon on the 21th. said: Since sunrise 1 have been turnlnc my spyglass in every direction and watch ing with unwearied anxiety, hoplnc to discern the approach of my dear hus band, but, alas. I can descry only groups of military wahderinsr In all di rections as If there was a lack of arms, or of spirit to fight for their own fire sides. ' Brigedler General Young's brigade of SO men, after a series of confusing commands, was finally ordered to re main at a certain spot till further ord er Ther they were promptly forsot en till the fight was over and then they were ordered to Join the retreat Accurdins to Charles Jared Ingcrsdll, the h'.sto ian, ther were more than 7.000 American regulirs and militiamen at or near the scenj of the BladjncuriiR battle, while the British had "not more than 4.000, of Tirom less than 1,500 be gan and not exceeding 3.00C sained the batll-v living the Marjlande-s In thts twln'WJiK of an eje from their com manding ground." American Force Superior. The Blader.tburg battle began nt 1 o'clock, on the afternoon of August 24. In describing; It, Ingcrsoll says: 'The British advance, from 1.500 to 1,500. began their Movement igsJnst or 2,-VX) people, to whom the machinery of subordination was unknown, and the multitude of commanders was distract ing. 'The Jlrst discharges from our ri til ler were effectual, and the few fires of the r.fiemen sailing, the enemy, driven back from the bridge, took refuge be hind the houses, rer'ying with volleys of rockets to our cannonade military inMeors streaming through the air which. General Winder riding along the lines, encourared his men to disregard, cs less dangerous than alarming: as thev did, whll those m'sMts flew over their heads, 'ailing beyond thsm where the President and his Cabinet stood, whom the general 'hen advised to re tire farther back. "Emerging .'rom their cover and ur?ed forward by their officers, the stout British, overloaded and panting with fatigue. wre hastily driven over the bridge, at the lost 'of a good manv killed; throwing Oit their knapsacks. In Fmall niuads. or singly, pushed up the slope, s-prcadlng on both sides to out rank our men. The. elevation of the rockets being changed, and aimed at the faces of the crafted militia, in a few instances Ihey broke and fled In the inmost precipitation and Baltimore millt a began to break: sev eral of the Fifth Baltimore Regiment also tied. General Winder ordered us to retreat. In consequence of the flight of the militia. The British column had just then begun to advance. Not a man of our company had been touched by the fire or the enemy: and 1 thought that the battle was only then serloulsy commencing.' ' The onlv death on the retreat was said to be that of a captain of the regular army, of approved courage, taken with the contagion of unanimous panic, who ran with the crowd till he fell, fainted, and expired. On the other hand there were num erous Instances of individual bravery. One of the most striking was that of a private, Barney Parsons, later a door keeper at the Capitol, who refused to retreat when ordered, but single hand ed loaded and fired a field piece, and then spiked it as the British bayonets were within a few yards of him. The brave Commodore Barney was wound ed and captured, but General Rosa or dered that he be shown every courtesy. When the first of the flceinK militia men reached Washington the city, which then only numbered 9,000. became terror-stricken. Mrs. Madison, unterrl fled bv the urglngs of her associates, paused long enough to take Gilbert fctu art's portrait of Washington from its heavv frame and carried it and the original Declaration of Independence away In the carriage with her. She was joined bv the President and Mr. Rush at .Brooicvllle, Md. The SecrctPry of War and Secretary of the Treasury fled to Frederick. Md. Secretarj' of State Monroe went to his home in Virginia, as did Secretary of the Navy Jones. Admiral Cockburn possessed himself of a shabby looking brood mare, which had a black, unweaned colt following her, and on this grotesque mount rode about the city superintending the burn ing of the public buildings and the de struction of the office of the National Intelligencer, which had attacked him viciously In Its columns. He quartered himself In the house of a Mrs. Suter. which stood opposite the southeast corner of the Treasury. When he sat down to supper he Jocosely blew out the candles, saying he preferred to cat by the light of the burning Treasury. Valuable Records Burned. In most of the Government depart ments the fleeing- clerks carried with them the more valuable papers, but the loss to the Congressional Library, which was then quartered In the Capitol, 'was Irreparable, many valuable records of the Revolutionary war being destroyed. The night of August 25 all residents were warned under pain of death to stay indoors from sunset to sunrise. rnd that evening- the British began their march back to their ships, leaving their dead unburied and ninety wounded to the care of the Americans. Of the 7.000 men who were supposed to defend the city from the Invading en emy less than tw nty were, killed, in cluding the captain, who ran himself to death. Seine historians place the num-ber-.-.s low as eight killed and eleven wounded. TI.e attitude of many prominent eng lishmen on the matter of the burning of Washington is shoivn by the query which appeared In the London State's mau at that time: "In It qulto true, that the expedition to Washington will meet with univer sal approbation? The Cossacks spared FhiIf. but W2 spared not the Capitol at Washifgton. " Breckinridge; Goes to Berlin With Relief Gold Taking with him funds for Americans stranded in Berlin. Assistant Secretary of War Henry 8. BrecklnridKe, who ar rived at The Hague yesterday on the cruiser Tennessee, 1 now- on his Jour nev to the German capital, according to advices received here today. The Tennessee arrived off the hook of Unllsini nn Vridnv nizht. and Is still at disorder: 1 annhAr tVir milen nff nhore. Mnrahnll the illlemen also, inobt of them, retreat-, ianghorn, secretary of the American ine- I legation at The Hague, has takea over General Winder, with some few of ; the funds intended for the marooned the officers. In vain strove to rally and Americans. ALEXANDRIA POLICE i PISTOL 10 Five Prisoners Held on Conceal ed Weapon Charge Fire Destroys Small Buildings. ALEXANDRIA. Va.. Aug. 23 In an effort to break up the pistol carrying habit by colored hoodlums and visitors from near-by construction camps. Chief Goods headed a raid on all the colored settlements of Alexandria last night In a Match for concealed weapons. Mary were stopped and searched, but only fWo .en found to be ear'Ving p'Si.'s. 'se were taken to the polfc statlrn jnd eoiiged with carrying conccalc.l weapi.ns Misses Geraldlne and Frances Davis and Dr. Randolph Davis have returned from Occoquan after a visit of several! weeKS. The other Protestant churches of Alex andria will close tonight in order that the congregations can be present at the Washington Street Methodist Church South to hear the Rev. R. L. Davis, su perintendent of the Anti-Saloon League of North Carolina delivere-i an Hildrm on "State-wide Prohibition." Mr. Davis arrived In Alexandria unexpectedly last night, and arrangements for his ad dress were hurriedly made. He will make a contrast of conditions in North Carolina since the State went dry with thost existing previous to that time. A fire last night destroyed several small frame buildings at Gibbon and Union streets, it is supposed that It was of Incendiary origin. Mrs. Sybil Carter, twenty-two years old, wife of Harvey I Carter, died yes terday afternoon at the Alexandria Hos pital of typhoid fever. The body was tent this morning to PurcellviHa for burial. Funeral services for Mrs. Anna E. Savage, who died in Washington on Fri day, were held this afternoon from De malne's undertaking establishment and were conducted by the Rev. Edgar Car penter, rector of Grace Episcopal Church. Columbia Steam Fire Engine Company will give an excursion to Marshall Hall tomorrow. The funds received will be used to pay the expenses of the com pany to the Virginia Volunteer Fire men's Association meeting at Ports mouth on Tuesday. The Rev. Paca Kennedy, of the Tneo logical Seminary, preached at St. Paul's Church today In the absence of the Rev. P. P. Phillips. The Rev. David Barr preached at Christ Church In the ab sence of the Rev. W. J. Morton, n::J the Rev. T. D. D. Clark, of Manassas, preached at the First Baptist Church In the place of the Rev. W. F. Watson. There were no morning services today at the Methodist Protestant Church. The Rev. O. W. Trlplett. of this city, preached this afternoon at Fairfax Court House. Funeral services for Mrs. Francis Tay lor were held this afternoon from her late residence at Virginia Highlands. CAPITAL REFUGEES SEND SAFETY NEWS State Department Learns of Whereabouts of Washing tonians Several Arrive. Cablegrams received by the State De partment and individuals who have made Inquiry have brought news of many Washingtonlans in Europe for whom fears were entertained. Thomas G. Sherman, law officer of the Department of Agriculture, who had been out of communication with the Department for a month, cables that he would sail from Southampton today on the St Paul. Mr. and Mrs. Lorlmcr C Graham, of the Wyoming apartment, have notified relatives of their safe arrival In Lon don. Mr. and Mrs. James H. Toomey. who were on their honeymoon In Europe, have arrived safely In New York. Senator Oliver of Pennsylvania, the State Department has been advised, sailed yesterday from Southampton on the Olympic. Henry Draper Is reported safe at Paris. The Misses Helen and Ray Seymour, of 1S27 Connecticut avenue, have reached England In safety. Dr. T. L. McDonald, of 1501 Massa chusetts avenue northwest; Mrs. J. F.J Lcary of 2210 M street northwest; Miss Ella Leary, of 820 Twentieth street northwest, and Mrs. William Fahey and Miss Helen Leary. of IS) New Hamp shire avenue northwest, arrived from London during tho week, and are at their homes here. Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Kendall have been advlred of the arrival In Nuremberg of their son, Wiley Kendall, and nis aunt. Miss Mattie Kendall. Two daughters . Mrs. J. L. Kendall. x of Washington, are In Europe, but have not been located. Reports to the State Department to day from consular representatives In Germany state that failure to locate many persons for whom Inquiry has been made Is due to t:ie fact that they have left Interior iolnts for seaports. News of many of these Is expected "to come, in published lists of pasMengcrs sailing from Rotterdam and other porta open to refugees. Campaign Publicity Bill Due for Vote Soon Senator Kern, chairman of the Privi leges and Elections Committee, will call up the Rucker-Owen campaign publicity bill In the Senate this week. It Is ex pected the bill will pass, though con siderable debate may ensue. The bill, as reported from the com mittee, would prevent a national com mittee from shipping money Into a State for certain specified campaign purposes. .The personal expenditures of s. Congressional candidate are limited to C.JOO. Another amendment would prohibit payment of money for a cam paign speech. Gude's Flowers and Decorations Make the most attractive weddings. Ask for estimates and suggestions. 1214 F. Advt. CAR DODGES WOMAN CONGRESSMAN HUH I Though he suffered severely ffoi shock, when he was thrown from aa electric coupe driven by his daughter' on New Jesey avenue, near the Capitol, Congressman Jeremiah Donovan of Connectlut ls little the worse for his accident today. He was Injured because of the cool Judgment of his daughter In 'turning the machine Inlo the- curb to ,, avoid striking an aged woman yes terday. The machine was running slowly when ' the woman stepped In front of It. Though realizing the danger tn herself. Miss Donovan awerved sliarply and . avoided the woman. Her father waa thorwwn to the sldcalk, ami buffered a cut on the head and bruises. Hla n Jries were dressed at Casualty Hospital, wwhtre he was token In the automo- , bile of Senator Swanson. An accident of similar nature befell I'ercy Swwcet, driving a Tolman laun dry automobile near Fourteenth street. He swerved his machine to avoid strtk- ; Ing a boy. and It crashed Into the curb, throwing him out- He escaped Injury, but the machine was damaged. Paul V. Mitchell, real estate dealer. became 111 and lost control of hi ma chine while - on Decatur street, near Fourteenth street, last night, ted it struck'a tree box. Mr. Mitchell was not Injured, but was Liken to George Washington University' Hospital be cause of his illness. retain the fugitives. ' In a Deriod of time incredibly short the disorder be came total; the flight universal, irre- Av(f. fprtm PnH av flint th rrilin. er North Carolian. which also carried fund for the relief of Americans In parable, ungovernable, bearing away, in Europe, and arrived at Cherburg some v.s torrent 01 escape, a" tne front rank days ai with the artillery, cavalry, regulars. president, secretaries, nnd commander. " 'We had scarcely fired three rounds." said an officer of the Washington artil lery, John law. 'when the line of the days ago. will leave that port today. The North Carolina will co to rai mouth, England, and may then proceed to Bergen. Norway. Officers carrying relief money will leave for Genoa and Rome tomorrow, advjees say. 1 VsV ssssssssssssP. SlIsssssH ssssssW ssHsssslsssssW HWfir t V W SjH EYE STRAIN Caused by study, reading, writing, or figuring, often brings on eyeache, headache, brain fatigue, nervousness, and weak or blur red sight. Eyestrain can be overcome only in one way by wearing proper glasses to relieve the strain on the nerves of the eyes. MY SPECIALTY IS CORRECTING EYE STRAIN Call and let me help you. I make no charge for consultation. Special rates will be quoted on all special cases for this week. Regular $2.50 Gold Filled Glasses, special this week, $1.00. SAMUEL EXPERT EYESIGHT SPECIALIST 1209 G Street N.W. i v I 15 -Day Vacation TWO FULL WEEKS IN THE Glorious Mountains of Western North Carolina "THE LAND OF THE SKY" MIKII I.K WO NF.s.I.i: HOT VI'IU.NC.S HI.ACK .MOLNTVIN ttlM.i:iUI-T n.l,iM HKMK1tMlN n.i.r: I.AKi: TOX4WAV itiit; itn nnoN .sI,t Il Kl.AT ItOCK nd rainy uthrr attract!. iplnrr In that delightful country. $10 FOR THE ROUND TRIP $10 Special Train Will Leave Washington 5:55 P. M, FRIDAY, AUGUST 28TH SOUTHERN RAILWAY Arrive Asheville 10:05 A. M. Following Morning. Through Drawing; lloom I'nlliimn MK-pInc Cum and liny Coachrs. Southern Hnllvmj IllofnK Or, Service A l.n Carte. Kr Tlr,eU, Pullman lleaertiitlona, and Complete Information, Communicate With Offices, 705 15th and 905 F Street Northwet fhone Mnln 1212 and 1ZX. rclAR THE f? r Tomorrow we will make another gigantic effort to "clear the track" of all Summer Footwear in order to make room for the Fall styles that will soon be rushing in. Our shelves are crowded with Summer Shoes that MUST be cleared away without delay. The only solution to the problem we are facing is price cutting. So we are cutting them to the very lowest notch almost giving i i inein away: Here's an unprecedented chance to buy high-grade shoes of nationally famous trade-marked brands at al most "'give away" prices. Come early! Any of our Ladies' $4.00 and S5.00 Patent or Gun Metal O-on-ials in all the new style heels. Your Choice Only $2.55 Any of our Ladies' S.5.00 and S3. 50 Button or Laced Oxfords, in patent leather, gun metal or tan calfskin. Your Choice Only $ 1 .85 A lot of Ladies' Gun Metal Colonials, Patent Strap Slippers, and Tango Pumps, with satin laces. Regular S3.00 to S4.00 values. Your Choice Only $ 1 .95 165 pairs Ladies' White Pumps and Oxfords, Buckskin and Can vas. These are shoes that sell all over the country at S3.00 and S3. 50. Your Choice Only $ 1 .65 A lot of Ladies' Black Suede Pumps, Black Velvet Strap Pumps, and Gray Buck Colonials; $3.00 and S3. 50 values, in all sizes. Your Choice Only $ 1 .65 3 tables piled high with Ladies' Button and Blucher Oxfords and Pumps, in patent leather, gun metal, black and tan suede, and tan kid. Some have rubber soles. $3.00 to $5.00 values. Your Choice Only $ 1 45 One table piled high with Ladies' High Shoes, in patent leather, gun metal, vici kid, and suede; button and laced models. $3.00 to $5.00 values. Your Choice Only $ 1 .85 One table piled high with Ladies' Button and Laced High Shoes, in patent leather, gun metal, vici kid, black velvet, and black and tan suede. Values up to $4.00. Your Choice Only $ 1 .45 One table full of Children's Barefoot Sandals, in tan calfskin with good heavy soles. Regular $ 1 .25 and $ 1 .50 values. All sizes. Your Choice Only 65C One table full of Children's Gun Metal Oxfords and Strap Slip pers and Tan Calf Oxfords, with elkskin soles. Values up to $2.50. Your Choice Only 95C 2 tables full of Men's Gun Metal and Tan Calfskin Oxfords, in button and lace. These are trade marked shoes in Goodyear welt soles. S3.00, S3.50, and S4.00 values. Your Choice Only $ 1 .85 One table full of Men's Low Shoes, in patent leather, gun metal, and tan calfskin. These shoes are from the country's best factories, in S4.00, $4.50, and S5.00 values. Your Choice Only $2.45 Men's Pure Silk y2 Hose, all colors. Regular 35c values. Only 19C Man's Pure Silk Hose. Regular 50c values. 23c We still have about 100 pairs of Ladies' Bathing Slippers and Laced Up Shoes, in all colors. 50c and 75c values. Your Choice Only 23C CHOE nU and r Streets TORE m and D N. W. Over Lincoln National Bank Entrance on D Street Second and Third Floors Take Elevator .' t i . m.