THE WASHINGTON TBIESHSUNJY, JULY 2& :iM5.
PUBLISHED EVERY EVENINO
By The'ashingtpn Times.'Comparty,
THE MPN8I3v'n BUILDING. Penna. a.
FRANKS. MUSEY, President
H. H. TITHERINGTON, Secretary.
C. H. POPE, Treasurer.
Ot Yeir(Includlnit Sundays), $1.50.
BU MoMiig, tl.TB. Thre Month. Me.
SUNDAYJfULY 25, 1915.
NEW CROP-MOVINO WORRY
Both Canada and the United
States confront the problem of find
ing ships to haul the agricultural
surplus, and other objects df export
trade, away to Europe. The Domin
ion authorities report that, the new
wheat crop is going to be about
200,000,000 bushels, which is nearly
one-third larger than that of last
year; and there are not vessels to
carry it. They have been 'impressed'
lor all kinds of extraordinary serv
ice incident to the war, and to make
up for the loss of German vessels
from the seas, and the destruction
of craft of other nations.
As a result the Canadians are
talking seriously of horving their
government impress ships wherever
they can be found, as a measure of
military necessity, and use them to
transport the wheat and other crops.
Unless this is done, it ?3 alleged,
there is going to be a serious disas
ter to the agricultural community.
It will be unable to turn its crop
into money, or will be compelled to
send great quantities to the Pacific
ports and sell at greatly reduced
Such a condition in Canada will,
of course, find instant reflection in
the United States; and it is one of
the situations that add justification
for the demand that Congress be
brought back to its duties early.
This country's business is quite suf
ficiently disjointed without having
the export trade embarrassed by
lack of shipping. The war may last
years, and the longer it lasts the
more serious will become this prob
lem of meeting an increasing de
mand -for our products with a de
creasing supply of ocean-going bot
toms. ILLINOIS WOMEN WIN
Woman suffrage may be regarded
as definitely established in Illinois.
It is, of course, a limited suffrage;
but plenty inclusive enoueh to mak
tlio ,.,.- j -j j j. . . """ lve meir nrsv loyally 10 a pos-
affTf wldedJCtr in the'8ibly hostile power, are in the navy,
affairs of the State. They mav vote i ... u ' u: :
for all officials whose places are not
created, by .the constitution of the
State, and on all propositions not
submitted under the constitution.
This includes Congressmen, Sena
tors, most municipal officials, etc.
The legislature two years ago
passed the law which grants this
highly important measure of suf
frage; and in the interim the women
have made themselves a very im
portant factor in the State, especial
ly in their efforts to defeat undesir
able legislation, to restrict the liquor
traffic, and the like.
From the beginning there was
fear, however, that the legislature,
which had been able to give this
much, might also exercise its power
to take away. The adoption of the
suffrage measure in 1913 was a sur
prise; there was concern lest reac
tion should set in and induce the
1915 body to repeal the law.
But the 1915 legislature has com
pleted its work without doing any
thing of the kind. Measures were
introduced for repeal, and for vari
ous restrictions upon the right; but
none of them passed; and it is de
clared that they failed quite as much
1,.ii,c , l:i-.. " . . .,
" " , "k'b""-u wmuea mem
to fail, as because they feared to
wKiiiuv. iiiciuacives 10 sucn propos
als. Some, of course, preferred not
to make the issue lost, if the repeal
aiw-uc uuicuieu, vney or meir parties
should be punished by the women;
but the majority, regardless of
party, had decided that woman suf
""BC nao "' an mat mis podge nation? Can it be certain
was as good a time to enter upon.that the great republic is not itself
its regime as any other. Having the ,east nationalized of nations? So
been given the indorsement of twolonf, as every day brl new testi
successive legislatures, and the idea monies to the demoralization, the
of women voting having got better ! disintegration, the hopeless lack of
cDtuuuaiicu in me puouc mina, mere
is increased assurance that future
efforts at repeal will receive still
less hospitable treatment.
THE CASE OF THE BOER WAR
A correspondent addresses to The
Times an inquiry regarding the re
cent article on this pace which
Hnilf Wlfll fVio 1n 4-nv rf Tlfv. .U.! I
and the traffic in munitions 'of war.
ti, ,.r.urt. .,..
uv wi. ii.j& auyoi
I am surprised thnt you have entirely
overlooked the fact that when Great
iTwhatTaMt "t.monoTf ?,fr
greatest wins tho destruction of tho
Boer Republic-she bought most of her
arms and munitions fiom Germany and
inai me aiuiuuo or Germany at that
tlmo effectually estops h?r fiom mak
luff any complaint now against similar
conduct on tho part of neutrals.
Our correspondent is entirely cor
rect. Germany sold munitions of
war to both sides; first to the Boers,
so long as they were able to get the
shipments into their country; then
she thriftily shifted her business to
the British side, and sold to it. The
fact has been repeatedly referred to,
however, editorially in The Times.
it would be quite impossible to
catalogue the cases in which ncu-
trals have sold munitions to bcllig-
erents. It would be far easier' to
make a list of 'cases in which they i
have not dona so.rf or "them Wnn lwin
none such. The. .United Statea-has
always sold munitions to''beliiger
ents when ithad Iherii to'sell and the
belligerents wanted them; other
countries have always sold them to
the United State's when this co&ntry
was a belligerent and' wanted tolbuy.
It is doubtful' if a case .could -be
found in modern warfare of a coun
try conducting a war entirely on its
own resources of arms, ammunition,
and general supplies.
The charges to the contrary,
which have received general circula
tion in this country, are simply
falsehoods, put out' by people who
know them to be such.
THE RBIQN OF ANARCHY
Is there any place in the United
States that may b.e. regarded as even
reasonably secure against the trea
sonable activities 'of people' deter
mined to inflict industrial anarchy
upon this country, to destroy its
naval property, to terrorize its peo
ple? That becomes daily a more mo
Preparedness to defend ourselves
against a foreign enemy is no long
er the paramount issue. Can we de
fend ourselves against domestic
treason and alien spies that have
scattered themselves throughout the
The battleship Oklahoma, it de
velops, was much more seriously in-
Jure by tne incendiary fire started
aboard her; and this announcement
is followed by the announcement
that the destroyer Ericsson, lying in
the Camden shipbuilding yard, was
almost sunk as the result of the
opening of her seacock at night.
Only the most vigorous effort of the
shipbuilding company officers saved
the vessel. She was in a sinking
condition when her plight was dis
covered. There is ample familiarity with
the tale, which Admiral Evans once
wrote into a magazine article, about
the cabin boy who had served aboard
his vessel. The boy was a bright .
and capable Japanese. Some years ,
later, going-. aboard a Japanese war-'
ship to pay a call of ceremony, the
American admiral was received in
all state by that cabin-boy the com
mander of the Japanese vessel!
How many cabin boys and others
who give their first loyalty to a pos-
the army, the munitions factories,
the powder mills, the shipyards, of
this country? It is time that we
knew more, facts.
It is time to end all uncertainty.
From the beginning of the
reign of incendiarism, terrorism,
bomb-throwing, attempts against
merchant ships, firings of naval ves
sels, theft of important documents,
forging of state papers, buying of
labor disturbances, there has been
no serious, at least no effective, ef
fort to end this state of affairs. It
has developed into a nation-wide
menace. The country could not pre
pare for war, much less make it,
while enemies with the most hor
ribly criminal instincts were scat
tered everywhere, even in confiden
tial posts of intimacy and touch with
most delicate affairs and important
Men begin to look in each other's
faces and ask whether this is a na
tion, inspired by a common interest,
patriotism, and loyalty, or a fear
fully combustible mass of racial
fragments, liable to be set on fire
by internal friction. We have been
wont to think of Austria-Hungary
no nn niMniirt rt-f m wtlilswl !---
I"" "" -"l""- " J'"", ui.ojriiiim-
thetic and jarring elements; but we
have seen that empire, under pros-
sure from without and under the',were P"sely the things that this
leadershin of an imnprialicti,- cVS.,counlry meant; mav an meir impil
jtem within, pull itself together and
astonish the world by its display of
vigor and capability in the last year.
Can the United States feel sure that,
nffor all Anctrin ic iVm t1 tntrn
,cohcsion. amont, nur mvn nnnninfnn
1 r, .... J.wj.-,,.v..
elements, it will be well to consider
the beam in our eye and to waste
no attention on motes that we have
suspected of lodgment in our neigh
PROMOTER OF PEACE
When a lyric poet enters the do-
I" f Polit.lc.8 and Hplomiy he
does so at a risk which a man of less
sensitive and refined nature easily
escapes. This is evident again and
f.f " Jn Tth & jnt thc r
hie of John Hay which William
Roscop Thaver has o-ivin in his nv.
uoscoe najer nas given in nis ex-
.tracts irom "Unpublished Letters
and Diaries" of this American diplo-
matist and statesman
The arbitration treaties, to the ne
gotiation of which Hay gave those
last months of his hard-working
life when saddened by the shock
of the sudden death of his son,
on whom his highest hopes and
brightest dreams centered, met the
overt opposition and secret combi
nations, which drew from him the
caustic words; "A treaty entering
the Senate is liko a bull going into
the arena: no one can say just how
or when the final blow will fall; but
one othing Jb certain it will never
leave " tHer arena alive."
WWW V..W w..v .
- It is cause for lasting regret, lo
the Americans. who honored his 'char
acter and ability and '.admired 'his
gay and gallant spirit that 'the
(French government was not allowed
to confer upon him the Grand Cross
of, the Legion of Honor, a tribute
vrell.eafned.by'his work in the cause
of; peace among the nations. His
impulse was"' -to decline this honor,
but the President in his usual force
ful way overrode.vhis objections, and
permission for' him to accept was
sought from the Senate. "" '
That the august body refused to
allow him the distinction "of this.
decoration means 'little 'to thVrepuf
tation of the man who had his best
reward in the high service which
revolutionized diplomacy, changing
it, so far as was in his province,
from backstairs bargaining to frank
and honorable conference where
reason and conscience prevail.
PLAYINQ WITH HUMAN LIFE
The excursion steamer Eastland,
which turned turtle at a pier in the
Chicago river with the result of a
frightful loss of life, presents a case
quite as inexcusable as was that of
the General Slocum, years ago. The
Slocum was without proper equip
ment to care for passengers in case
of disaster, and in addition was
overcrowded. The Eastland was at
least overcrowded; but worse than
that, she had been currently known
for at least ten years as a thorough
ly dangerous vessel. That she would
turn turtle, some time or other, just
as she finally did do, had been con
fidently predicted by marine' con
structors and ship officers time and
again. Public attention had been re
peatedly called to -her dangerous
character; and yet nothing had been
done to prevent the thing which it
now is realized was inevitable if she
should continue freighting great
numbers of human lives. '
Since the Slocum disaster there
has been legislation and there has
also been administrative effort to
safeguard against such affairs; yet
the case of the Eastland makes very
plain that legislation has been in
effective and administration has
been lax. If the Eastland had pre
sented defects that were not real
ized; if it had been an ill-constructed
boat in which the deficiencies
were concealed, matters would have
been less discreditable to the super-
visory authorities. But it appears
that this boat was known from end
to end of tho lakes to be a ,dancr
ous one, and yet was licensed to
sail and to carry thousands of'peo
ple. The case is jar discouraging one.
Whether ib be a Slocum or a Titanic,
a great marine accident causes an
excited plunge into the arena of re
form legislation;' there are speeches
and editorials -and resolutions and
something or other gets to the stat
ute books; and then the whole thing
is forgotten until some fine day an
other disaster occurs, and it devel
ops that all that has been done was
futile and ineffective.
NOW LET CONORESS COMEf
There is just one thing that Presi
dent Wilson could now do, which
would give a final touch of empha
sis and conclusiveness to his note to
Germany. He could order forthwith
an extra session of Congress.
To call the legislature of the na
tion together would contain no pos
sible menace to any foreign power
that was not contained in the -last
mote to Berlin. It would merely be
a very definite addendum to the ef
fect that the things said in that note
cations and possible consequences
were appreciated to the full; and
that if there were to be any backing
down, somebody else than America
would have it to do.
Nothing would do more to make
the world realize the meaning of a
persistence of this war, than to have
the American Congress come into
extraordinary session on the anni
versary of the war's beginning. That
anniversary is just a few days away
from us. The beginning of the sec
ond year sees the end farther away
than it seemed on the day when the
first shot was fired. Then, innocent
people imagined that it would end
by Christmas, or at least by spring.
Now, nobody ventures seriously to
predict an end; everybody agrees
that it is a long way ahead, and that
the horrors yof the first year will be
made more horrible by those yet to
This is assuredly one instance in
which preparedness for war is in
surance of peace. Preparedness for
war will be set afoot the day Con
gress meets. The purpose of prep
aration will be proclaimed in the call
for Congress to meet.
Russian generals are showing
great bravery in sticking by their
telephones during attack in electric
New Jersey man who has a towel
sewed up inside his anatomy is en
vied by all. He knows where to find
one whenever he has an eyeful of
Col; John Ha'nnan Asserts Loose
' MetHo'ds'Were Used by Serv
ice in Passfng Boat.
(Continued from,FlraJ. Page.)
not an accident. It would not' be
right to say trjat'the officers of the
lin6 or the inspection officers de
signed and staged such a tragedy
as occurred in th$ Chicago river.
But'in truth the occurrence cannot
be put in the category of' accidents.
It was the direct result of 'the
policy of gambling with human
lives to make dollars.
"The steamboat managers want a li
cense to carry an exceaslvc number of
passengers so that they may pile up
profits. The law clothes the board of
supervising Inspectors with power to
make tho rules and to limit the num
ber of passengers. The steamboat
owners bring pressure to bear upon
the inspectors to the' end that tho door
Is opened wide and these stfcamers per
mitted' io crowd their decks with pas
sengers and to equip their boats with
a minimum of llfc-savlng devices. That
there have not been numbers'of similar
disasters must be attributed io good
luck and the protection of Providence
rather than to any protection fur
nished by the United States Inspection
Service or by any regard of their ob
ligation to the public on tho part of
the vessel owners. '
"The lnsoectlon service, cannot claim
that it has not been warned. Victor,
Olander has frequently been bcrore
the. supervising Inspector general and
the committees of Congress represent
ing the Lake Seamen's Union and
called attention to the danger of over
loading. He especially directed atten
tion to thc danger of crowds placed on
boats of the Eastland type. He point
ed out that they were liable to cap-
slse -and In such an event that hun
treds of lives would be lost. Ho has
not only pleaded with the department
to have the rules changed with respect
t6 lake steamers but he has pointed
out lnPnjany ways the laxity of the
Inspection service upon the Great.
Lakes'. Presumably because he has
represented the Interest of the men
employed upon the 'vessels his plas
Mere discounted and his, warnings un
heeded. Vindicates, Olander.
'The Knstland traredv vindicates'
Olander but whfe'does It leave thc
"To b tain" an mflerstaii'dlng of the
rule under .which thT d6prtment per
mits these excursion atcahicrs to load
all that ls neces'saf y "lfa to measure a
space three feet square on your floor.
That space representing nine square
feet Is a little In excess of the space al
towed each passenger on the deck of the
Kastland or any other of these excur
sion steamers loaded to tho limit of
thr inspection certificate during the
excursion season. It must bo remember
ed that this nine square feet Includes
the space upon the decks used as prom
enade and also all the floor space In the
staterooms, dlnlngand other saloonsc. the
cabins, in fact all of the floor space
which the passengers occupy or may
occupy. Besides the passengers there
Is the furniture, the chairs, and loung-ln-
benches and tables and all of the
operating pharphernalia which Is on the
deck. When all of thc stateroom and
saloon and cabin floor space Is substrac
ted from the total It will reduce tho
promenade deck space to a mere frac
tion of this nine square feet and then
the crowding upon tho upper decks can
readily be understood. To aid your com
parison of this take a string twelve feet
lone and place It In a square on the
floor. You will then see how little
space Is allowed each passenger.
"An Inspection scrvlco that will isiue
and defend certificates buch as was
held by tho Eastland has no conception
of Its duty to thc public, (n Issuing
those certificates the service has bowed
to the wishes of the ship owners.
"The service has permitted thc doing
of the things which were primarily re
sponsible for the Chicago tragedy. The
service never has and never will be ablp
to convince the public that a ship which
on 'May 14 going not more than flvo
piles from shore would be permitted
to carry only 147 passengers should be
permitted to carry on tho same routo
upon the day following 2,000 passengers
and that it can do so and have legard
for tho public Interest.
"The disaster of 1013 on the gi cat lakes
wllei fifteen ships broke In two and
254 men were drowned In one stoi m di
rected attention to tho faulty construc
tion of freight boats plying those waters.
,A few minor changes were made In the
regulations to safeguard the freight
steamers. But notwithstanding that the
danger has constantly been pointed out
in Congress, and there nas been evi
dence of the awakening of the public,
and a demand for greuter pi election of
travelers upon vessels, the Inspection
service has done nothing to further pro
tect the lives of passengers. It has per
mitted the owners to sent, out "their
boats Inadequately equipped and shame
fully overloaded. It requited Rome such
catastrophe to rivet the attention of the
country on this service. Thero may be
cause to punish the officers of the Rast-
land, but surely tlvo Inspection service
Is not blameless. The men who Issued
the certificates should now Investigate
tho service of their own act. '
Engineer Saved Boat
From Great Explosion
CHICAGO, July 25. The
presence of mind of Chief Engi
neer J. M. Erickson, of the
Eastland, probably averted a
terrific boiler explosion, which
would have materially added to
the horror of the catastrophe.
When the boat listed, he im
mediately ordered the injectors
opened and the boilers filled.
Had the cold water from the
river flowed in upon the heated
boilers, there would have been
an explosion that would have
torn the ship to pieces.
Erickson remained at his
post in 'the engine room until
the water reached his neck.
Chicago Is Numb With
Horror Over Disaster
Grief Grips City as It Begins Terrible Task of Pre
paring Its Dead for Burial Corpses Fill
CHICAGO, July J5. Dumb with grief.
Chlcavo Is nnciitiil with tho hnlemn
task of premrlng tta dead for burial.
lth" pale 'faces and 'lips pressed Into
two thin blue lines, the workers at tho
Second Jteglment Armory, the princi
pal receiving morgue for tho bodlos as
they were- taken directly from tho hulk
of thc doomed Kastland all last night
bent to their tasks. Tho bodies were
transferred In groiips of six and eight
by motor trucks from the Reld-Mur-
dock warehouse on the river bank.
Thousands grouped themselves about
the streets leading to the doors of the
big, red brick building selected to
house thc victims of thc disaster.
Working In squads of four stretcher
bearers at a time, thc police detailed
to carry the blanketed forms from the
vans outside to their places on the floor
Inside did their work with swift effec
tiveness. Fifty embalmers occupied one
quarter of thc building. The steadily
growing lino of bodies easily distanced
meir desperate enorts to Keep abreast
the ever-growing' stream that flowed
Into the building.
At the rato of four or five bodies to
the minute, came the Eastland's toll.
Eighty-four were placed In a single
line. Then there were two lines, four
lines, six lines. And still thc rumble
outside told of mote vans coming up.
Stretcher bearers worked until ex
hausted. Relief men took their places
and thc steady march kept up. It seem
Their Wives Inside.-
In' the shadow of the entrance stood
four young men. They were pleading
with the doorman to be permitted to
enter. Qcntly ho refused.
"Not yet, boys," he" said. "It will
do no good now."
"But our wives are In there, man,"
nM nMA ll at1t It mlljttlv at-.1 nlll
like one benumbed. The others said
"I left her at the dock," the man
continued. "She had planned-on this
all summer. I didn't know about It
until noon. Then I went down there.
The police let me ion the boat. I
found heV hat. That's all. Poor llt
The other three grouped close about
the speaker bcheath" the" spluttering
arc light, but held their grief within
Girl -Looks For "Baby.
There was dumb horror In a girl
woman's wide blue eyes. Her fingers
worked at a buttonhole In her faded
red Jacket. She talked like one
drugged to the guardian at the door.
"Us my baby," sho'aaid, simply.
He shook his heoiU ,J,
"Not yet, lftdy.i Iot.'yet, In a little
"I let her fco" with a neighbor of
mine. She was only three. Her fath
er Is in Wyoming. He doesn't know
yet. When she turned the corner this
For Disaster, He Says
CHICAGO. July 25. The passengers
of the Eastland were responsible for
their own deaths, according to Jack
Elbert, gauge tender of the steamer.
Elbert declares that a great number
of the passengers crowded to ono side
of the boat when a launch came down
thc river, resulting In the heavy listing
of the ship, which was followed by the
capsizing, as thc human freight slid
across thc decks to thc port side.
He said he and J. M. Erickson, chief
engineer, escaped drowning by wading
through water In the hatch and crawl
ing out of a porthole Into thc river.
Water Ballast System.
"The Eastland was kept stable by
means ot a water-ballast system," El
bcit said. "Water Is pumped Into the
chambers in the ship until she becomes
steady. This Is done before even
freight Is taken on board.
"Thc first thing I noticed this morn
ing was that thc Eastland began to
lean to starboard. Erickson, the chief
engineer, was In charge of the pumps
used to pump the water Into the cham
bers. He said, 'Boys, steady her up a
little,' and then we pumped water Into
the other side until she was up even
anil an rignt.
"We had Just evened her up when a
launch came down the river and past
the Eastland, and the crowd on the
deck rushed over to portMd to look
at It. The weight all on one uldo ap
parently proved too much and the
Eastland began to list badly.
"We woiked fiantlcally. at the pumps
to try to bring her back, but she was
too far gone."
A further statement from Elbert to
day seems to settle the question upon
which investigation of the disaster
was expected to hinge: Whether the
boat wh sufficiently ballasted to
make It icasonably safe.
"I da not believe It would have hap
pened In the lake, where the steamer
would have been drawing her proper
depth of water. As It was, the bal
lust tanl;s, kept full to prevent her
listing, were empty when we enteicd
thc river. She vould have drawn too
much water otherwise."
Two Other Theories.
Two other general theories have been
advanced as to the cause of the acci
dent. One of which has gained much cro
dence here, although It has not been
admitted by the steamboat company or
any of Its employes, Is that the water
ballast was let out of tthc hull to enable
tho boat to navigate the river In the
turning basin above the Ml Salle street
tunnel. This made It top-heavy, and
when the listing began there was no
counter weight to prevent Its capsizing.
Another theory Is that the lines were
not cast off .before the tug began pull
Ine the vessel toward the river, which
destroyed the equilibrium.
This theory Is advanced by William
Flannlgan, a lineman on tho boat, who
says the tug was pulling at tho East
land, although Its lines had not been
cast off. This a denied by Arthur Mc
Donald, engineer of the tug, who says
that when the Eastland turned over the
tow line had not bepn attached.
The police officer on duty at tho dock
says when the listing began the strain
on the moorings was so great that the
post over which the bowline was thrown
began to break. He at once sent In an
emergency call. Some of tho witnesses
say thc listing1 was first noticedd fifteen
minutes before the capsize and before
the gangplank was taken In.
The theory of Insufficient ballast Is
morning she waved .her hand at me.
Won't you let me In how, mister?"
The work of Identification was very
slow. The police tagged each body
with a number giving a description
of the appearance of the body, clothes
and any papers or Jewelry upon It.
These descriptions were tent Into the
city hall and thc coroner's office. But
this was the dead of a holiday crowd
of workers. The majority were dressed
In light outing clothes. Few carried
any papers, on some of the corpses
bearaggled blue and gold arm bands of
the Hawthorne Club, a social organiza
tion, led to Identification.
It was noticeable that on almost all
ot the bodies brought up from the bow
els of thc boat that their left arm was
thrown up before their face, as If mak
ing one last pitiful effort to avert hor
tor. The coroner's deputies scd at their
gruesomo work the long night through.
Stripped to their undershirts and trou
sers, drenched In perspiration, they
worked up and down the leng rows of
quiet forms, each shrouded In a bright
pink, blue or white cotton blanket.
Children and Babies Dead.
It was among thc babies and the
small 'children that death, as usual,
reaped his choicest harvest. Few es
caped. If the stolid faces of thc stretcher
bearers ever betrayed the stress the.v
lubored under, it was when these tiny
forms were brought to thrm. In one
motor van were six, each wrapped In a
blue covering. Tiny fcrt diooped pa
thetically beyond thc edge of the cloth;
the bright pink and scarlet ribbons that
proud mothers had that morning tied
In their hair, now mud-stained and
faded, dragged behind.
Morgue Crowd Grows.
As the hours rolled on the crowds of
relatives and friends about the morgue
grew. But It was still a dumb and
silent crowd. Occasionally a few, with
proper credentials', would STTp past the
door. Qulcklv thov would pass down
the narrow lanes between the dead. A
covering would be removed from thc
face. One or two of the 3earchcis, cftcn
I a stifled gasp; sometimes a mere nod.
A low-voiced order would be uivn. a
stretcher would be brought up, and the
bodr taken away. Hut this did not
harnen often. The' vast majority of the
Identifications will be made later.
No Public Funeral.
So far no arrangements have been
made for any public funeral of the vic
tims. Most of them will be burled pri
vately by relatives and friends.
Flans for the financial assistance cf
those Vho are not "able to meet this
sudden demand uton their resources
arc already .being mad'. .Fraternal so
cieties are active n ' looking aftr the
needs,' of memberl:,-tfamire3 of
members. None wlli;g fp the potter's
Held, unsorrowed and alone.
rfounded on reports from members of
thc crew, who say that to get up the
river part of the ballast was lemoved.
to avoid danger of scraping thc roof
of thc La Salle street tunnel.
CHICAGO, July 15. Acting Mayor
Moorchousc and J. J. O'Connor, direc
tor of the central division of the
American Red Cross, are doing every
thing In their power for relief of the
Eastland victims. They are assisted by
officers of the Western Electric Com
pany. Private stores and offices have been
turned Into relief stations and public
utility concerns helped. The Chicago
Telephone Company yesterday Installed
a score of free telephones neat the
Eastland's docks, whence survlvorB
nasned word to anxious relatives.
I The .Red Cross established an emer.
! gency station at the Second Regiment
Armory, prepared to take care of pros-
iriiuun cases ana accidents. The
Nurses' Association and Society volun
teered to care for survivors and stricken
relatives, and were helped by big
hotels, which furnished gallons of coffeo
anu nunarcas or sandwiches.
Treatment to prevent typhoid fever
was accorded survivors, under direction
of the city health department, which
sent 100 physicians of Its staff to tho
homes of rescued persons who might
have swallowed river water..
Relief funds for those dependent upon
peihons who lost their lives in the trag
edy have been started by tho three
morning newspapers and city off.cials.
In additions the Western Electric Com
pany, whose employes had chartered the
Eastland, and flvo other boats for a
picnic trip, promised that its $1,000,000
employes' fund will be drawn upon lib
erally to relieve suffering.
Relatives of Victims
To Get Death Benefits
CHICAGO, July 25. Relatives of em
ployes of the Western Electric Company
ho met death In thc Chicago river
disaster aie provided for under an In
surbnee plan which Is maintained
through afllllatlon WvTth tTto American
Telephone and Telegraph Cacftany.
The death benefit prv)Uci payment of
six months' wages to Vjpcndents of
those having been In tho employ of the
company for five yearn or moro and ono
ear's pay to thoso having served for
ten years or more.
Memorial Services at
Fair for Boat Victims
SAN FRANCISCO. July 25.-Whlle a
band softly played "Neaier. Mv God,
to Thee." and more than 20.0 stood with
bowed heads. Governor Dunne, of Illi
nois, yesterday afternoon planted a tree
upon tho grounds of the Panama-I'aclflc
Exposition which will stand as a living
monument to tho victims of the East
This was "Illinois Day" at the fair.
But Instead of the usual ceremonies, tho
great throngs lolned with Governor
Dunne. Mayor William Halo Thompson,
of Chicago, and thousands of residents
of Illinois In the most Impressive me
morial services ever witnessed on the
Mnvnr Thnmmnn n mt lil tvh hai.
left on a special train for home.
TO HELP SURVIVORS
TO SOLVE DISASTER
Opinions Differ as to What
Caused the Eastland to Cap
size at Her Pier.
SYRACUSE, July 24. "Leave
nothing undone to determine
cause of disaster to steamer
Eastland and fix responsibility
for same. Inquire strictly and
fearlessly whether any official
neglect or incompetence. You
will be given any needed help
from Washington. Go to the bot
tom of tHc matter."
Secretary of Commerce Red
field has Bent this message to
Deputy Supervisor General
Hoover, of thc Steamboat In
spection Service, Chicago.
CHICAGO. July 25.-Half dozen In
vestigations of the cause of the East
land catastrophe are In progress today.
In fact, several had been started before
half the bodies had been recovered from
There are two big questions which the
various bodies will seek to have answer
ed: 1. Was' It because of a defect In Its
water ballast system that the Eastland
2. Were more passengers permitted
aboard than its official carrying capac
ity of 2.5O0?
Already there have been several an
swers to these questions. R. M. Mc
Crary, navigation inspector, says ho
turned away all prospective passengers
after his automatic counter rcgisteied
3,700 Aboard Is Chareo.
Contradicting McCrary's assertion is
the estimate of two officials In charge
of the outing that 3,700 persons, of
whom thc women outnumbered the men
four to one. had crowded on board the
Coroner Hoffman has ordered tho
arrest of every official of the Indiana
Transportation Company, which leased
The first Inquiry under wav was that
of the police department, of which As
sistant Chief Schuettler assumed charge
as soon as he had blocked approaches to
the bridge with double lines of police
men. I'nder the first deputy's direction de
tectives began a round-up of the East
land's officers and of rnsnonslhln nf-
VciaU of the two lake lines Involved, the
bt. Joseph-Chicago Steamship Company,
which owned the boat, and the Indiana
Transportation Company, through which
it was oharteiel hy the plcknlckers.
State's Attor ey. Hoyne, Coroner Hoff
man. United States District Attorney
Clync. Judge Landis, and the Federal
steamboat inspectors. Ira B. Mansfield
and William Nicholas, started other in
vestigations. Grand Jury Ordered.
Judge I.andls cleared the way for Fed
eral action by ordering the assembling
of the granI Jury. Thc Federal in
quisitors will begin the examination of
witnesses Thursday afternoon, by
which time it is expected the steamship
Inspectors and the ipollce will have
exact knowledge of Just what happened
Two of thc first persons arrested by
Schuettler's orders were Harry Peter
son, captain of the Eastland, and Dell
Fisher, first mate. They were hold
aboard the flrcboat Graeme Steward,
and later transfeired to the first dep
uty's office, where Assistant District
Attorney Charles center Case and Coro
ner Hoffman were waiting to assist in
Later in the day fifteen of the crew
were arrested for interfering with the
work of the men cutting holes In the
boat's side with gas flames.
Ship To Be Inspected.
Arrangements are being made to get
at the sunken vessel to determine the
underlying causes of the accident. Der
ricks on scows have been taken to the
side of the Eastland, and marine en
gineers engaged to Inspect the treach
Those In chirge of tho various
works of clearing up the toll of casual
ties and determining the responsibility
for the capsizing of the boat said that
the endeavor would necessarily be slow
because of the large number of persons
aboard the Eastland and the difficulty
of getting at the hull of the steamer.
Corner's Jury Impaneled.
Coroner Hoffman impaneled the fol
Dr. William A. Evans, former com
missioner of health.
William F. Bodcn, vice president ol
Reid, Murdoch & Co.
Henry A. Allen, mechanical englneei
In charge of the department of public
J. S. Keogh, general manager of W.
F. McLaughlin & Co.
Engeno Deilleld, manager Hotel
Harry Molr, proprietor Hotel Morri
son. Dr. Evans was chosen foreman, and
then the Jury spent several hours view
ing the bodies of the victims.
Hegardless ot whnc action was
planned by other ofliclals, Aldermar
.Munay said that when the specla
council meeting convenes at 2 o'clocH
tomoriow afternoon to Investigate thc
disaster, he will Insist on adoption ol
resolutions calling on the authorities K
demand Imprisonment and not fines ai
punishments if individuals are found
to have been criminally negligent.
SOUTH CHICAGO. July 23.-That thi
steamer Eastland was noted for "he
peculiar tricks, because of he'r odt
build," among seamen and sh'p builders
was assertod hero by Charles Gcrds
former master mechanic at thi
Chicago Snip-building yards.
"The Eastland was In dry-dock hen
getting fixed up again, about ten day
ago," said Gerds, "Marine men
talked with at thnt time, mentlonet
that she had too much above wate
for what she had below.
"1 was on board thc Eastland out it
Lake Michigan some years ago, wnei
she cut up ono of her tricks. Some
thing got the matter with hei balltin
at that tlmo, so thnt when too many o
the passengers go on one side nt t'n
sanu- time, the captain had to turp i
complete circle until the crowds wen
evenly distributed again "
The Eastland was LCi feet long will
a depth of 19 J feet and C5 feet wide
She was u steel, twin-screw boat will
two decks betides a hurricane deck.
ASTLAND NOTED FOR
E iNY VAGARIES
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