Newspaper Page Text
THE' WASHINGTON TIMES, THURSDAY, SEFIEMER 16, 1915.
THE T I M E S DAILY MI GAZINE PAGE
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American -Educators Recognize in Dr. Montessori's Method
Certain Limitations That Bar It From Complete Acceptance
' js"rv-rj'(! ' " -s
For Career of
Typical Wardrobe That Will
. Meef Every Exigency Sug
gested to Solve Mother's
' IN TWO PARTS.
Tins week and the next wilt be
a period of great excrement
to thousands of girls who are
preparing to leave home for
the first time to enter college and
preparatory school. In an equal
number of households chaos la like
ly to reign supremo until the trunks
and the daughters are safe on
board the train.
The majority of preparatory
sehools send lists of clothing for the
girls' -wardrobe, but few collogcs In
clude this In their lnstruqtlons to
freshmen and as a result a number
of useless garments are often In
cluded and very necessary things
A fairly typical outfit that will
meet most of the exigencies of life
at the average girls' college Is as
One lightweight suit.
One winter suit.
One winter coat of serviceable ma
terial. One dressy hat.
One soft sports hat of velvet or
An extra skirt of corduroy or
A one-piece frock of serge, gabar
dine or some other material for
BIx shirt waists one of lace or
roorrette ct'pe. cevcral of crepe
de chine and the remainder of voile.
At least three skirts of white linen.
Otton, gabardine or pique.
Two middy blouses for sport wear.
Three or four dresses of linen or '
other cotton material, to be worn
during the warm days of early fall.
Three or four dresses suitable for
dinner. These may be of voile,
rice cloth, organdie, net or some
other summery material, simply
For College Functions.
One dinner 'gown of crop do
ehlno, poplin, or taffeta. In a fairly
dark color, such as Copenhagen blue,
wistaria, artichoke green or rose.
One dressy evening gown, for wear
at the most Important social occa
sions. One .evening cloaks
Two pairs of. 'walking felores, two .
pairs of white kid gloves and one
pair of long white kid gloves,
One wool sweater.
Raincoat, rubbers and umbrella.
Kimono of silk or crepe.
v Bath robe.
One pair of high black shoes, one
pair of high tan walking boots, ono
pair of low pumps, pne pair of black
atln slippers, ono pair of slippers
to match the dressy evening gown,
one pair of white pump3 and one
pair of tennis shoes, preferably
One dark silk petticoat.
One sateen petticoat.
Threo whlto petticoats.
BIx combination suits.
Six union suits or undervests.
Five Dairs of silk stockings.
Five Dalrs of cotton stoeklngs.
A rubber stamp for marking wash-
Sble clothing Is necessary where the
tundry Is to be dono at the school.
The Gymnasium Outfit.
A gymnasium suit and shoes are
not Included In this outfit, because
at most of the schools a uniform
costume Is required, and the outfit
purchased at home may not be ac
ceptable. It Is to be remembered that tho
school girl seldom has the time or
Inclination for doing much repairing
to her clothing, and It Is really a
matter of necessity to see that all
hooks, eyes, and buttons are sewed
with extra firm throuu. Dresses with
over-elaborate tucks, pleats, and puf
fings are also likely to be a poor
Investment. Materials that wrlnklo
aslly are also Impractical.
For school wear, one-piece dresses
or shirt waists and skirts worn with
the sweater are a sort of unofficial
uniform enthusiastically adopted by
, college girls for day-time wear.
-Lingerie dresses or simple gowns
of light silk find favor for
the evening, while for the noon din
ner on Sunday the afternoon gown
of taffeta or crepe de chine Is most
Need For Evening Coat.
Girls leaving their dormitories
after dinner like to havo a wrap
other than an ordinary coat to wear,
hence an evening coat is a most
Important feature of the wardrobe.
At least half of the combinations
or corset covers may be of rlppletto
or one of the other crepe materials
that requires no Ironing. None of
the underclothing needs to be par
ticularly elaborate, or It will not
survive the year In the school laun
dry. One or two dressy chemises
and full length slips may be In
cluded for wear under thin eve
Silk stockings, If changed fre
quently, are about as practical ns
those of cotton and look much bet
ter for all but sport wear. The hoot
silk hose are sold for about the same
pile as those of lisle, so the differ
ence In expense Is slight. t
(Part II, to be published tomor
row, will take up the question of
other supplies necessary to the
outfit of the girl who is going
away to school.)
Sir Thomas LIpton said at a provi
sioned banquet In London:
"All the blame for high prices Is put
on us dealers. You'd think tho way
some people talk that we dealers were
as false in our patriotism as the chap
who was sanding his sugar the other
day with his errand boy's help.
"The errand boy. lifting a scoopful of
" 'The usual proportion, sir?'
"No, Joseph, of course not,' the boss
replied sternly. Arhe usual proportion
in days like tlieseT Joseph, Where's
"Then he sighed and added:
"Only half the usual proportion of
sand Joseph only half the usual pro
portion as long ns our gallant troops
ft the front huve such need of sand
tags.' "-Philadelphia Public Ledger.
Kindergarten System En
riched Roman Expert's
Plan Only In Its Influence
Upon Pregrade Training,
Says Miss Bessie Locke.
Bureau of Education Expert
Discusses Basic Principles
of Child Development Un
der Divergent Ideals of
By FLORENCE E. YODER.
. , --fIE most likely lasting re-
I suit of a better ac
X quaintance with the Mon
tcssorl Ideas of child,
training will be the addition, to our
present kindergarten system of pre
grade training, of such of them as
prove desirable and tho rejection of
This practical rejection of the
MYjntessorl method at least ln,lts en
tirety, was mado today by Miss Bes
sie Locke, chief of the kindergar
ten division of tho United States
Bureau of Education, and corre
sponding secretary of the National
Kindergarten Association, coming
as an answer to tho question put
hor as to the relative values of the
kindergarten and Montcssorl meth
ods. Many parents who are planning to
send the four or five-year-old to
io sort of a school Uils fall havo
it In doubt as to tn difference
between the two systems, many
think they are tho same, and still
others, giving the folco little
no thought, have been willing
Dlace the child In any kind
school provided that it was
Just how harmful such nn attitude
Is to the child himself Miss Locke
did not state, but she did draw even
a broader conclusion, saying that
"with the mlxfrt peoples of this
country. It long ago became cvl
dent, that thero was a need of a
careful training, or subtlo Influence
to Insure that freedom was not
abused, that liberty was no mndo
license, and that every ono W i
scilous rerpect for the personal ob
servances of laws and custom es
tablished for the benefit of all."
Develops Group Sense.
This onrefu". training Is not r.c
comnllshed bv the Montessorl meth
ods, and is the verv heart and ""
of tho kindergarten work. Miss
Locke's definitions of the two sys
tems will demonstrate this at once.
"The kindergarten," she said, "en
courages Individualism by develop
ing self-reliance. Initiative, and
originality. It discourages all forms
of selfishness, and begins tho devl
oumnnt of the 'group' sense when
the mind Is most plastic, thus mak
ing easier the transition from home
to school discipline and sowing ceds
of matuie uoo.1 citizenship.
"The Montcssorl method evidently
has a basic nrlnclple and purpose:
Housewife! Imitate Simple Simon
The Famous Nursery Hero Unquestionably Bought His
Peck o' Picjcled Peppers In September. He Was Wise.
PEPPERS they are now In
their splendor and can be
bought for a sou In the mar
kets. It Is but a short time
6lnce this truly "pep-ful" vegetable
(or Is It a. fruit?) was used only for
pickles, and was never considered as
a separate dish to grace the family
But from the Spanish, tho Italians,
and tho French we havo learned to
make dishes more or less "pep-ful,"
which we now like and ubb as com
monly as turnip or carrot. The pep
per family is, Indeed, a happy, nu
merous group, some of them mild,
but others with hot and hasty tcm-
fers. Tho mild, sweet pepper Is seen
ncreaslngly in our markets, and Is
a delicious nddltion to many meat
dishes. Indeed, fried peppers are al
most as good a 'i mushrooms as ac
cessories to steak. Various delicious
stews of the type of chill con came
need peppers as an important In
gredient. And, then, the housewife has found
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Upper left Children being taught
right Story telling hour in
with a turn for each child and
the development of the child's ego,
of its self-sufficiency, of Its char
acter as an Individual rather than
as a member of a group, like the
famllv. the neighborhood, the local
community or the nation.
"The conditions Dr. Montessorl
undertook to meet In Uome," sho
rontinuetl. "arc so different from
those In anv American city. The In
herited mental tendencies and per
sonal characteristics of the Inglo
roro. for which she shaped her
methods arc, obviously, so different
from and so much less epplex than
those of a conglomerate nation lUo
ours that mot American educators
are still In doubt ns to how much of
her svstem Is vnluab'.o for perma
nent Introduction hero
"Thev point to the fact that the
House of Children.' as the labora
tory In pedagogics Is called In Borne,
has not been In operation long
enough to give a basis for sound
Judgment of what It lastingly ac
complishes. Meets American Needs.
"Tho ultra conservative profess to
be nervous lest the enthusiasm
which grasps ut a new Idea because
It is new, may lead to our too hasty
adoitlon of things which. In tho
end, wll provo not advantageous to
Americans a waste of time, money,
'The history of our development
In training the young Indicates that
the most likely lasting result of bct
cr acquaintance with tho Montessorl
Ideas will be the addition to our
present system of 'pre-grado' train
ing of such of thrm as proe desir
able and tho rejection of tho rest.
"That is the way the present-day
American kindergarten at Its best
had come to bo the m:st efficient
school of Its kind In the world.
Based on tho fundamental principles
laid down by tho great child-student
Forebel. it has modified and expand
ed, studied and experimented till It
became now what ,lt Is the best
suited means to an end, because cre
ated especially to meet American
needs. Whatever It lacks among the
tl-lngs which the Mnn'orsiil pro
vide?, It will no doubt take on when
It Is sure of what It is doing.
"The purpose of tho Kindergarten
Ar6oclatlon Is to see tat. ultimate
ly, every child In tho United States
has an opportunity to got the best
possible equipment for later life by
By MBS. CHRISTINE FREDERICK
(Copyright. 1916, by Mrs. ChrUtlne Frederick.)
out that tha bell-Bhnped pod (a sort
of natural container) is a most
convenient package to stuff with
meat or other filling. Stuffed pep
APers sounds delectable, and can be
mado so If the stuffing Is rice and
tomato, chopped meat and onions,
bread crumbs, and any gravy. In
this way the pepper becomes tho
housowlfe's first aid to left-over
in salads, too, tho aweot pepper is
?ulte at home. Sold under tho
aney name "pimento," we have
learned to like It with such veget
ables as celery and cabbage, with
crabs, and other shellfish, and, in
deed, in more combinations than cne
can mention. Since peppers are a
stomatlc. and a spur to appetite,
their Judicious use In a sharp salad
Is particularly advisable. Cut them
Into thin strips with a pair of scis
sors and add to potatoes, tomatoes,
caobage, celery, or any other sour
An especially attractive pepper
tomato dish comes with this tea
son. This Is to take a thick ring or
by the Montessori method with the famous "Sandpaper alphabet." Upper
tho kindergarten. Lower picture Playing roll ball in the kindergarten
a lesson in waiting, with respect for others.
Insuring it tho benefits of certain
kinds of training not filvcn In grado
schools ethical, social, and moral
"Dr. Montessorl docs not claim
that she originated the theories from
which she started. 8he evolved
them from those of others, which
were already being applied to teach
ing feeble-minded and subnormal
children. In practice she modified
tho methods thus used by nn older
physician, until she had suited them
to her Idea of tho best way to teach
the normal average child of the
"Roman tenements. Apparently Its
original source accounts for the
basic principle of her plan: the
development of the child's ego, of
Its self-efficiency, of Its character
as nn Individual rather than as a
member of a social group, like the
family, tho neighborhood, the local
community, or tho notion.
Requirements For Living.
"Here arises the first question In
the minds of American educators In
considering the Montessorl system.
While it is necessary to develop tho
Individuality of a child of less than
normal Intelligence In order to make
it less dependent on others and more
efficient mentally, the belief grows
steadily stronger In this country tnat
the great lesson that children must
learn, to make the highest success
for themselves, and to be the best
members of tho community. Is that
of the requirements of living in a
democracy with proper respect for
others as well as for self. The
kindergarten has been lnvaluablo,
It Is universally recognized, In pro
viding the Influences which form a
child's character and habits in this
"It Is natural that educators ac
customed to look at all schemes of
pedagogy in tho light of American
conditions, needs and experience
should at least Imagine that they
see in Dr. Montessori's method
traces of a heritage from a plan
for instructing feeble minded chil
dren. Tor Instnncp it begins with
teaching tho children to button and
unbutton, hook, unhook, lace and
unlace, put on and take oft their
own clothes, to wash their faces
and hands and 'perform the general
personal care which according to the
American Idea should be learned at
Pepper, place on It a thick ring of
tomato, or a tomato cup stuffed
with breadcrumbs, and place both to
brown or grill in tho oven until
done, to be served as an accom
paniment with steak.
Peppers, too, are unequalod for
serving with such insipid dishes as
macaroni and rice, especially when
combined with tomato sauce. Lorn
and peppers, too, aro a t'reole dish,
and delicious is a serving of scal
loped corn flavored with peppers.
The owner of a garden plot should
next ear not omit to put pepper on
his list of seeds. Thpy are a little
delicate at rtrst. but when onc
started make tho most delightful
ornamental plant, with clear, glossy
leaves, and a waxliko white how-ex.
Later the glistening ce lulold-llko
pods make tho plant truly decora
tlNe. Hut whether we must buy
them or whether wo may grow
them, the pepper should be used
more generally, not as an excrescent
or appetlte-teaser. like a p ckle, but
as a genuine veeetahle. with unlim
ited possibilities on ths hom tabla.
home. Dr. Montcssorl makes 1
things not merely matters
personal neatness, but moans of
mental development. Her theory Is
that In gntnlng Independence lit
taking care of hlmrclf the child also
gains independence I" thought and
action In other directions.
"Tho theory of cumrntlnc self
restraint by complete freedom. Dr.
Montosrorl pushes farther than tho
kindergarten, but In tho direction
of Individualism rather than of
'group senseousness.' Sho allows
the children In her school at Itomo
to move about nt will; to sit. walk,
or He on the floor, to stay Indoors or
go out, as the spirit moves.
"The child is allowed to use inn
terlal. however. In only sttpuiuteii
ways, and any disposition to i
pcrlment, to create something new,
not provided by the regulation uses
Is promptly checked by a teacher.
There is great divergence rrom
the kindergarten hero, as one of
the Important purposes of our
Amorlcan system of training young
children is to encourage the crea
New York - WASHINGTON - San Francisco
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The Qualities are consistent with the high standards K
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Brussels Rugs, 9x12 ft , .$29.00 to $35.00
Wilton Rugs, 9x12 ft $41.50 to $65.00
Axminster Rugs, 9x12 ft $24.75 to $55.00 '
"Kalliston" Seamless Wool Rugs, 9x12 ft $43.0Q
"Chaumont" Seamless Chenille Rugs, 9x12 ft $57.50
Other sizes at correspondingly moderate prices.
I MISS BESSIE LOCKE,
Chief of kindergarten division, U.
S. Bureau of Education.
tive faculty, exercise the Imagina
tion, and so bring about Individual
effort and stimulate Intelligence.
"Montersorl gives much attention
to the definite scientific training of
the sense. The r.iplrt master or
penmanship through the use of, the
'sandpaper alphabet' letters cut
from sandpaper and made familiar
to the child through handling and
traclng-ls certainly a spectacular
featuro of her sntom, but such
complex Instruments of self-expression
as the alphiioct und its em
ployment should rijmo much Inter
In the child's development. At the
right age, they say. Dr. Montes
sori's schemo will lnvo much to
"American training schools pro
vide two-year courses or study and
practice for young women who are
fitting themselves to be kindergar
teners Dr. Montessorl completes
In four months the training or
those who Intend to practlco her
method of educating little chil
dren." Street NW
NE of the greatest feats for
modern man to perform Jsto
make his workshop as' health
ful ns his homo ought to be. A
man's work shoiild fall In pleasant
places. He should havo a goodly herit
age of all that makes for health,
strength, and efficiency In his factory,
shop, offlco and store. ,
If labor unions wjere as alert tojthelr
own profit In tho way of sanitary fac
tories as they aro to other supposed
capitalistic delinquencies, there ivbujd
be more ventilation and light and, less
dirt or dust In buildings where In
Cleanliness of floors bv hoso'and
water under pressure. In' factories Whcra
the Industry permits, Increases the
health simultaneously with earning
Dry Dusting Taboo. -
Where lead Is used It becomes nefcei
sary to clean the floors of tho .building
to ward off poisoning, by tho ueeof
hot water and the scrubbing brush. If
cloths, fabrics, or other material from
cattle, sheep, and living things are Used
as raw materials, carbolic acid must
be employed as a germ killer. " '
Vacuum cleaning In the up-to-date
workshops. newly and frequently
painted walls and ceilings In light colors
make for strength and an Increased
output, which more than rewards the
Investor for the expenditure.
Th New York State factory commis
sion, backed by excellent laws and
supported by a rare group of willing
capitalists finds Itsplf almost pdwerless
to enforce hygienic measures in work
shops. The Eastland disaster, the Slo
cum calamity, the Lusltanla and Ti
tanic holocausts. In the number of lives
lost, arc as nothing compared to those
lost by wilful disregard of health In
unelean shops. '
Over 93 per cent of factories where
hair goods are made are far from clean
and healthful. Mote than 80 In every
100 lco cream, soft drink ond mlnerai
water thops are guilty of similar In
iquities bctoro nature's laws of health.
While It is eminently proper to rail
ngalnst the compulsion of workers to
use towels, drinking cups, brushes,
combs, cuspidors toilets, washing facll
Itle.t and the like, more firmness and as
Fldully mutt be brought ta bear upon
cleanliness, light, ventilation, toilet and
buthlng accommodations, the quick res
ptilr of faulty flxtuics., bountiful lunch
lfToms, avoidance of odcrs, noises,
fumes, waste and pollutions.
Finally eating lunch In the shop prop
er should be taboo. Not otily danger
ous trades, but dusty, dirty, occupations
demand separate lunch rooms. No
worker should be allowed to eat with
soiled hands or In tho neighborhood of
loose materials of any tort. Provision
should he made, if possible, for an open
air, roof, or well lighted place In which
to sit. eat hnd play for from three
quarters to one hour at lunch time..
Answers to Health
V. C What can I do or a red nose?
2. How can I make my eyebrows darker
und thicker? .
Pepper, salt, highly seasoned foods,
tea. coffee, liquor, hot, oily and greasy
foods cause a red nose. A plain diet
and lots of sleep will help you. Do not
use soap or warm water on your face,
but Instead use Ice cold water and a
good peroxide cream. Massage at night
with glycerine and peroxide, half una
half. 2. Massage Into the roots of tho
eyebrows each nighty wl" the follow
lr.e: Capsicum vaseline.. ... 1 dram
White vaseline 1 ounco
E. H.-llv hands are continually per
spiring, which makes It almost Impossible
for me to perform my work. What do
Apply nutgall ointment or vinegar to
the hands or bathe them In formalin
nnd water, half a teaapoonful to a pint