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8 THE WASHINGTON TDIES. SATURDAY, MAY 11; 1918. Proper Pistons and Piston Rings Increase Power and. Decrease Fuel Consumption . Ife2 W 9 : g") ?L jtZeLJ nT ? ANSWERS Llewelyn Powers Jones Editorial Note: In the absence of oar mechanical ex pert, Mr. Llewelyn Powers Jones, the Questions and Answers have been left in the capable hands of his secretary MISS GWENDOLINE O'HOLLORAN. Send Florrtra. The present price ot gasoline, the low RaRts I receive as a de partment clerk and my love for my car nave made me unhappy If I work late enough to buy casollne and buy food for -ny family I haven't time to run my car. If I take time enough to enjoy the car I haven't money enough to buy gas. What do you euggeatT CLERK." Clerk There is only one thins for rou to do; pay up your life insurance, run your car into the gar age and close the door and windows tightly, then turn on the motor and lie down. Old Carbon Monoxide will do the rest cations and understood. have never quite U K.M. Li. K. M. A trouble light is one of them sneaky flash lights-people flash in your face when you are sitting in a hammock or some place like that. They call them trouble lamps be cause a lot of people have got Into trouble flashing them and a lot more from having thee flashed. Owner's Service Department Attention Commissioners. "I find as I come down Tenth street with my freshly washed car In the morning- that the streets are wet from the street sprink lers. This spatters me and the car. Why cannot this work be done at eight? NORTHWEST." Northwest There is shortage of farm labor this year and less land Is under cultivation so the fertilizer factories are not using as much bone as they used to. Try Eleventh street. Ileleted by Censer. "Twice recently when my ear has been parked in front of a theater I have come out to Cnd my fenders bent and mashed. In neither case did the car doing the damage leave its name or offer to make good the damage. "PROTEST." Protest Cars are like that. They hardly ever leave their names. If it is the driver you are talking about we cannot tell you what we think of him as there are tender ladles and sweet little children who read this column. Sports. "What Is the maximum amper age obtainable on a high voltage motor boat battery? POTOMAC." We hare never seen one ourselves so cannot say, but we know a fellow who shot one last winter down on Accotink creek that he says weighed nine pounds. Tires. "What Is the advantage In the use of so-called oversized tires? Do they wear longer? RUBBER." Ruber There is no such thing as a tire which wears longer. They all wear ltss, less than the factory guarantee, less than the salesman's promise, less than you expected, and less than they used to. Carbureter. Why Is it many carbureters require an air or gasoline adjust ment for variable motor teeds between wide limits? GAS." Gas We didn't know they did. They very likely have good reasons ot a personal character for doing it. We believe in the plan of living our own life in our own way and giving omers tno same privilege. KIit. "Is it true that sand is the only thing required to extinguish fire in a garage? OWNER." Owner Yes, that and a fire ex tingulsher. But if you haven't got the sand tc go Into the garage the fire extinguisher is not much value The best fire extinguisher is an in surance policy which gives you that "I should worry" feeling. toother Dodo. "Can you not through your column adtocate a raise in pay for the hnent mechanic in the automobile repair shops? -O G. H." O G H.- mechanlc' -What-d'-ye-mean, honest Get a Fan. "Is there any instrument a all able by which I may determine the point at which the mixture of water and alcohol in my radiator will freeze' RADIATOR." Radiator I know of no such in strument, but would think the point would be about December 15 In this climate. Ii would be at a later point further South. More Light. "What are trouble lamps? I see them mentioned in motor publl- How do you measure the specific gravity of different gasolines? What Is the real significance of the gravity of gasoline or kerosene If either fuel Is heated too much wont is lose its pep altogether? B. T. U 1. I Dresnmn vntt m,an d,t,n,lti. its Baume gravity which Is different from Its specific gravity. The specific gravity Is the weight of liquid com pared with an equal quantity of pure water. Thus a cubic centimetre of water weigns one gram and water is Said to have a. nnerlflr privltv nf unuy. All comparisons are made with water as 1. Thus a specific gravity of three means the substance weighs "' iimes as mucn as water. It Is Usual to measurA crrikvltlit hv mana of a hydrometer which may be had With regular nr TtattmA aa1 Tha gravity has little significance. The initial and final cooling points are the real factors. If heated too much un der pressure It will crack or split into other compounds. I am going to do some touring this summer and need a few tips. Is It a food Idea If lots of traveling Is done n the day and none at night to have the generator fixed so It won't over charge the battery. Also is well water good to put in the battery or should I carry some distilled water along. You can have the service station alter the charging rate for you. Also you might burn the lamps a certain period during the day or use the start, er a few times to partly discharge the battery. Some well water Is all right. Better take some distilled water along. I have a Ford car and am going to hook UD IflfflA hftfterlea fftr ntnrrtnir How many dry cells should I use? i nave a six ceil storage battery. How many cells should I use and how do you connect them? E. STANTINI. Four drv cells will da. Three cells of the battery connected In series will do the work. What ran be. dnnn In n fmrprarv il a pressure pump goes oaa on the road and there Is no oil feed? Looks to me like the bearings will burn If you keep going. I mean If the pump can't be flxed.-IOHN OLESON. The safe way Is to so fill the crank case with oil that you get splash oiling. Of course, there may be much smoking but rather a great deal of smoking and overolllng than burned bearings and scored cylinders. Are liners for tires the right thing? Seems to me as though they are all right, but Imagine they make the tire kind of stlft NOVICE. Liners are excellent for worn tires, making Is possible to get much ad ditional mileage from them. They are not usually recommended for new tires. BEAUTY OF CARS IS EASILY PRESERVED A little systematic work on the part of the owner will preserve the oeauty and luster of a car If a few general directions are followed. Mud should never be permitted to dry on the car. Cold water, However, should not be flowed on the hood while it is hot. The excessive use of soap and using water with too much force are two matters not to be overlooked. Hot water will take the luster from the finish. The best medium for washing a car is good automobile soap, dissolved in a pall of water. Use a soft car rlag sponge and begin by flowing clear water In a gentle stream, which extends about six Inches from the end of the hose, over the wheels, chassis, and fenders. This will remove most of the mud and dust. Then cut the oily and greasy dirt with the soap so lution, sopping It on freely. Go over the parts again with clear water and let them dry. Tay your Income tax bow and our boys will help to deliver your mu- sase to the KaUrr. Piston and Piston Rings Among the subsidiary parts of the mechanism of the automobile en pine, none is more important or exerts a greater influence on satisfac tory operation than the piston and piston rings. Car owners generally n0tv.e tWs, but as a matter of fact it is only within very recent Years that the designers and engineers have begun to understand tbe importance of the matter, so the owner need not blush at his excusable ignorance. The 'work if the pistons is not by any means a sinecure. To begin with the pistd is receive the force of the impact of the exploding gases on the power stroke and this pressure often reaches 400 pounds per Omni men ot yjsion neau area. Next the piston descends on the intake stroke and creates a vacuum above it, which is filled by the new charge of explosive gas. And all this must be done in a temperature that at times will run as high as 500 degrees F. Obviously, then, the pistons must be made of sturdy material, that will keep its shai under the high temperature involved. There must not be any appreciable leakage of gas past the pistons, or the power of the engine will be greatly impaired, fuel consumption will be increased and by the same token there will be oil leakage and carbonization o fthe cylinder offlicted. A cylinder may be likened to an inverted tumbler, inside which are bosses to hold a pin or arm, to which is attached tho connecting rod. The function of the piston demands that it shall travel up and down within the cylinder. This means that it must be made just a tiny bit smaller than the inside of the cylinder, moreover ,the tendency of all metal to expand when heated, places very definite limitations to the tightness of the piston's fit But, there must not be so much space be tween cylinder and piston that the explosive gas can leak downward, and the lubricating oil force its way up from below. To obviate these possibilities, the piston is made with a number of grooves, two, three, or even four. In these grooves flexible rings, having a certain amount of spring, are fitted. Thes. rings stick out just a little bcybnd the surface of the piston, cling to the cylinder wall and consequently keep in the gas and prevent the oil from making its way into the combustion cham ber. From the beginning of the automobile age until today many dif ferent materials have been experimented with in the attempt to find the best piston material. At the present time cast-iron is the prevailing materia, but aluminum is making rapid strides into popular favor. Aluminum has the great advantage of lightness, which is more essential here than in any other part of the engine, because at this point the greatest burden of inertia must be overcome. In the beginning there was a great deal of trouble with the use of aluminum pistons. The de signers have discovered that if ribs are provided, the heat may be .conducted away from the piston head and this lighter metal will stand up as well as the heavier cast-iron. The elimination of a part of the heat ing propensity, also reduces carbonization. It was found that with aluminum -pistons there was likely to be a certain amount of so-called slapping before the motor warms up. This was due to the fact that owing to the much greater co-efficient of-ex-pansion in aluminum, it was necessary to allow greater clearances. Therefore, until the metal became heated and expanded, a certain amount of slapping was inevitable. This slapping is not noticed in present installations. If the water in the cooling system should get low, excessive heating will quickly develop in the aluminum type. Further, if the composition of these pistons is rot right .trouble will ensue speedily, but today there is little to be feared on this Fcore because the manufacturers have well learned their lessons in composition and design. In cases where aluminum pistons are not desired or cannot be fit ted, it is possible to get a fair degree of lightness by drilling the 'ordi nary cast-iron piston. Drilling the piston must be earned out not only with skill but with a full understanding or. just wnat tne requirements of the case are. It is common practice to drill the ordinary piston in two or three places to secure drainage of an excess of oil, which has been getting into the combustion chamber. Frequently the lower piston ring groove will be bored with a number of small holes to permit drain ing. The practice of fitting a wiper ring in the lower groove to remove excess oil from the cylinder Wall and distribute it evenly, is often re sorted to. In cases where the pistons are not provided with oil grooves, these can be cut and will usually help in case where there has 'been habitual trouble with the lubrication of the cylinders. Many car owners have had trouble with leaky piston rings, which permits an excess of oil to work its way into the combustion chamber, while at the same time, the fuel is passing down into the oil reservoir. This produces a double waste, of oil and gasolene, in addition to impair ing the operating qualities of the car.' At the same time compression is reduced and the power of the engine is materially impaired and water is allowed to collect in the crankease, mixing with the oil and tending to destroy its lubricating value. To meet these conditions there have been placed upon the market within the past couple of years a number of patented rings of various types, each one claimed to solve the entire problem at one fell swoop. Some of these special rings are good and others are certainly no better than the ordinary split variety. Secondly the best of them must be properly fitted to give satisfactory results. Therefore, the car owner who buys patent rings, puts them in and considers the job done, may have an unpleasant surprise coming to him. Unless the owner is an expert mechanic, I would advise him to have his new rings fitted by the service station. In the case of Ford owners, it is now possible to get aluminum pistons with patent rings already in place. In fitting new pistons, it is necessary to have them lapped in, so as to obtain a perfect fit. Lapping in is- carried out with a fine abrasive, jeweler's rouge is good, and this material is mixed with oil or kerosene and is rubbed evenly over the surface of the piston. This latter is then inserted in the cylinder and worked around until it moves with perfect LICENSE PLATES FOR DRIVE-AWAYS USED MANY 1MES Dealers who have had difficulties with local officials In various places over the movement of strings of cars In "drlve-aways" from the factories can avoid trouble over license plates by purchasing a sufficient number of duplicates of their dealer's license plates to attach to each car In the string and using these for each suc cessive drive-away during the year. In a letter to the National Automo bile Chamber of Commerce, Francis M. Hugo, secretary of state for New lork. writes. "The motor vehldo law or the Stat does not Suthorize this office either to grant privileges (for run ning cars through the State under their own power) or to Issue any transit tags. TKe proper way to do Is to cret nut extra set f.9 tlr plates, enough to cover all shipments I or cars, to be used on the cars while gotng through tbe State, After the cars are delivered at their destina tion, the plates can be shipped back j to the manufacturer and used for the next lot. "Most of the dealers have seouleseed In this suggestion and have found It very successful, and It would seem to me to meet the situation." The U. S. Government- Has recommended a farther cut in the production of pleasure cars. You all know what that meansit will be that much harder to get your BUICK if you dont order it at once. STANLEY H. HORNER RETAIL DISTRIBUTER Connecticut Ave. at L St Service Station Phone M.' 5296 Rear 1116 15th St ilSililSBSJSJJJJJJJJfJSJSJiSJSSJBSJBSJSJiBJJBiJJJJIBJJJjaj The "Different" Tire Tou can tell AJax Tires by their special features. They are plain to see and there for a reason. In a tire you want miles, you Want comfort, too and uniform service. AJAX Shoulders of Strength make this tire different from every other. See. in the picture. Just how these supporting shoulders are built out, to reinforce, and cushl6n the tread." This means more rubber where It should be extra strength where the road strain comes. No other tire has this excess mileage feature. AJax controls the patents. AJAX ROAD KING MILLERSELLSFORLESS STANDARD' TIRES MAKES any AJax -ineres one In raler our neigh- y borhood HARTIG TIRE & RUBBER CO. Distributors 1112 14lh SL H. W. mona . 751 While Other Are Claiming "? Are unar antrelnc It" fay us three more dollars than the regular price of a single tire and get two popular make tires. Pay us one dollar more than regular price of a single tube and get two popular make tubes. $1 Tube Sale" $3 Tire Sale List Our List Our price price prCO prlce Fully for for Fully for for Guar- ONE TWO Uuar- ONE TWO anteed TUBE TUBES anteed TIRE TIRES 52x2.v ??; i?; a0x2 ,s" m.73 22551?- -J is 5-i5 soxji... 20.10 21.10 31x4 5 40 6.40 11x4 11.19 II. ( 32x4 5.55 6.55 2:x4 ... Jl.JJ 14.11 33x4.., . 6 70 fiTO 33x4 33.50 3S.S0 34x4 .. 53 83 34x4. ...34.32 37 32 34x4,... 7.20 S.20 34x4 'i . . .44.50 47.S0 35x4 4... 7.35 8.35 35x4 W .. .47.55 50.S3 36x4 Vi... 7 55 S.55 35x4 'J .. .48.35 5135 27x5 9.20 10.20 37x5 59.20 E2.20 'ME I mmW tLmW F i' if LijiU'I I sBsi. .ilisiiiBri m -EXTRA SPECIAL Diamond Guaranteed "Firsts" . .All Popular Siesv .. At Slashing Cut-Rate Prices Si SS-rrTlrTSa EAltlliOiHO 812 14th St. N. W. Phone Franklin 3684 freedom, after which both parts are thorourhly cleaned. B'sTirnSifaTIenKTBUB.KB'BisaftH.VHitHVHlB&VtSSxnsssfBIxas' ... j. .-.-- '" : m.m.-m7mmim-w-msm-m-m.'7mvmm'mirmrm'.fitmmwmiim.' 7 11 W Mi lfGUAHAHTKDEmal5DD0H)lgFJ STANLEY STEAM CAR THERE must be something worth knowing about a car which, single-handed for 22 years and with consistent profit to its makers, has waged a successful fight for steam power for automobiles. That something is Just this Stored Power. The Stanley, with its steam power plant, not only delivers as it always has a better perform ance than any other car, but exactly the perform ance you have always wanted in an automobile. It has no gears to shift no clutch to pedal no carburetor no ignition system no self-starter. But it has stored power. And its fuel is kerosene. - O.V DISPI.AT AT OCR SHOWROOMS STEAM CAR SALES CORPORATION 1405 H SL N. W. Remember This Is i1g - 'BBlSm i r National Bicycle Week GET ON A "BLACK BEAUTY" And Pedal Your Way to Health This Summer ri t I How do you feel after being penned up in a stuffy office all day? How much would you give for the rush of pure summer air when you are riding home on a stuffy trolley? Compare that to the joy of riding a "Black Beauty" to and from work every day and the "Black Beauty" only represents $37.00 in carfare! Terms as Low as PER WEEK DAYTON ECLIPSE HAVERFORD NORSMAN $HUP Haverford Cycle Co 522 10th Street Near F Street Agents for Excelsior and Henderson Motorcycles and Merkle Motorwheel. eu a ii:- :: G a e::B. !;B Bin ED 3 0 b!:b na a a a::a Z;b s::h I Bin DEN BY MOTOR TRUCKS Immediate Delivery We have on hand a limited number of every type of the Denby Truck that can be delivered at once. Regarding "Denby Economy" In commenting on the satisfaction Denby Motor Trucks were giving them Mr. Acheson, vice president of The Littlefield, Alvord & Co., said, "We were more than pleased to find that the Gasoline Consumption of our 3-ton Denbys was 25 per cent less than that of another one-ton truck that we had." Henderson Motor Car Company 932 14th St. N. W. Phone Franklin 5611 m '3. a i s snr-wrB '.u Tm im iwwmtm' u m - btb h - h n-xsrca wn ',r m Si ml 3:1 S:" ii 5il a il-ag B m Si Bl H g S: : Ei- I:;9 Bi! M a B,- iS m m .mm m' : J: SB Bf a?1 ! ' i B iiiB :: K. EL-BLJB-Sjai - a B a Bs:aim-iL:B-iBxi.iUfa:a. m?