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ll Uj-rar, Jl s ll x Map showing the Conn. Taken by the Miscalled "Spanish Influenza" from the Trenches to the United States.. Originating Within the Greman Lines it First Spread Through Germany, Having Been Communicated by Soldiers oa Leave or Returning Wounded. Making Jts Way Through Prisoners Into France, It Followed, Through Causes Not Yet Known, a Well-Marked line Into Spain, Where It Increased in VIrulency and Gained Its Name. From Spain It Returned Again to France, from Whence It Was Car ried by Infected Persons on Ships Both to England and to America. Its Transmission Into the Scandinarian Neutral Countries, Where It Has Claimed Many Lives, Seems to Hare Been by Way of Belgium and Holland. By Dr. Gordon Henry THE first really serious epidemic of disease produced by the great war is that called "the Bpaniah Influ enza" which has caused deplorable mor tality In New York and New England. At the outset It should be said that the term "Spanish infiuenxa" Is clearly an error, and that the name should be "Ger man Influenza," for Investigation proves that the disease originated In the German trenches. It has since made a tour ot the entire civilized world, In the course ot which It broke out with especial severity in Spain, owing to certain local conditions. The French, noting Its ravages in Spain, and not having suffered very badly them selves, gave It the title "Spanish Influ- ua" That this should be the only epidemic disease produced by the world war Is a remarkable proof of the protection afforded to ns. by modern medicine and hygiene. After nearly all other great wars, as a re sult ot the misery, starvation and enfeeble ment of the population, there have been great outbreaks of pestilence, which have depopulated cities and even countries. The disease generally known as "the bubonic plague" is the great plague which caused the great ravages of past war epochs, its cost in human lives has not been less than two billions. In addition, out breaks of smallpox, cholera, typhus and yellow fever have followed debilitating wars. Fortunately our enormous progress in medicine and our material resources for combating disease give assurance that no plague epidemic of such magnitude as those ot the past can orcur in America at the present time. How widespread has been the outbreak of Spanish Influenza Is shown by the fact that our Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt, suffered from it, while, at about the time he was recovering the youngest son of the King of Sweden died of it. The first known advent of the influenza In this country occurred when the Nor wegian ship Bergensfjord arrived at New York on August 12 with twenty-five cases, three ot whom died, but there were prob ably other sources of infection, apart from the report that the German U-boats sur reptitiously disseminated the Infection in this country. Independent sources of in fection, apparently, reached Boston and New England, where the disease raged most alarmingly, causing seventy deaths in one day and 9.000 cases at the Camp Devens military camp. And now just what happens to the suf ferer from Spanish Influenza? From obser vations ot one thousand soldiers It was found that from one to three days after contact or approach to others who had Ibo disease a feverish state began This fever rose steadily until on the second or third day afterwards, it was as high as occurs in pneumonia. In many cases it went as high at 104 deg. Fahr. Indeed, it is ap parent that one of the most common as well as the most dangerous complications is that ot pneumonia. The disease starts with a chill or chills that may shake the whole room you're in Severe headaches, with pains in the legs, In the groin. In the neck, in the spine, and in the small of the back are generally present Then "that tired feeling." named by doc tors "general malaise," takes charge of the safferer'a anatomy The Ictlm feels wretched all over Fever blisters, those frequent accompaniments of pneumonia, of meningitis and of tertian malaria, "break jut" on the sufferer's lips. The face becomes flushed, a thermom eter stuck under the tongue registers 102 to 104 degroes. and the victim as well as his doctors knows he's in for it badly. Spanish influenza "cures or kills" in Liberty motor speed. Within four days the worst Is usually over. About the second day the abrupt crisis takes place. On the fourth day the patient is either as well as he ever was, or pneumonia or another com plication asserts its dangerous presence. A harsh cough is a frequently encountered 2 ft Hirshberg', A. M., M. D. symptom. The patient thus hacks and sprays forth lots of the microbes, which spread the infection rapidly unlcBs handlod with the greatest precaution. A thick, tenacious sputum of a whitish mucoid character distinguishes this new disease from the well-known old influenza with its greenish sputum. This also dis tinguishes Spanish Influenza from pneumo nia, with Its typical "rusty colored tough expectoration." Failure of Intestinal action, a restricted flow of the kidney fluids and a want of appetite rlay a large role In the charac teristic signs and symptoms ot Spanish Influenza. If you take close notice of the several differences between this new malady and the old influenza, you will observe that the fever Is sharper, higher, but of shorter duration; the total course of the new scourge Is briefer; thero are fewer stomach or intestinal Bymptoms in the Spanish influenza, whereas in the previously known influenza gastro-Intestinal disturbances were predominant. A most important discovery has just been made nith regard to this disease The specific microbe which causes It has been definitely isolated. This is a complete disproof of the assertion In some medical publications that the bacillus was the same as that of the old influenza, or grip. This Interesting discovery Is due to the researches of three English army sur geons. Captains T. R. Little, C. J. Garafalo and P. A. Williams, ot the Canadian Mo bile Bacteriological Laboratory, attached to the British base hospitals. The last great pandemic of grip, or in fluenza, lasted threo years, from 1889 until 1892. It spread like wildfire over the civilized world during that period. Then several American bacteriologists at work simultaneously and Professor Pfeiffer dis covered the grip germ, or influenza bacil lus, which has since been confirmed and established as the specific cause of the colds, pains, backaches and other classical symptoms of the old-time grip. The present scourge, it was soon found, is much more malignant and entirely dif ferent from the other The manner in which the bacterial agent which causes this plague was run to earth is a model of the bacteriological skill, su premacy, efficiency and patience of the English and American medical staffs. It was recognized that the rapidity with which the contagion spread pretty well pointed to some microbe or bacterium as the guilty party. It was also argued that the causative agent must lurk at least a large part of the time in or near the air passages of the victim. The coughs, the sputum tho pneumonia and bronchitis complications, the spray from the nose and throat as it came in direct contact with the men or reached them through plates, dishes and linens, seemed to Invito bacteriological searches and microscopic studies Fortunately, for all of us on thlb side of the ocean, medical science has mcceeded in Isolating and Identifying the germs in just that way at the very beginning of the American epidemic, which is thereforo like ly to be nipped in the bud. The new bacillus is not in tho blood. Cultivation ot It Is impossible from this source It Is lucky that so demoniacal a bug does not penetrate thf delicate fluid tissue of man. Then Its malignancy would perhaps be tenfold. However, when the bacteriologists ex plored the discharges and excretions from the nose, the pharynx and the throat, lo nnd behold! their pioneer work was at last rewarded. Spread upon glass and examined under a magnification of 1,200 times, a new microscopic living world opened up before their astonished gaze A veritable beehive of trembling, vibrat ing bacilli almost as round and as small and resembling tho dlplococcus of menlngi lis loomed up beneath tho high magnlflca tions of the microscope. A dlplococcus is a type of microbe In which two disc-like hhapes are attached to one another. At the poles or opposing ends of this myriad of tiny germs their torpedo, blunt noses were flattened out to make them al most biscuit shaped. How the First Real Epidemic of the World War Spread from the German Trenches and Why Science Believes It Has Averted All Danger of Catastrophic eeBBBBBBBBBBseBBBBBBaBBBBBBBBBBBBK Meet Si,viU Mulct Snch as This Are Being Wore by Sufferer In the Camps and by all Thote Who Coma In Contact with Them, Thai Entirely Doing Away with Danger of Communicating the Infection. In no "smears" of these bacteria were there any ot the well-known Pfeiffer bacilli of influenza or any double cocci ot pneu monia. The newly discovered germ has charac teristics peculiarly Its own. These are de scribed in technical reports In the London Lancet for July and the British Medical Journal tor August 10, 1918. As a rule there are so many bacteria that are superficially at first glance exactly alike that a mere Inspection nf them un dyed or unstained under the microscope without planting them In various small test tubes of different soils would fool even ex perts into believing that they are similar and Identifiable. On this account It is that bacteriologists must use a great many other teBts to con vince themselves and their skeptical con freres and enemies tbat they have a new and a different germ. It Is done in this way. When they And and isolate a bacterium and under the microscope it resembles even when stained blue or otherwise, dyed the dlplo cocci of pneumonia or meningitis both of which also look alike they "put iodine on Its' tall," as It were. If It "takes" it Is thus differentiated into one of two groups which take or do not take iodine. Then it Is planted In gelatine. It either grows and melts the gelatine or It does not. Thus another group Is found. Then potato, moss, agar, banana, blood serum and other soils are used until a whole series of facts are found about a germ which show it to be different from all hitherto discovered ones. Thus it is with the new germ. The med ical gentlemen determined that it has none of the earmarks of any bacillus; that has ever been "brought into captivity." This bacillus we have found grows with extreme reluctance upon the various "media" or Jlelds on which most other micro-organisms thriie. It hankers after blood. It thrives and grows best on blood serum media, although it does not grow In the human blood There is a luxuriant, rich, abundant sprouting of tho malicious bacillus In this serum soil, which explains why Spanish in fluenza clings so tenaciously to the lips, the tongue, the mouth and the gums ot its victims and its "carriers." The physicians and. scientists of the Allied countries are, seriously considering whether or not the germs of this disease have been intentionally disseminated by the German Government with the Inten tion of weakening their opponents. No definite conclusion has been reached on this point, but the charge canot be hastily dismissed, os tho German Government has already been convicted of employing dis ease germs against civilians In Rumania. Tho disease was first observed by army doctors to bo raging in the German trenches on the Flanders front in the wet weather of last Spring. From the front It passed to the weakened interior imputa tion of Germany with great severity. It then broke out in Spain, and as the French civilians first noticed its ravages there they called it Spanish influenza. It Is sig nificant that Intercourse between Germany and Spain by U-boat and in other ways has been particularly frequent From these two centres its world-wide, spread has started. Toniri-ht Vim by Star Company m y, 7jl4F. Jy f IjMalssssssssssssssssssssssT I Pestilences Such as Have Followed Many of the Great Wars of the Past I BBBBBBBCfSaBflaBBBBSvlBtaP''"! ..eBBBBasBBBBBHBU$vi &BBtSBBBB9mlUEU Tha Engluh Artlit Collier' Famous Picture of "The Plague." Sack Epidemic a Tfck Which Ravaged England and Almost All of Esrepe fat the Srvsnteealfc and Earlier Cen turie Are Now Impossible, Modern Medical Science Having Devised Infallible Mesa of Coping with Them. The Influenza, Bad a It Is, I Sfigbt Disorder Compared to Ancient Pestueneet That FoBowed War. Facts About "Spanish Influenza9 and How to Protect Yourself Against It THE disease begins two or three days after infection with fever, heavy sneezing, headache, aching bones and general pains. All colds with high fever should be put to bed and the doctor called. Infection is mostly caused by reck less sneezing, coughing and spitting. Avoid these practices and those who have them. To guard against infection, keep the mouth and nose clean with a mild anti septic wash (see accompanying article). Medical treatment consists of rest, abundant food, aperients, and quinine, with Dover powders to stop pain. . The disease started in the German trenches, passed to Spain and then spread over the civilized world. Tbat the influenza germs have been se cretly scattered in this country by German U-boats is a charge difficult to prove, but their gas attacks on crows of our light ships and lighthouses furnish character evidence against them. It Is scientifically demonstrated that the germs Increase in virulence with the num ber ot persons they pass throngh, until finally tho system acquires immunity against them through infection. Treatment for tho disease is simple. Surgeon-General Blue, of the Public Health Service, summarizes it as follows: "Rest In bed, fresh air, abundant food, free action of intestines, with Dover's powder for tho relief of pain. Every caso with fever should ho regarded as serious and kept in bed." In order to guard against Infection It Is necessary to keep the mouth and noso clean and healthy by means of some mild antiseptic and to treat all colds promptly. A wash composed of one teaspoonful boric acid, ono teaspoonful bicarbonate of soda and one teaspoonful of common salt will Orcat Uritaln Rights Reserved. i-MessssssssssssssMBw'Bsssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssl -M$l -v 'raaaaaaaLaaaaaasHsllllK? . - -- - :--?iLLLLLLLLLLsssssssY WLHPlSNL - f!?eeeHeeeeBsssssssssssfl mNtmtf&ffiK, & JeaaaaaaBssssssssssPai MiV 1 x, WJMheesssi?gsasssssssV . XJ ? Photo- K8W:sWB&m&&9maMI. . "-ijw J imut ilSvK WEfe:5S!4SBWillllak . ? . i sterns 4 .tWKtttl sad th . PaMMe WUeh An taftcttea. It Is ttofyotV Dmty U k Theu mif CiMft M Ditoto K sfeteat by Some MM m1 &H AaiitttJc Tha LHri Skew tfu !. A Canadian army doctors have found that Spanish influenza is caused by a new, hitherto unrecognized bacillus, quite different from that of the old Pneumonia may occur as a complies. tion, unless" careful treatment with rest in bed be given. Medical measures already taken will make it impossible for the Spanish in fluenza to become a serious menace to the health of the army. An accusation that the disease has been intentionally disseminated by Ger man U-boats is being investigated by medical authorities. The first identified case reached the United States in a Norwegian ship on August 31. be found very useful in keeping nose and throat clean. The disease is spread by "droplet infec tion," that is, by little drops swarming with germs scattered by infected persons who sneeze, spit and cough In public places. Ono sneeze in a street car may Infect a whole city. It is therefore very comforting to know that Health Commissioner Copeland, ot New York, hascalled a meeting of theatri cal managers and others with a view to enforcing tho laws against spitting in public. Kissing is another prolific method of In fection, and this practice should be stopped except In cases where it is absolutely In dispensable to happiness. Kissing between members ot the gentle sex can certainly be abolished without hardship. Army doctors have found the "gauze face mask" very useful In preventing infection. This is made with three or four layers of gauze In the shape of a rectangle Ave by seven Inches, covering the mouth and nose and secured by a band over the ears and round the back of the head. iViE!iliSllK ? iSSJSSSSJQSk iSSSSSfr v rt , sIDlLKllW y- ") Jin " fm vxzx Yflniy) E 'I f . ) m Diagram of the Mechanism of the Sneeae, Showing the Courso of the Mut- culer Spasm Which Spreads "Droplet Infection." When an irritating substance enters the nostrils it lodges in the Schneiderian Membrane and irritates the nasal nerve (A), the sensation follow the Fifth Nerve (B) to Meckel's Ganglion (C), whence it reaches the sympathetic nerve system (D). It passes along D and is carried by the Phrenic Nerve (E), con trolling (F) the diaphragm. Under the irritant nerve impulse there, is a spasm of the diaphragm which forces a violent expiration of air from the lungs (G), up through the Trachea (H), out of the mouth and nose (I), producing what we call the sneeze. The mask Is employed in the army camps as follows: 1. It Is worn by all patients unless iso lated. 2. It is worn by all doctors and other persons coming in contact with patients 1