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'& &X?fii. .. .. ..LbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbMbK-'"' riWK-tt-.y' a?ii- .5 -iWTStuteB Cf the Nautical Almatrtch OfRee, United States Nival Obiervatory, Wathlnnton OBSERVATIONS ot the total eclipse at the Bun that tras-Ttslbld la the United -elates on the eighth, ot last June hare yielded result that will be ot great value to science. A larte number of "excellent photographic and spectroscopic records ot the solar corona, that la risible only during the briet moments ot a total eclipse of the sun, were obtalned.br nearly all of the eclipse expeditions that were sta tioned along the path- ot totality in the - western. States from Washington to Kansas. It Is expected that tho information de rlTed from careful future examinations ot these records will materially assist in ad vancing our knowledge ot the nature ot the solar radiations and the connections existing between the snn spot cycle ot solar activity and all the attendant, compli cated phenomena of the Upper solar at mosphere, as well as the resulting changes In the earth's magnetism and weather con ditions. On nearly eTry clear day for several weeks preceding the eventful day of the eclipse sun spot groups were to be seen on the surface of the sun. The period of maximum solar activity for this cycle was passed only a year or so ago, and as the decline toward the period of minimum ac tivity several years hence is very gradual it was predicted that the light of that mysterious halo ot the sun, the corona, would be unusually brilliant. This predic tion was fulfilled, for the corona, visible during the eclipse ofJune 8, will go down Into eclipse history as one ot the most brilliant and Interesting in its complicated structure of any ot the eclipses ot recent years. Prints from original negatives unfortu nately fall utterly to convey to us any Idea of the magnificence ot the coronal structure, while the exquisite pearly radiance ot Its light, described by observers of this eclipse as bluish-white, is but a cherished memory to those who were fortunate enough to ob serve It. To appreciate bow complex and Uit-lcate Is the structure ot the corona one must go either to the original' negatives that are full ot detail, to photographic copies on glass or drawings from the orig inal negatives. No adequate method for n-ro luclng the coronal structure on prints has yet been devised. The accompanying ri.-ivlng of tho corona made by Edison Pettlt from negatives obtained at Mathe son, Col gives us what the photographic prints cannot give an excellent Idea of the complicated structure of the corona. It must be left to the painter to convey to the mind the superb coloring, the con trasting effect of the blood-red prom!- -nences, that were so conspicuous in this eclipse, with the grayish tinged disk of the occulting moon, the orange-tinged chromo sphere and the pearly light of the coronal streamers interlaced to form the petals of some flowers gorgeous beyond description or curved Into a series of gothlc arches enveloping the most conspicuous promi nences and towering to a height of more than two hundred thousand miles above the' surface of the eun. -' teijiSw'2Sfi ' t rHPflB v5S-j 7jjW-- j&zjtty jMKBIBBHt! 3fS v1 tC- aeDt ' 'Xj axiPB Drawing of the Corona Made from Photographs Taken at Matheaon, Colorado, Showing the Com plicated Structure of the Corona. By Edison Pettlt The corona ot the June eclipse was very unsymmetrical, resembling a huge triangle in form, with the base to the west ot the sun and the apex to the east It is ot the mixed type. In which the more evenly de veloped streamers to the west represent the type associated with maximum sun spot activity and the longer equatorial, streamers to the east the sunspot minimum type, showing that tho decline toward min imum solar activity for this cycle has al ready begun. The longest coronal streamers, those to the east of the sun, It has been estimated, extend to a distance 'of fully three solar diameters, or over two and one-half mil lion miles. This distance is not unusual. In fact, during certain eclipses streamers eight or nine million miles in extent have been observed. The petal formation so noticeable In this eclipse has also been noted in certain past eclipses, particularly in the Indian eclipse of 189S. Most of the petal-forming streamers seem to originate near the limits of the sunspot tone, while those over the solar poles are straight. The arching ot the coronal rays over all the most Important prominences is con sidered to be very significant. It has also been Observed in sovcral past eclipses, and there sccma little doubt now that the same forces in the sun that produced the erup tive prominences were also responsible for the arches above them. It Is probable that the coronal streamers are largely electrical In their origin, just as the auroral stream ers of the earth's upper atmosphere are electrical phenomena. Evidence Is also forthcoming from the June eclipse to strengthen the view that condensed metallic vapors are projected to distances of several million miles from the solar surface far beyond tho limits reached by the prominences whose aver age height is from fifty thousand to one hundred thousand miles, though heights of over three hundred thousand miles have been attained by certain spectacular prom inences. The light of .the inner corona, it has jir f , . "'' i 3?i3f-BfeSSMK SKwUMS" 'a Sr fitjsW BSBBM l'rPU iff ' K? n BSSrrr & SStBJkjTi,enBf'4LinIi HpPaYf 0 'A bbbbb9c- -m .MSBSfSr Jji2K?f i'.i t '& sm - J SSSSSSSSSJTPe.AI' " I BBBBST !ik '& .BVT? itlTUL, Mf SSBSBfl BB t . SBBBBBBaKdBKwBBvff'.-'.iS&iBBBS "uli a SI Ul w.jBBm h BSSm K iBBKBBBv BBBBBBBKI9H"B"MBJtBSBB"H&3BB?'- !JSBBBlS)BBBB)t8iy BBBBBBBBS. - VSSSHBnSpVrSv-BSPBSSSSBSffWMj. SSI M IB - SSSSS1 Si BSSSff Jf. 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BJkBBT ABBBBBBftl CBlHHV'tflaV.SSSSvBBJBSSSSBya vtt -l BBBBBT!BBBnrJuJ m "bBBbVsBBBBBBBBBsV UBBBBBBBBBffHBBlBBHBsBBBBBvilbCBBBBBBB 'BbBSSBBBBBBBBBBBsVhBBB' IBBBBeBBSBKlOiBBBBBBBBBfaa' BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBsSBBBbI LC- ""lSm'jJSbBBBBBbV'bbV!.'?''-''' tliBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB'BBBM SBBBBBBSBBBBBb"bbbbBSi i -MAlNSBBBBBBBeBSWBBBBBBBC3MBBMBBBBlBBBBBBBBBtJt Astronomical Photographer Throwing an Image of the Sun Into a Camera 100 Feet in Length. been found from a preliminary study ot the spectograms taken on June S, consists chiefly of intense continuous radiations. That the light of the Inner corona Is not due to reflected sunllghtVto any great ex tent Is shown from the fact that the dark absorption lines of the normal rolar spec trums were absent. Five bright lines were seen clearly, and their wave lengths have been measured. Including the Important green line of the unknown element cor onium. The existence of seven additional bright Hues was suspected, but theso were ex tremely faint The corona has shown .In several recent eclipses as many as four teen bright lines very plainly. The com parative falntness of the lines in the cor ona observed in June is believed to bo due to the fact that the solar activity was very great at this time. As a result mora than the usual amount of solar matter was being ejected from the surface of the sun Into the Inner corona as well as Into the chromosphere, the lower solar atmosphere. This produced the unusual general bril Copyright, 1918, by Star Company. llancy of the corona and the relative falnt ness of the true coronal lines. Though the characteristic lines of the, corona were below the average In number and Inten sity, scores ot bright lines belonging to the gases of the prominences were re corded. It will be possible to obtain from the observations of this eclipse very accurate measurements of the green line ot coro nium. Preliminary measurements of this lllie place it at wave length 5303 Instead of 5317, the value that was held for so many years, and therefore confirms the results obtained by Professor W. W. Camp bell and others in more recent years. The location of this line In the spectrum Is of the greatest importance. It is useless to expect to identity the clement coronlum until It wave length Is known with a high degree of accuracy. It Is one of the first laws ot spectrum analysis that every chemical element has its own character istic line or group of lines In tho spectrum. Tho green line of the spectrum at wave length 5303, so far seen only during total Great Britain Rights Reserved. eclipse, belongs to the unknown element coronlum. It is strongly suspected that this Is not the only line of this element though it is the most intense one. It is believed that there are at least two or three fainter lines belonging to this element in the violet end ot the spectrum. It is also believed that there may be two of three mere unknown elements that are true coronal elements, occurring, however, less generally than coronlum. it Is not likely that all ot the fourteen or mdre bright lines "of unknown origin that have been observed in the corona belong Co the element coronlum. It is believed by cer tain scientists that the coronal lines rep-, resent some form of matter electrically excited. Knowing the accurate wave length of coronlum, it may fie possible to identify it by laboratory experiments with some element existing on the earth, Just as Ramsay, in 1895, discovered helium in -the mineral clevlte long after it had been discovered in the atmosphere ot the sun. According to spectroscopic observations recorded on June 8, showing the distribu tion of coronlum around the sun, aswell as several of the most characteristic) gaAa ot the prominences, this element is very irregularly distributed id the solar atmos phere. It occurred in greatest abundance In the sunspot sone, was observed to a considerable extent in the vicinity of the south solar .pole, but was entirety absent in the neighborhood of the north pole ot the sun. Moreover, its distribution was entirely independent ot the elements be-' longing to the prominences, 'thus showing that there is no necessary connection be tween the solar prominences and the ele ment coronlum. A most spectacular feature of the eclipse was the magnificent solar prominences, capped with sharply curved coronal arches. To the astronomer observations of tho prominences during totality are not now considered of great importance, since it has been possible tor some time to study these products of the ceaseless solar ac tivity on any clear day by means of suit able spectroscopic Instruments. Their association with the coronal arches In this eclipse, as well as In cer tain previous eclipses, is important, since it may lead to a better understanding of the nature and' underlying causes ot the peculiar coronal streamers. The promi nences observed In this eclipse were ofj The 3t' Cereea, Skowfcg Enrp- tiveTremiaeaees, Photographed Daring the Total Eclipse of Jus 8, 1918, at Greett River,. "Wyoming, hy the Expedition of the Yerkes Observatory average height The two most cqnsplcu ouswere apparently between fiftr thou sand: and sixty thousand miles in height though their actual height may have been somewhat greater owing to th effect of fore-shortening. One of these is most peculiar In form, resembjing the skeleton of some monstrous prehistoric creature, so huge that two or three planets the size ot the earth could be lodged In his skull. Spectroscopic records show considerable distortion ot the Images of this prominence. It was, thererure, extremely active. Such eruptive prominences frequently possess Velocities greater than one hundred miles per second, and undergo radical change of form within a very tew minutes. The accompanying photograph of the eclipse, taken by the Yerkea Observatory expedition at Green River, Wyoming, shows this peculiar prominence very clear ly. The eruptive varieties ot prominence are always extremely short-lived, coming and going aa the result of some myster ious form ot solar activity that undergoes a periodic cycle, ot change and regulates not only the frequency ot these outbursts ot Incandescent gases from the sun's in terior, brat also the frequency ot sunspots and many allied phenomena, such as the form of .the corona and the general mag netic field of the sun. Discoveries bearing upon the cause Of any one of these phe nomena may unravel the secret ot the oth ers, for all are different manifestations of some great underlying force that pulsates periodically through the sun's Interior. It Is still early to consider the cpmplete results ot the June eclipse. Since most ot the astronomers who observed it are now busily decupled with astronomical work connected with the war, and have had. in. many Instances, no opportunity to examine extensively the records obtained. Some of the photographs and spectrograms have not yet been developed and a number of ob servers have made only preliminary re ports. ' The total phase ot the eclipse was ob served with great success by the Lick Ob servatory expedition at Ooldendale, Wash. According to Professor'W. W. Campbell, director, ot the Lick Observatory, the ob servations are the most valuable obtained by any .expedition that has ever been sent out from the Lick Observatory. The United States Naval Observatory was granted an appropriation of three thou sand dollars by Congress in 1916 for the observation ot this eclipse, and, obtained valuable results at Baker, Oregon. The Yerkes Observatory was Interested In three stations, one at Green River, Wyo.; a sec ond at Denver,. Col., and the third at Matherson, Col. Observations ot great value were made at Matheson, where a number of expeditions trom college and State observatories were also stationed. Unfortunately, nor observations were pos sible at Denver, Col., where extensive plans had been made to observe the eclipse. Failure was due to the presence of dense clouds that pei slated throughout the entire eclipse period. WJfe-. - -3c.r Jfl' l.iV.i"