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The Washington times. (Washington [D.C.]) 1902-1939, November 27, 1919, FINAL EDITION, Image 10

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In the ??t???
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Piano of Today Evolved
From Toy of Egyptians
Interesting History Shows Modern Instrument Sprung From
Stringed Playthings of Primitive Construc
tion?Progress of Its Development
Of the ancient origin and the de
velopment of the plano a writer In
Lh'? N'ew York Sun ira<ei its history:
It is presumed that Egypt **a? th?*
first nation to brins; to a certain per
fection the stringed Instruments left
from ancient nations. Certain it 1?
tkat Kgypt is looked upon a? tbe
source whence the arts and sciences
were diffuse?} over Europe, and from
all ??-counts that w?_- now have this is
?acre than likely to be true.
Tbe-forerunners of our piano of to
day were the lyre, dulcimer, kythara
or guitar, the moniwhord and all harp
like Instrument??. These you will find
?mentioned in Biblical ?tories, and they
may be said, therefore, to date back
'ong before the birth of Christ. In
fact, th?*re is in possession of the Ber
ne. Museum a lyre of the Egyptian
mt?" dating back at least to 2000
?B. C.
The harp was also one of the favor
ite instruments of the Egyptians, and
*t> found delineated from the ear
nest ages In many different forms.
Thi.. Instrument dates back about
1.S00 years before Christ.
CU-lekvsra lalradaeed.
It is asserted that the first person
t*a d;**c?.?" er the principle of *h* mod?
?MM piano a as Pythagoras. This wss
?lone atx ot 500 B. C The instrunii.Ti
aras -a. ??'. a monochord and consist
*d of Lui a single string or wire
*?"??*t'-h???! over bridges fl-i**d on an
??bl'jiig box. In 10*25 or thereabout a
monk. Guido d'Areszo. who is consid
ered the founder of the modern muj?i
<sai system. Improved the monochord
by applying more strings, and later
ai-Met? keys.
It u a* not -until- the fourteentth
eeniury that the clavichord was in
troduced. To this Instrument was at
tache?! th? keyboard, and it was from
??- c!av .chor?! that th? idea of the
soia.--* pianofirte was taken.
In letrZ, the year t**at Columbir* dls
?sov.-red T_h*s ??-w "\?.*nr!<l. an Italian
tnver.; r-i -he ?lariej-tmoeJum. This
differ?**! very rns.terlalfy from the clav
ichor! and appeara to h ??.*??? been the
iriglnal of th* harpsichord. the
<r-.ngs tx?1?g disposed after the man
ner of the harp.
About two years later tha spinet
.ras invented by an Italian by the
tvarae of Spinetti and was ftyfTfowed by
the harpischord. This instrument was
?(Tid?*ntly svuj.-k.-evs? ? by the harp, from
which it raceived ils name, it Iras in
f-sc? only a 'arge sited spi dea, Tifie
?Tarma-* eail?**! ? the ??". u???!** au
account of t?-te resemble?**? to tnJ"
?ftapr of a wi??- _r_ti fiama IS still
med by Lheo?.
Flrat ?set lai ??sfai '
The honor of Introducing the frrs*.
?rrand piano ts generally ci_nc?-ded ??
-? ?
belong rightly to Bartolommeo ???t??- '
tefori, and It was not until the year
ICM that it was completed. Planos t
if hi* manufacture were not very,
?n .?--' ? I, aad It was not until the !
?rear 1T26 that the grand planos ?nade ?
by Gottfried Silbermann were recog
nized aa being the flrst to be prac- |
?leal. Siloermann's pianos were the
'svoritas of John Sebastian Bach They |
? ?ahnot be caJled perfect, however, for
tkey were of very limited powets,
induing from the style of Bach's com*
?ositiona The early sonatas of Haydn
Uso bear marks of the Influence of
nterestlng instrument.
Tee flrst square piano was made In
l?ndon about the year lTJi?. when It
was introduced by Johannes Zurape
The?? square pianos, on account of
?heir tone, which wa* particular^
.W?*e?. light touch and moderate pre??
?voddcnly rose to such favor that they
? ould not be made fast enough to
.?ratify the pubi .?* fondness for th*m.
The square piano wa* developed and
??entlmied In use In England for about
100 years, when the upright super
?ed?*d It.
That great mechanical genius Se
bastian Erard. a German, went to
Paris to se?*k larger fields for his in*?
-hanloal Ideas, and In the year 1775
began the manufacture of small piano
fortes of flve octaves with two pedals,
?he toae and mechanism of which are
?aid to have been truly remarkable for
that period. At tbe age of twenty-five
veers his reputation was so fully es
tablished that whoever wished to have
any idea* carried into execution ap
pli?*d to no one but him. The Queen
ordened an Instrument made to suit
her vote*:, which was of limited com
nasa. Erard rendered the keyboard of
this special Instrument movable, so
that by changing Its position a com
position might be played a semitone,
whole tone or even a minor third
lower or higher without tasking tbe
player's ability to transpose.
Rapid Htrtde? Had?.
P^apid strides were now made
toward Oie development of the piano
forte. John Broadwood. a Scotchman,
succeeded in making radical changes
? the construction of the square
plano, aad was the first to add pedals
to the piano, which were not known
-p to the year 17*3.
Pianos are now being made in the
form of grands and sqtisres. but it re
mained for John Isaac Hawkins, an
Rngllahman residing in Philadelphia,
?o matt;e the first upright piano. Thla
?a* in the year 1W?, when to him
was granted a patent for his inven
One of the earliest piano makers in
?he Cnited States was Joseph Hlsky. '
who had an establishment in Baiti- ?
more a* early as 1 e*M His instru- ,
menta srere very popular throughout
ihe Sotlthern States, which wer* sup- j
plied with musicsl instruments dur- '
ng that period through Charleston ,
or Baltimore, owing to their geo- t
graphical position
Tue Hlaky plan?? demonstrated very
careful construction: the cabinet <
work savored of ?risinality. and the
?luality of the tone is la this dsy of
? pleasing character, clearly showing
that he constructed his pianos on
acoustic principles far above th* c?.m
;?ia order.
I?????? -lari?- Herr
The flrst pian? o ?>?? mt it, ,* ' as?"
ingp'n. D. C an? b? Jo'iann .? Fran
? Kahl. *? i?> .-? ? .??? ? ? ipp ? ..tl?- -
?hip gt E'rankfoi t-on-ihe-li In. Kail!'.
uainibe? ut instruments wss? limited
but they were of a superior quallt;'.
having great durability and ?ixcellei?
.? aylng power?, and ?,???-????-_ a r??
fined ton?*. Every part of these In?
'atrument.? was made in ?ahl's ?hop.
He ?-ut the ivory for the key?, wound
the baas - - -?a- and dld all the cabi-i
net work on th?? frames. The mate-'
rial? wer?* bought In the raw ?t*t?.|
and with the ?imple to?la at his com-|
man?! and an inventive mind the dif
ferent pi??ea were formed and given
new life. Anally blending and molding
themaelve? Into a splendid Instrument.
Thi* piano la a fine exampl ? of an
extinct art whereby a piano maker
constructed the instrument In it* en
The flret distinctly American piano
was made by Jonas Chickering. whose
father waa a blackiinitb. The .?on
muat have Inherited some of the ster
ling qualities for which the village
blacksmith is proverbial, for he left
evidences of rare skill aa a roechani??
and of noble attributes as a man.
Following Chickering in the list of
piano makers we find the names or
such men as Sohmer, Weber, Knabe
and many others whose names ?hould
go on the roll of honor as having
given us such an instrument aa the
piano of today.
10,000 Voices Blended in Con
cert Feature of Armistice
What j* pcpbably the highest point
>et reac*a?d in the development of
3oncerts and mi?s?'l singing under
the> auspice? of business houses wa?
reached In the Armistice Day ranaical
program given at the Wanamalct
?tor? In Philadelphia and heard and
p-art?ei????.???"?! in by 10.000 people wfco
fUJ-vd the floor and the galleries about
th? great ?_Ui?idr<n?..??? rotunda of
j the" Imildtng., 9how<??*?? and count
era wr?? re?l?>Ve<i from large areaa
t?? make emmm% for serried ranka of
??airs. n-Me-riit. wu a Vie??ry
Jubilee tm?*efm?e?rX? or e pi* ode? de
| voted iuupe?eme?T *? Belgium.
France, <-Mpt ?Mtaln. Italv and
America, l^?^orUr "fcntente Cordiale."
<-*Mf tram*, s??*?_.
The mo?ttuMrXuctif- feature of the
(>?_i???-. urmtrnjaf playing of Charles
f'ourboln Jmr'^^S famous Wanamaker
orgaa and th?*? work of Albert >i.
Hoxie, widely known as a leader In
toe'"raujlc for the roa-sae*" movement,
who from a rostrum in the first gal
lery, conducted the vocal outpouring
of the large audience.
The evening began with **T_ Era
banconne," the Belgian national an
them, during which the crowd stood
in reverence and sympathy. The
"Maraaillaise,?" which opened the
French part, was given the same tri
bute. Then wan struck the memorial
note of the occasion when the organ
pealed forth the poignant straina of
the "I_?entation." T?y Alexander
n-eotttmi Choral TUtilmO,
It wa? In the third or British epi
sode that the massed singing effects
were intro?iuced. After one of the so
loists had finished singing the first
verse of "Hod Save the King.? the
audience Joined in with a second verse
from the "International Anthem."
which waa written In England to ex
preas the Imj-erishable brotherhood
between that ration and America.
Even more Impressive, however, was
the massed singing in the fine and
?imple old ?Scotch. Irtah and Welsh
folk song*, when the thousands of
vole?a. under Mr Hoxle's direction,
blended with the organ like the string
section of a great .?ymphony ort-hea
trm with the woodwinds and the
other choirs.
The climax of the program was the
fifth section, devoted to America, the
audience Joining with a will In the
stirring chorus of "Hattle Hymn of
the Republic" and other patriotic airs.
At the very end 'Taps" were sounded
by the bugle while the crowd stood
silently in honor of the heroic dead.
Music Calendar
28, Friday, 11 a. m.?Percy
V'eazie, barytone, and Mr-.. Heinl,
pianist. Fridav Morning Music
Club, at Cori-no.? Club.
28. Friday, 4:30 ? Prokofteff,
piano recital ; second of Ten Star
Serie?? National Theater.
1, Monday. ?** : 15 p. m. ?Francis
Roger?, in Old Knglish and Mod
ern Son-re; Wa. hingto? Society
of the Fine Arts. Central High
2. Tuesday. 4:30--Boston
Symphony Orchestra, National
4. Thursday, 4:31 ? Sistime
Quartet. National Theater.
9, Tuesday, 4:30?Philadel
phia Orchestra. No soloist. Na
tional Theater.
9, T-esday, 8:15?Rubinstein
CU: ? Cmrert.
11, Thursdny, 4:30 Cincin
nati Symphony Ore ?estra.
I ?* ?.?. eon iuiur. ?..' in ?I I hea
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