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"SSSr* i OWNER'S RESPONSIBILITY IN ACCIDENTS i ATSvt'
LEGAL POINTS FOR AUTOMOBILE OWNER , ?? ort imal rounmNDRNT. Tbe davelopn\ent of lb* law ftUIIni U ? uImmMIn b*f bMa u pkwtaitntl a* lb* development of the automobile laduatry It ??If Till btM?a, Mkiaiu and court Jecis loaa that ??? tbelr aiiattoc* to tbla com peratlvely new field of Industry, and <loal delusively with It, repreaent tba eyulva lent of many hundreds of volumes and ac tually amount la maay hundreds of tbou eai.da of pages of printed malarial Tbgt practically everybody la vary deeply s Reeled by this a?a and avar (rowing Itelrt ff law lg ? proposition that probably look* ? tba ? Journalistic exaggeration <If tbara la ? uob a euphcinlatlc modification of tba trvlb), but aa will b? aeea from tba aarlaa af articlra wblcb will appear In Saturday'* Automotlv* Hsctlon of Tba Times eaoh waah. and of which tbla la tha fourtaanth. ths atatamant made will baar tba severest test. In this eerlaa It la propoaad to fat tba "l?e*l" oat of the law relating to auto mobiles and to praaant It In euch a form 'bat It will Intareat. lnatruct and help Tim is readers In tbe great variety of ?it ?stlona wblcb arlae from time to time out nr tha ownarablp. uae. aala, purchase, man ufacture, repair or atorage of automobllea, or from the conditions due to the general uae of automobllea In tha variegated com plications of ?ur dally exlalencc. In pr?Tioua articles attention waa callod to the mis of law that tho ' owner of ? ear la not legally reapon albla fur an accident which uccara while hla chaulTaur la ualiif the car without hla employar'a knowledge . and agalnat hla inatructlona. An at I tauipt waa made In a recant New York daclaloB to cat away from this rule and to hold a motorist liabjle undar tha clreuinatanraa above Indi cated upon proof that In tha particu lar caaa In queatlon the chauffeur had been employed only tha day before tha accident, repreaentlng himself tu tha owner of the car aa a comj^tetit and duly llceuaed chauffeur, when the fact waa that ha waa not an experi enced -Irlver and had no llcenae. The argument waa that the owner could have dlacovered tha facta with out difficulty had ha made Inquiry, and that the law ahould hold him ra aponalble for an accident due to hl? employment of unqualified help. Thla ar(u nent did not aPt>eal to the court, however, which held that an employer la entitled to rely upon the repr< aentatlonn of a proapectlve employe until he learna from experi ence or otherwise that they are un true. In another New York caae juat de cided It la held that a verdict against the owner of a truck la not juatlfled where the only evidence of alleged negligence conslsta of the violation of an ordinance requiring trucks to be driven near the curb. There must be a direct connection between un accident and a violation of law at the time of Ita occurrence to render the owner liable. The aume case recognizee that the violation of speed ANY CAR SERVES 1814-1818 E St. N. W. Franklin 7201 Theodore P. Heap and Henry S. Wood ANNOUNCE _ . THE OPENING OF ?t The Um?ersal Tire and Accessory Store At 1502 14th St N. W. -4 1 In order to make room for a shipment of Diamond Tires we are selling a miscellaneous stock of TIRES AND TUBES AT 60% OFF LIST PRICE VULCANIZING AND RETREADING AT \0r'o LESS THAN REGULAR PRICE WE WANT YOUR PATRONAGE , Universal Tire and Accessory Co. 1502 14th St. N. W. A WEEK IMMEDIATE DELIVERY OF ALL MODELS Built in Our Own Factory At Philadelphia Guaranteed 5 Years The Standard of America Perfect in Design, Material and Finish Equipped With the Famous $10.00 Firestone Blue Top Non-Skid Tires Riding a BLACK BEAUTY Means Enjoying Good Health?START NOW Haverford Cycle Co. 522 10th St. N. W. (Below F St) Main 6588 regulations la always evidence of negligence which tha jury may take Into consideration aa Indicating re aponaiblllly lor an accident. The company and not tha person hiring the car la hold to be i eaponaible (?" an accident i.notr the following clrcumatancaa: Tha com pvny rents tha < ar und- r a written agreement requiring It to furnlih a chauffeur, who la to drive tha tilrar wharavar ha wanta to go and to pay ill axpanaea connoctod #Hli ili? main tenance and .pe.-til.m of tne tar. It further undertook to provide iM^r anca protectli.t for the hir?** against liability for ntCbl) acrident AH i!li actions In (he iM of tha car uiie given by the hlror, who a Ian fur nished inaala ta tl.? ehuuTtor when jeeaaion required. Ihvugh tlila .vaa not etipulatil in .h* contrail An llluatrat'in of the rule that (.either party t'i ?i accident .a tn tilled to dania?*? from the oiler If both were K'K'ly of li**llitttira, though In different degrees, la fur niahed by a re cnt t>hi.> dcclalit. In thla case It .tppenis that a. motor truck apprjajlicil a atree. car cuss ? ng at a g'*all> ex.-ci.alve jpted. al though th > vli* of ilia .rmla was obatructed by treea, and that a atreet car was ala.t appioa-'h py u>a ir as at an excessive rate of speed. A col lision reaulted. It is clour 'hat the accident could not havo happened it either of the partlea had been free from fault, hence n?!?n ?,? cotilil re cover the damages auualue'l. Mother-in-law had a hand in tha making o. .1 ,? . <? ui lllh ju . me. > . perennial question of whether undsr the peculiar facta of partlcu at cases the ownei of a car m?y be li-jld :e apor.(.ibit. for an accident v. hen ?he car lii i>elng driven by a m< inb-;r of h? i fr ir.ily It appears in i r.?ctnf decision of the court of appeals < f New York that the brother-ln-iav c.f the owner, being u guest ut the In ter'a home, borrowed the car > t hi? h ut to drive n< ther guest iiomt, thla other being the hoat's nio.iu , ? a 1 w. An i. to be expected from audi a combination of facta, an accitl?iu occuirtd during the trip, und liio in jured perfon attempted to ? nforcc a ?'aim for dnmag a againat the ? wner. The court held that the owner, was not liable, he not having consented to 111 14 ?'J Vi a4. h kAt V.l %-iaw ail | question. In a number of recent decisions It I has been held that liability cannot be fixed upon the owner upon the mere ! proof thut his car caused the <accl- ! dent; In addition t > ownership it must ! be proved, according to these deci sions, that at the time of the acci dent the car was being driven by the , owner, or by aome one who had an- i thorlty, expressed or Implied, to drive it as his agent or on his account. I Otherwise, these decisions slickest, owners would be frequen ly mulcted in damages In cases where their cliauf.'eurs surreptitiously use their | employers' cars whenever opportunity 1 affords. A decision of the supreme court of Michigan holds that the above rule does not apply?or at least that the j Inferences from the facts supply the ' necessary additional proof?where It j Is shown that the accident occurred 1 during the usual business hours, that the driver was tn the owner's employ j at the time of the accident, and that I the car was used by the owner for his general business purposes at about the time the accident occurred. In fixing the damage* to which a motorist is entitled where his car lias been put out of commission through the negligence of another, no allowance is made for the use of nnother car owned by him, or for the cost of storage of the damaged car pending Its repair or disposition, or for the wages paid the chauffeur while the car Is out of use. Nor Is any allowance made for the loss of pleasure, comfort an dconveniencc entailed while the car Is being re paired. A current law Journal points out that one of the titles of a recent vol ume of law Is: "Attorney's Fees? Automobile." It Is suggested that some lay motorist might be able to deal with that phase of the subject j with first-hand knowledge of the un- ! derlying facts. If ywi are in doubt about any' legal jtoints relating to automobilet, write to L. J. Faulkner, Automotive Editor of The Washington Times. Help Make Washington Safer. I Brute Power Mastered By a Child I The Master Five-Ton Truck Dump, Now Being Exhibited in Street* of Washington. The Dump Can Be Operated by a Ten-Year-Old Child. "Political Macadam" Gives Way to Practical Concrete Surfaces. What it means for it State to tako hold of its road problem from a Stat** point of view Is set forth In the Story of Delaware Highways, Just publish ed by the Delauarc Ctatn Program. The Delaware State Program la a co operative agency representing five of ficial State departments one of which la the highway department. About live year.' ago there wan not one mile of really permanent road, in the modern meaning of the term. In the State of Delaware. Today there Ik under construction or inmicdiatvly planned, a we!! conceived plan of prl 'nary north to south Slate road*, sup plemented by an extensive system of "State aid" roads, running east to wert nnd connecting with the State system. True, the roads are not com pleted, and not all of them me yel un der contract. The State primary system, as outlined, covers 27<> miles, of which seventy-three mllea are now complete. Convert to t'oarrelf. Like most of the other States of the I country In their modern rond-build ing programs. Delaware is a convert to the concrete road. There are many arguments for the concrete road, but the outsanding one |h the small cost of maintenance. The experience of Wayne county, Michigan a pioneer in trying out the concrete road, seems to prove this, to say nothing of the later experience of other States and communities. In the I.elaware High- i way pamphlet it Is set forth that the , cost of maintaining one mile of con crete per year does not exceed an ?v- | erage of flOrt per mile?-a vivid con- > trast to the sums, ranging up to $1,500 or beyond, per mile, which are still being expended In many commu nities for road maintenance. Kond building as a State enterprise Is still not very fully developed in this country. The Delaware State highway department was not estab lished until 1917. In Delaware, as In other States, the work that normally would have been done during the past few years was greatly held up by the war-time cost of labor and materials, and by the rulings of the War Indus- ! tries Hoard. In view of these things, the Delaware story of State roads is a story of distinct accomplishment. "State Aid" Important Feature. j One very Interesting point brought , out In the pamphlet u the growth of the "State aid" Idea. Inevitably, when a State takes hold of its roads as a State matter, it comes at once to URINGthe sharp Spring weather you will appreciate the all weather merits of OILDAG Lubricated with OILDAG your motor will start per fectly without cold weather troubles, and deliver max imum service with mini mum wear, and reduced oil and gas consumption. DISTRIBUTORS: Rudolph & West Co., 1M2 York Avf. N. W. National Electrical Supply Co., I3M Kemr v?rh Ave. K. W. F. P. May Hardware Company, 4* C Street Acheson Oildag Company, MO r Strret sr. w. recognize the need of an effective "Htate aid" system. V'p to the pres M( time. Delaware has been appro prlatlnK as "Htate aid" for road build ing only $30,000, $10,000 (or each county. This year the Htate Highway Department la making available tor "Htate aid" road work $750,000?$"50. 000 for each county. Another Interesting point that c<-men out in the Delaware pamphlet is the Increase In Htate funds for road building through automohlt? receipts. In Delaware State road fund* come from two sources?Income tax rev enue over $250,000 (which la very small) and automobile receipts, In cluding fees for registration of vehi cles and fees for the licenses of driv ers. It Is a notable fact that the automobile receipts for nine months of the year 19lit were almost eight times what they were for the entire year 1914, and more than double what they were In 1917. The volume of automobile traffic works both ways! It makes modern permanent roads more than ever necessary, but it a'so provides a not Inconsiderable source of revenue with which to build and to maintain them. Polities Poor Paving. Of especial Interest to engineers amj road builders everywhere will be that section of the Delaware High way pamphlet which deals with the organization of the department and the procedure and methods of work. The time Is past when a Htate can perpetrate with safety the "political macadam" road of old times. Modern roads are expensive, and the rltizens of the State are going to notice it If they do not last Among the poli cies noted in the Dele ware pamphlet for securing good roads are: the en gaging of reliable contractors, no matter whether tiny Use Inside the Htate or out; State responsibility for testing the materials used In the roads In the State's own laboratory, and good Inspection. The chief engineer of the Delaway highway system is Charles M. L'pham. Before he became head of the State highway system he constructed the du Pont Boulevard in southern Dela ware. PREDICTS 1920 WILL BE GREATEST FOR MOTORS "I predict that the year 1020 will see more uses of the automobile and motor truck than 1010." says J I*. Lynch, director of sales of the Kissel Motor Car Company. "It has become so Interwoven In our activities. In our social, Indus'.n-.l, business, governmental and profes sional activities**, that people hr>vc come to look upon it as a matter of course and a necessity they cannot get along without. "Hotels have started to put up their own garages and parking places ?the same is true of ^department stores and apartment houses. Kvt-j manufacturers and industries have their parking places for the automo biles of their employes. "Farmers are- erecting garages just as attractive as those In the city, and In every small community the ga rages are the most ? up-to-da'o and Imposing buildings In town No N'o matter where the motorist drives he has up-to-date service and a source of supplies just as efficient and ua to-date as If he was at home. "The motor truck has become th' business man's freight line, maki.ig him less dependent on the rsllraid.* for receiving and shipping good* anrt supplies. This Is particularly tru-? of the short line hauls, as the motor truck has been proven the most eco nomical lsbor and time saver in haul ing distances of 100 to 500 miles. "The ma nmoth good roads program laid out by each State insures ?hn! within a couple of years America will be the home of good roads, enabling automobile and motor trucks to drive across the continent without getting off of Improved highways and by ways. "Take it altogether, 1020 will be it record motor year from every stand point and In all walks of life. It hi become one of the leading Industrie ot the courtry. snd takes front rank In Its accomplishment in the matt r of Increased production, economy, and efficiency." GOODYEAR EMPLOYES SWAT HIGH UVINf Hi Costa Living I oat the declilon Ir * recent bout In Akron with the em ployes' store committee of the Good year Tire and Rubber Company. After s string of victories In every city Ir the country for several years, without having a single defeat chalkr against his record. Old HI took ter rifle punishment fr->m 4.000 employe' who purcltssed 10,000 bushels of pr tatoes for $1 00 a bushel. While th nld fellow Is groaning and recover Ing from this severe lolt, satlsflr Boodyearltes are consuming spue' with extra relish when they remetr ber the price of potatoes In Akroi was from $.1 to $(l at the time of th? ?ale. Driver* Cc Slow In Crossing S .reels HUGE FUNDS GIVEN FOR NEW HIGHWAYS Construction, However, Pre sents Problem Through Limitations. Funda ivilltble for the construc tlon of hard surface roada In ih< United tiiatea In 1MO are more thai three times greater than In any prev ioua year. Th# United Htates Depnri mant of Agric uiture estimates tin amount at |<183,000,000. and many leading authorltlea believe the appro prlatlona will reach a final total of $1,000,000,000 The prevloua max. mum yearly expenditure haa ntv* exceeded ? 200.000.000. Thla recognition ?f the need for adequate highways by the national. State and county leglalaturea la re garded by leaders In the motor truck Industry aa Indicative of the accept ance of highway transportation on u par with the railroada. Problem Nat Solved. "It doa not mean, however, that th good roada problem has been solved " said R. R. Fulton, vice presldanl <? ! the International Motor Company, manufacturer* of Mack trucks. In i? recent Interview. "The problem mere ly aaaumes a different aapect. "Although the American people are demanding a comprehenalve system of , highwaya, and ire willing to pay the price, the expenditure of thla Iuri appropriation Is dependent upon thrte j things: First, the supply of highway ! construction materials; second, the : ability of the raliroads to furnish ; enough cars to transport thla mi*. ; tcrlal, and, third, the ublllty of en^ - n<?rs and contractors, with the ic I imred labor, to handle the cons'riu j tlon. These three factors, under pr?a | ?nt conditions, are direct limltat'on on the anticipated highway program. "A shortage of road materials ;vill be sure to develop us the 1020 con struction Is put under way. I is estimated that the average cost our roads for next year will be about ?20,000 a mile. Allowing i/ut 400 tons of materials per mile, read construction will neid not less than 120,000,#00 tons of ma terials a figure far above the supply now avllable. The railroads at pres ent are seriously overburdened with freight arid are unable to handle even the present amount of traffic. The | demands upon engineers, contractors j und labor already exceed their ca ! p-"-lty. With the amount of money I willing to be cpent more than tripled I ind with facilities for Spending It 1< as adequate than formerly, ft is /ery doubtful thai the program can be carried out unless measures are dopted to overcome these llmitar tions. Will lae Trucks. "In this connection, it is certain that the motor truck will be called m to act aa its own benefactor by hauling the material from the source of supply to the construction area, and by taking over short haul ship ments from the railroads, thereby re leasing cars for transporting the ma terial over longer distances. "Highway transportation promot ers and good roads enthusiasts have won their point as far as public recognition is concerned, and it only 1 remains for construction facilities to [ be improved before this country will have a system of highways that will offer unlimited development ror mo I tor truck transportation." FORD RUNS 16 YEARS. The dealer for the Ford car in Co lumbus has Just accepted In triic. Ford car No. fl04, gold sixteen years ago and in almost daily service until It was traded. The dealer paid ?50 for It.?Motor Life. Auto Drivers Watch Out For' the Unexpected. l SECURITY AUTO SUPPLY CO. INCREASES CAPITAL The annual maallnif of tli? stock holdere of the Mecurlty Auto Hupply Co., Inc., wai held at the office of the company, Koom ?37. Woodward building, January 10. The following officer* were elected: President. William A. Craig; vice president. Raymond C. Urlggs. aecre t?ry and Ifi'ttrer, VV. W. Maloaey. 3d. The (o luwlna directors were elected: W illiam A. Craig, rkalrman W W. Maloney. Albert M Or. Merton A. English. Charles W. Jacob*. Joseph l>sly. John H. Waugh. Freder ick Urines, and J. II. Hunter. Afltr hearing the report of the sec retary and treasurer the stockholder* voted a 10 per cent dlvid.nd and a la* voted to Increase Ike capital I ??h to t32.<MlO. The rorp?rail<'i< >m4M over tUJ.oGO as Ita ftrst year's knjt IMS. ['WllMt'i ,0 INSURANCE IS THE AUTOISTS' PROTECTION No man or woman who owns an automobile li immune from mlahap and accident That you never have had one Is no assurance that ^ou won't have? and then there Is the ever present possibility of Arc and theft. 'i All this Is a source of worry?that can b* en.irelf eliminated If you will carry lho right kind of ri su ranee. For Instance we will write a policy for you ?ha' will lake care of all your trouble* In this particular >r ruch features an you may select. Go the limit that's the Judicious th'ng to do?and you'll rtni tfc" premium anything but expensive. The most Important thing of all. however, is the agtncy service. It will be to your supreme advan tage to let us attend to the details of this insurance matter for y >u. The reasons and the figures upon application ? Phone Main 001 <102. IF WE INSURE YOU YOU ARE INSURED LeRoy Mark IIncorporated I Colorado Building All kinds of the rirbt Hind of Isnuranrr. SIX MONTHS FREE SERVICE W.TH EVERY KLINE OPEN 24 HOURS EVERY DAY Am 1 nguroliunahlr Rr|iul>(lon of Twrlve Vrart Stundinc and Kiln.- tiuullty Jutllifjr thr ,4bo*r Offrr. ASK KIJXB OV% \EBS Kqtal|>prd nilli I.atrat Type i'nntlnmtnl IlrH Seal Motor Avrriurr. 16 Mllr? to thr Uiillon of (limolinr <.uaranlrr-?l. IMMEDIATE DELIVERIES KLINE KAR SALES CO. $?.*???<&? The Motor Car of Inherent Value jJJESIRING a car satisfactory in all weather and possessing the known mechanical advantages of the Knighr Sleeve-Valve Motor, you will find in the Stearns Coupe all that you could anticipate. n