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Faher 150 A Ramk tisOf the Ce of *0Cet.Md -'"a eci - tWah - asoma se w ro. s Ot . . ,. tf .,. ,. -woam "move . e C' cae ret athes, How the Gentle from a Vic c How the 'Prehisterie Cat Was a Moaster Feet TallM the Ansesters of Man Ony Pygmaes. By Dr. W. H. Ba RE remote ancestor of all the cats gentle little house cats, fence-roaming Toms, vociferous barnyard Romeos,, blue-ribbon winners, and just cats-has fbeen found petrified out in Colorado. He is fifteen million years old and so the kind of petrification Is at once made plain. A five-year study of him and the evidence that he carried about with him of his habits recalls ,the opening lines of Lang don Smith's great poem, "Evolution": When you were a tadpole and I was a fish, in the Paleeoolc time, And side by side on the ebbing tide We sprawled through the ooe and slime, Or skittered with many a caudal flip Through the depths of the Cambrian fen, My heart was rife with the joy of life, For I loved you even then. It recalls them because during the ages between the time that the petrified Colo .rado Tom yoamed about Colorado and to da y when us furry descendants sit so pon tentedly at his or her charming mistress's feet, a change has occurred between cat and man as great as between the tadpole and fish of Langdon Smith's poem and mnan end woman., in those days of the ancestor of the cats was a dinosaur, about 25 feet long and 12 feet high. Science has christened him Ceratosaurus, with the accent on the rat. I1t looked exactly like the reconstruction shown on thin page. and it was about the "fiercest, most cantankerous and devilish creation of its time-and that time was one which contained nIo striking examples of meekness or gentleness of any kind. The ancestor of man just then was kept - tusy keeping out of its way. Just what our ancestor looked like fifteen million years ago we do not know. But five million years ago he was, evplu tionists believe, somewhat like the lite Tarsius whose picture you see at the top of the page in its exact proportices as compared with the first cat. In the meantime. during the ten million years that had pensed. Ceratosaurus had -handed down through a long line of de 'wcendants most of his skeleton. He had changed into a ferocious eat to which *setence has given the name Ofysena Lupine, because of the hyena and wolf-. like lines of itt body. This great feline, * he first large carnivore of which we have fospil knowledge, contained all the fere city of its dinosaur ancestor, and it was lucky for mnan that his ancestor was then as small and as quick as he was and rebld climb trees, because he would never Shave been able. to battle with this beast. *But the tailed fathers of man were then prowing around, mostly at night, and feeding on insects. This night habit and diminutive sine kept them fairly safe from battles with such monsters. Nevertheless, during this time there was inculcated in him a wholesome fear of the big carnivores, as well as the great snakes which he eneountered in the trees. and this fear he handed down to his suo. cessors, so that when several lines of men and apes radiated from him fear of the cats and snake. was well established. The Oxyaena had, by the way, almost the dino .ae tail-that is, it was large where It Finds oFhe( DO9OO( T0 QId. nw Old aand Furr a. re the of. Toernca-Alo Little HosCat Pious, Predatory A While Our T and Furry Ancestors We Growing Up Into Men anc '5 Woiren ge earer esthe repti than iN the craium of modern cats. Also, by the way, the cat skull in the Cloaest ap - preach to the reptile skull of any of the mammals. HoW, most people will ask, was this creature aunally do mesticated and made more or learn the slave of man? Without go ng Into the curious character of the cat. which make it the most Independent of our so-called pets, and evieoc tat it posve as, "freal toued bute fathetilloanoabsolctey wild retue wh ihs feou mane believea tat i is aet, le ts WhmeudTh nrot thCe, te r oingut enuologist, considehereted thist surou quenoeon nw s"a real robs la i. Ti ctfa"i e mark a s itosrsy smepol wl,"he enabld tekn owta a as, been near fe- huhtwnyfu fathernto dypomsofcate fa" feand duce itin sz sof h ett asre the camtom in ithe emot Tcae "Fear o as eicr Mitchell h fd tatalhs-a indinguishabneuoistia ineet but teogne a thoeaworetm ofsak. moat fearious penomenon knowever recg nfer is an clras Tuch. he fer"ispton ofrkabl iioyncayth ofrsous phyopla Ithih eletemat to nowri that affca vha s beno nar ehoenq theouaur tnc-fu hors ave psed.e nTwhe ca snrvital resceng as mltougho unern, bThs attenua ht enms itfvity far" pe-a armnauserhacoldsprairatio ncssr to Drfales pahitonofey mheaocati.Tee car all sypalto of the tintaled fear. enptetyatwr etrn Cetoaru Micetorngha mall tian nisethes a perfecta selet. aThe prto todr, an whteaIkf e ai su rvival ... Grew Down Ions ter iny, Tailed That Thi. Charming Lady and -the Pretty ' the Two Curious Creatmwss Shewn at the Top Is Just -What Evolutiunists Say Happened sise, of plaiter or papier mache, exactly as the animal looked in ,life. Don't imagine that restoratipn of a rep tile that has been dead fifteen or twenty million years can be done in the samn time or way that a sculptor would proceed to make a stathe from lif. In the first place, one mnay have to excavate for year. and over a large area to iet the other bones that go witha the skull found in the first instance. EVenu parts of, the skull may be widpely separated. One must be sure not to0 mix any of Uie bones of other extinct Apeeles with those one is trying to put together. Also, the bones have been hardened like concrete by tho~hands of toes of pressure of ro~ts during mnillions of years. If in the end all oft tile bones have not been found and separated from the matrix of rock other skeletvns of theq same specie. must be fou# or, at least, parts of them, to see whats th(4 qilising bones look like and how thEdy werd joined toeach other. If, finally, any parts are st missing, you must sketch and fill in thaeee by use of your' best wits. bhading such substitution so that all may kuoy~ which was found and which was imagised, Di, Gilmore tells ,s that he has re *tored a "fairly complet. articulated skele ton," meaning that the bones were joined as in nature, and that they were found in the Upper Jurassic rooks ini Garden Park, Colorado. He would not tell you that Ceretosaurus wa.. the ancestnr of mod~en feronios. at. The Ameester of the Cats FIvs Years Age When It Had Grewa Had Uadergoue Certala Other The Dimoeaur Tail Is Still Evide. le from a Palattag by the Famme Charles R. Knight, Just Cempletei American Museum of Natural i New York City. The Prisaib Is' Shom Devouring On. of ti Amsesters of All the Hera but he goes on and models his dnarein such an atit~dethat with a few touch es It could be converted into a modern puma, or panther, devour ing it prey. And as you work out the technique of his scientific de scription of the reptile into plain ' jlish you know that you have been studying the first attempts of nature to Orect a cat. abb She Hoelds Came Note that the f ~is Page? But That tail of ceratosaur us is very large at the north end, that t he body tapers into it, itstead of its being at tached to the body in appearance, as in modern animals. The modification of h Ia t ail alone would require several millions of years. What was left of his snout horr. was probably inherited from Tetracers tops, a small horned pre-reptile of a group called Pelycosaurs, of the fermo-Carbonif erous era, millions of years before his time. These were water animals, ca nivores that neededi a horn on the snout to dive under their prey and ram it. They at last got out on land where fieah was to be had for the taking with their sharp tooth and claws. The horn became a nuis ance and some lines of their descendants worked to get rid of it. Ceratosaurus was on this line. He had the largest brain of all dinosaurs, big enough to vision prowl ing in wood and field on four legs with' ability to capture fleet animals and devour them. * Food had much to do with the evolu tionary modifications bywhich the rep tiles of the pat merge into the animale of the present day. Sexual attraction, however, was an even more potent factor. E~vpry animnal that qsts, male and fe male, from ,the lords lion down to the crawling snake, pi1ks up to the best of -its ability inles the eye of its mate. Thsthe Jo h was tickled to death *ethe apanese succeeded in making him several gorgeous tails in place of on'. What has been done for the stallion with a curry-comb and clippers he has utilisedl tinrase= his speed andt hance his bhany F.r and Changes. a This Painier fer the *\ story 13 Ive Cat he Smell es. The First Cat to B. Donmstica Huating Pet of the Mer in the eye of his mates. You maight say that the domestic porker does not prink up. That is because it is fed and fattened to infinite lasiness. The wild hog, even our rasor-back, prinks up just like other mammals in its forest faatnesses. Ceratosaurus got his name because he wasn a lisard with ceratin, or horn-like sub stance on the top of his nose. He was also a typical Theropod, bSYhause he walked on his toes. He had short fore legs and long hind legs and sharp cutting teeth. These are characteristics of many mammals to day. The lunger the hind legs of a horse the weightier his kick and the more his pushng owe beindfor speed. The long hindleg ofthekangaroo make for hi. sixty miles an hour. Our savage cats. same as Ceratosaurus, specialise in abort er, stouter fore legs to give weightlto a blow of a paw, and longer hind legs with more massive hips to hit the ground more firmly, dig in with the claws and puan harder in bursts of speed of pursuit or for In 9j07 Charles li. Fitch, walking on his brother's ranch near Canon City, Colorado, stumbled on what be supposed was a sec tion of a petrified tree at the base of a high sandstone cliff. The find was placed on exhibition at a local newspaper office. Professor Mudge, then State Geologist of Kansas, later visiting there, saw the speci men and recognised in It a portion of a thigh bone of some gigantic prehistoric reptile. The late Professor 0. C. Marsh, of Yale, was notified and made a quick trip to Canon City. It took eight years to gather enough of' the rest of the skeleton to make a recog nisable teptile--hard work at that. On quch material as could be got together Marsh was able to set up a new family pf dinosaurs. which he called Ceratosauridae, a new genus which he termed Ceratosarus, and a new species which he named Nasi cornis. Later. Marsh died before the full fruits of his work could be realised. It wasn not until 1915 that a nearly com plete skeleton of Ceratosaurus was re (-efed at the National Museum in Wash ington. The World War was on and men of science were drafted into research ,.o-nil. So, i was e..act. S....le. 15. It AWsee. bd, the Brailam Fevu, Whisk Was a of Half a MIlWen Years A. 1920, before Dr. Gilmore was able to show the world a near perfect mounted skeleton. accompanied by a life-sine model of the" reptile as he undoubtedly looked and acted ID life. Ceratosaurus reptiles ranged from 15 to~ 25 feet in length. The type skeleton ii 22 feet long and 12 feet high, As a carni vore its particular prey is beieved to have been the herbivorous dinosaur, Claosaurus, which had numerous teetht,by yhich it oould strip, macerate and devour soft vegetation. These dinosaurs had a known range of some 300 miles along the eastern, slope of the Rockies, but later finds of fossils may extend it. Professor Marsh stated: "The skull was very large in proportion to the rest of the skeleton, the back part being most elevated and widest. The face was long, tapering gradually to the muzzle Neen from above, it resembled that of ai crocodile in outline." Marsh thought the reptile had a large, long, shearp horn Onl top of the nose. Gilmore, however, in bila lhfe-like restoration, shows merely a hump. or, rather, a vestige, as if the reptle, scorning its use as a weapon, was trying to discard it altogether, exactly what hi.4 tucceshors and assigns achieved. Marsh found that OeratosauruM had th*e largest brain case, proportionately, of all carnivorous dinosaurs, "far exceeding those of herbivorous dinosaurs." This is exactly what w'as repeated when manm maIm arived. The cat family are tho brainiest of mammals, Our hay eders are generally rather stupid, excepting the horse-somne horses -like their ancestral first herbivorous reptiles. Ceratosaurus did much for the teeth of modern felines. He or his forefathers worked at a reductions in their number. The result was two rows of sharp-cuttinc teeth, fi geen to each row. Ip additlnn there w~ethree functional teeth, lying~ detachd 'betWeen the jaws. The front teeth were robust and recurved, the others diminishing in sise backwards. In mry opinion the functional teethi were t!'. same as we see In snakes anr1 shark at is, teeth that form behind, then, for ward and take the place of those def'yed '