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S IN SHARP CC WITH THE FEMININ ley to the Fate of Fr Orphans Left Destlitt Work of Ameriean ( Much to Stabflize Moi :ducational System. By MRS. J. BOR T HE morale of France todi to be once more the ci poet sang in pro-war times. itors were wont to think thal nation, bent on pleasure, and feeling. This was probably b and especially Americans, cai side of life. After the battle of the M was changed. People said doubt the seriousness and int That the French once more li no one into a reversal of theii those who can cover much In studying the women of of France are a great contras where else the war did one g women and educating them t( Here the women seem to ha their pre-war condition. On] in the suffrage question, anc made to secure the vote. When asked his opinion of wornan suffrage In 1919, Clemen esau said that he was In favor of it for 'every country but France. He explained that here the peasant women would be voted like sheep by the priests. Therefore, until the women were 4ree of clerical domi nation, he could not approve extend ing the suffrage to them. Qn the other hand, a clever French woman. in controversion of this idea, quotdd Paul Hervieu to the effect that if such were the came. the priests would have long ago been leaders in the feminist move aestr whereas, on the mentrary they are te strongest opponents. Today the, iniddle-aged- peasant women are tAI the peasant women of 1789. They have the same lack of education and initiative, the same willingness to slave for their mas ters. But a change ham come over the spirit of the dreams of the men. They have suddenly awakened to the fact that the town cannot live without the conutry, though the country does not need the town for its existence. PEASANT IS IDEFENDENT. The peasant is in the peculiar position of being completely inde pendent of every other class. The railroads and other utilities might cease to function and still he would continue to exist as usual. There fore one result of the war has been a growing antagonism between the town and country. The peasant has made the gesture of going on strike against 'the towns. The people of this clams having suffered terribly in the war are now realiming their power. The war weighed so heavily upon them, be eause of it being possible for their place. to be filled by old men and children. They never had to be called back from the front as indus trial workers were. When the armistice came, few peasants were willing to return per mnanently to their farm work ex eept those who had large families, CZARINA (Continued from Page 1.) second place. He had returned from siberia at the end of September, completely recovered from his near ly Mtal wound. But he found him self neglected, and his visits to the palace become exceedingly rare. Moreover, as Alexis had been in good health during the whole win ter, there was no need for his "ml rmeulous" intervention to "save" tho bsy's life. Nevertheless. Rasputin's power re uaned very great, in spite of every thing. I had good proof of that when Mme. Wyroubova was serious ly injured in a railroad aeddent. The empress, very much worrist, went to the bedside of her only friend and immediately sent for Rasputin. When she asked the im postor whether hier friend would live, he answered: "God will save her life. If she is useful to you .And to Rusata: It, on the contrary, her life will be detri mental to your welfare, Gohd will take her; even I myself cannot know all His plans." Thus did he avoid answering di rectly an embarrassing question. If Mim.. Wyrcubova recovered it would b.. on ac....t or his interventn. 'RENCH HE STIC )NTRAST ', GENERAL E UPHEAVAl ance Held by 1,000,004 by War in Whose Behai Irganltations Have Don rale and Build Up Son DEN HARIMAN. ty is very high. Paris promise ty of glad faces of which th There was a period when vi. the French were a superfcia not capable of much depth oi ecause the visitors themselves ne here seeking only the light Brne, however, this estimatior that they could never again ensity of the French character Lugh and are gay should leave , wartime judgment. There art with a patine of frivolity. the countries of Europe, those t to all others. Nearly every. ood thing in emancipating the P their political responsibilities, ve unprotestingb returned t( y a small group is interested I there is no real fight being whereas 60 per cent of the factory workers went back to their old jobs. The complaint is made on all sidei now that it is most difficult to gel help on the land. The young mes and women are going into factoris and so causing a great shortage o labor in rural districts. In the old days the whole family remained on the farm, while not the sons and daughters come into town leaving the old people to work alone. All this notwithstanding the fact 'that the farming classes are much the richest, and although the capitalist and industrial classes are heavily taxed, the farmers pay al most nothing. There is a weak indication of the growth. of unionism among the peasants, but there seems little real understanding of such co operation as exists among other workers who are unionized. The French woman, as a general rule, in her activities, is essen tially what is understood by the word feminine. Among Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic women there is far more invasion into the affairs of life that lie outside of the circle of the home. However there is a great amount of welfare work carried on by French women in an inconspicuous way. A large proportion of the hospitals, and many schools and relief organi zations, are run by women, who do. vote much of their lives to the work, and of whom one never hears. The French woman does not seek the limelight. Her energies are large, but they do not bring her individu ally into a prominence from which the customs and traditions of her race would tend to exclude her. The training of a French girl, and the ideas with which she is imbued from childhood, are essentially those of a civilization which has always re garded the seclusion of the indi vidual woman as a fundamental necessity. She shares equally with the men of her race, that gift of original con A RAGEI If she died--the empress would see in it only another manifestation of the myiteries of Providence and would be more easily consoled for the loss. This episode gave Rasputin a little more influence for a short time, yet in spite of everything it seemed that his importance was lessening. RASPUTIN'S CHARACTER. Shortly after I had a long con versation regarding Rasputin with the Swiss minister at P'etrograd. The information he gave me cleared away all doubt as to the real char acter of the atarets. He was, as I had supposed, a mis led mystic who possessed a sort of psychic power; lack of mental bal ance worked by turns by his carnal desires and mystical aspirations made him a being capable after nights of orgy to experience a week of religious ecatacy. But I never had suspected the importance that they attributed to him and to his political influence, not only in Rus sian circles, but even in the em hassies and legat ions of Petrograd. The fact that this influence ex isted constituted a defiance of pub lic opinion. The presence of this man at enet was a snujec of as WOMA KS REL] SH I. Types of French peasani in the reconstruction area. ception which is one of the powers of French thought. That the world turns to France as the arbiter of taste is due primarily to the French woman. That the whole world flocks to Paris to buy its clothes is a spontaneous tribute to her that needs no comment. M'AMSELLE'S SUPREME SENSE OF COLOR. She has a native sense of propor. tion and color and a gift for combi nation that is the despair of women of other nations. This is cultivated In the schools where the study of design is made a very important course, and where prizes are given for originality in designing such every day things as hats and shoes, tables and chairs. In her home life, in which after all women must prove and forge the national character, the French wom an is essentially a devoted and af fectionate mother and wife, and no where in the world is there more community of interest In financial matters between husband and wife than there is in Franc.. In a nation so given to small in dividual enterprise, and where comn D AGAI? tonishment and scandal for all those who knew the dissoluteness of his private life. It constituted a very great danger to the prestige of the sovereignsan arm that their ene miss would seek sooner or later to employ against them. The retirement of Rasputin could be the only remedy. But what force was capable of provoking his dis grace? I knew so well his cause of his immense power over the em press that I feared a return of his great influence if the circumstances should be favorable. The first six months of the war proved a disappointment, and all saw that the struggle would be very long and difficult. Some unexpected complications might arise, for the prolongation of the *ar mtust cause great economic difficulties, which would bring discontent and disorder in their train. This proved a con tinual source of uneasiness for the empt rnr end empress. REMIGNED TO SORROW. As in all other cases of sorrow or anxiety, the sovereigns found comn fort in religion and in the love for their children. The gran~d dueheasea had aeepted with meh si~mlciy nd -ed -ml th moa I CHOOS [GIOUSL' EEP GRAZIN4 8* Ola mecil omiatini eaieys menrall cominadam in ditio to her family duties, in her place be ST THE austere life which was enforced on the palace. It was true that their early life, so completely barreni of all those agreeable plasures which renders life interesting to young girl., had prepared them for this more Severe proof. In 1914, when war broke out, Olga was about nineteen and Tatiana se'r enteen. Yet they hadl never been to a ball, and hadl onily taken piart in one or two evenming parties at the hiomae of their aunt, the (Grand l)uchess Olga Alexandrov-na. At the outbreak of hostilities they had only oane thought-toa lighten the cares and anxieties of their parenta by surrounding them with their love, evinced by t he most touching and dalicante attentioms. RUNMIAN IJEIIACLE. Th a also huad by this times u-aused a great de-al of confusiort in the interior of liussia, the cost of living wenit up lby leaps and boulnds, and the bsreakdollwn of t ransporta t ion pa ra eldm conom ic life'. Unless the army- won speedily, Itunnia wats dolomed. Germany could not remain indif ferent to the Austrian disaster. 8ev eral German armny cosrps were mnned tIhea- a St ~ sif4'..ilw anAi ES PART ( TO Th 3 ON "CHEI 'rench peasant woman in her hind the cash register. keeping a sharp eye on the details of trade. Ini rural life she does an immense am~fount of he'avy work, andl in the fields she labo rs sihoulIder to shoCu - der with the men. In political matters the bulk of KAISER4. placed under the orders of General von Mackensen. who was ordered to attack the Riusian flank and try to separate the army in the Carpa thianls from their base of supplies. The blow was a severe one for the imperor. But he struggled hard to bring victory out of defeat. On June 25 he dismissed General Souk homliinoff, the minister of war, who by his criminal stupidity seemed to have been responsible for the failure in getting supplies up to the army. Gjeneral Polivanof was appojinted in his place. CZAR STARTS INQUIRY. Two days later the Emperor called together a council at general head quarters to which all the ministers were invited. The convocation of the Duma wras decided upon. The first session was held August I, the first anniversary of the war. The firm and courageous attitude of the assemblyv reassured the publie confidence in t he final outoegme. But while uerging tiat everything he done to defend the country, the Dua demanded that the men re. sponsible for the weak condition of the huge army be punished. In the meantim, the GJerman of fenmdve in Poland hA preed.ed 'SHE WJ LE WORI ~ViN DU DAI ; U hom. Frnc omn ae rterd thenng what aesather beoe country or their families, but they display little energy or interest in AND THU with vigor. By the end of August the whole of Russian Poland was in Ger man hand. At this moment the Emperor de cided to lake personal command of the Russian armies. E~MPEROR LEAD8 ARMY. For months the Etnpress had urged him to take this course, but he had always resisted for he was unwilling to relieve the Grand Duke NIcholas of the commiand. The Emperor returned from the general headquarters, July 11, and passed two months at Tsarko-8elo before finally' making the moment oum decision. Ills motives were clearly shown In many converna tions he had with me during our afternoon walks In the park. On one occ'asion. July 16. he snid: "You can't imagine how it wtor. ries me to remain in the reer. It seems that everywhere' here, even the air one bire athes, ulackens one's enlergry and softons the' character. The most penssmistc 'rumnrs, the nioot unbelievable news, find credit and are spread in all cireles. "At the front one sentiment domi hates everyone-the will to conquer; everything else is forgotten, anid, WI'S IN I SOF HER VAES" Home made of an old "demi lune" of corrugated iron. the political activities of women as a separate organization. And in cases where they do break away from women's established sphere and become active politically they take, as a rule, a very radical stand. An American woman, married for many years to a Frenchman. has said that in America one can be the mother of a family, a member of the golf club, and a political leader all at the same time-but that in France one must take one's choice of the various destinie, and eliminate the others. But things even an deeply rooted in national life as the conserva turn of French women, have been shaken loose by the war and in many direction. since 1914 the wo men havo ventured into new fields and evinced new interest in old ones. In modern welfare work there has been a Feat accession of energy. Many women have taken up with enthusiasm the ideas of social ser vice demonstrated by the great wel fare organizations during the war, and are striving to spread their in fluence among the French people. iCROWN versee, they keep confidence * e Every man capable of bearing ar-ms ought. to be in the army. For my self I cannot wait for the moment when I can rejoin my troops." The Empress worked hard to break down the scruples which many raised against the Emperor taking this serious move. She wished the retirement of the Grand Duke Nicholas. whom She so cused of seeking to ruin the Em reror's prestige and to provoke a revolution for his own benefit. NEW HEART IN TROOPS. She moreover declared that the 0. HI. Q. was the center of a plot which had for its object to separate her from the Emperor and relegate her to a convent. The Cuar believed firmly in the loyalty of the Grand Duke, but wasn persuaded he plotted against the Empress. In deciding to take command the E0mperor hoped to prove to all Rue mia that the war would be conduct ed to the end, and show his belief in ultimate victory. He believed it his right in this crisis to shoulder all responsibility. s The Emperor informed the minis term of hsis resnlution ot take so preme command In a council held at JFE CHOICE Feaalk Ilns cacI n Recmstructm hb lems Powerful Aid to Government of the Re public In These Days Of Reconstruction. These progressive women are keen to know the latest developments in social work. In the north of Prance Is the grest human drama of the recon struction. It Is there that the deep loe of oountry that grimifled Fran"e during the cataclyam of the war Is oatinuling to manifest Itself. The fundamental attribute of the nation, the love of the French peasat for *.he patch of land on which he was born and where he worked out his destiny. Is there turning to recon struction the energies lately se potent in defense. Besides the material side of this question, the clearing of fields and rebuilding of houes. villages and towns, there Is a spiritual recon struction in which the very soul of the nation Is made manifest. Even where the people are still living ,in mere make-shift homes. in dug outs and shacks of corrugated Iron, they have reconstructed all the old customs and habits of happier times before the great desolation. This drama of reconstruction is an illustration on an immense scale of that element that makes of France a stable nation. Her varied political history and the emotions and volatile nature of her people, had caused France. before 1914, to be considered somewhat undepend able among the nations. WAR VINDICATED HER STABILITY. The vindication during the war of her glorious stability being ex plained day by day by these French peasants, who with little besides love In their hearts, and strength of their hands, face an incredible de struction which they, with the sym pathy of the whole world, are going to build again into the semblance of their beloved Frdnce. The reconstruction accomplished in nor -rn France Is quite gxtraordi nary, and the French are gener ous in voicing their appreciation of the part played by Americans In this great work. One woman ex presses the opinion that the Amer ican women have done much tobtab Mse the morale of France. One American organization, the Argonne AsociaiUon. is arousing much interest at the moment. It was originally established by the Red Cross to provide home and fam ily life for the French child who has no parents; to ensure his health: to educate him and train him to earn his livelihood; and to develop his character that he may become an upright and useful citizen. WAR ORPHANED MILLION CHILDREN. The aim of the association is to do these things so economically and well that others will follow Its ex ample. There are a million children here who have been deprived by the war of their sourceeof protection and support because their fathers laid down their lives for France. On the fate of these orphans de pends, to a great extent, the future of France, with all that France means to civilization. Children of all ages are cared for, from early infancy to adolescence. Finally, the Argonne Association says that Its purpose is not only to help war orphans in France. but also to make Its work contribute to ward the better care of children throughout the world. Next: The Inhabitants of Northern Frane. PRINCE Tsarkole-Selo several days before his departure for the G. H. Q. This announcement provoked consterna tion. They presented countless argu ments against this step. He could not be spared from the capital. It was foolish to risk his life. If the army still failed it would ruin his prestige. But these arguments made no effect on him.. On September 6 he issued the following order from the General Headquarters: "* * * with an absolute faith In the goodness of God and an un alterable confidence In final victory. we will accomplIsh our sacred duty to defend. our country up to the end and we will not leave one enemy to outrage Russian soil." This news caused great surprise in France and England. They all woped that this action would restore he morale of the Russian army. T'he whole Russian press changed Its tune overnight and once again professed to see victory In the fu ture. In the armny there was an mmediate effect-the courage of the oldiers was restored and they at acked with a new gusto. Anemher bdm - --*go ..ah~ ?Ya..mg.