Newspaper Page Text
PR ANCIENT CO WARLIKE ] MENACE Buffer State Larger Th sia and India, Noted and Vindictive Pass Treachery-Natives air's Hand Now Tak Stand Sponsor to Pa dependence Among By BASANTA N OT long ago President ceived at the White H headed by General MohamIr also sent through this commii tions to His Majesty the Afghanistan. The same con in utter disgust and bitter a comned and cordially receis French Republic and other F before were received prev America. Mohammed Valy Khan has also been riost graciously greeted at Moscow, Rome and Berlin. These little incidents, deeply delved into, may supply a significant index to the international problems that the world will be forced to face tomor row. The man who is hated in Lon don is welcomed at Washington, Paris, Moscow, Berlin and Rome! CURZON ATTACKS RUSSIA. Almost simultaneously with the Afghan commission's rupture with Lord Curzon, British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, the Brit ish Peace Commission at Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, headed by Sir Henry Dobbs. has left for India. And Lord Curzon has just written a strong note of protest to the Russian government, in the course of which he says: "By the terms of the pre amble of the trade agreement con cluded between His Majesty's Gov ernment and the Russian Soviet Government on March 16, the Rus sian Soaet Government undertook to refraiB from any attempt, by military or diplomatic or any other form of action or propaganda, to encourage any of the peoples of Asia, in any form of hostile action against Britisb.interests or the Brit ish Empire, especially in India and In the independent State of Afghan istan. "His Majesty's Government holds a mass of indisputable evidence that Jamal Pasha was despatched to Afghanistan by the Soviet govern ment, and that the lines of policy he is following were dictated to him from Moscow, and that its execu tion is supervised by the Russian Legation in Kabul. "In the late summer of 1920. Jamal Pasha was on his way to Kabul from Moscow, and he was in troduced to M. Surits by the intima tion that he and his companions, in cluding the notorious Indian revolu tionary, Barkatullah, were being sent by the eastern department of the Moscow commissiariat for for eign Affairs, and that particular re liance was placed in him as repre senting both the Russian Soviet gov ernment and the Turkish revolu tionary government. "In spite of all the professions of good faith on the part of the Soviet government, there have been un abated indications of bitter hostility toward this country and its domin Ions and dependencies." The Afghan government has just ratified the Russo-Afghan Treaty signed at Moscow on February 28, last. General Mohammed Valy Khan was one of the signatories to this treaty. Lord Curzon's note scathing ly denounces some of the provisions of this treaty. AID TO AFGHANS PLEDGED. Clause No. 10 of this tr-eaty reads: "In order to strengthen the friendly, mutual relations between the high contracting parties the government of the Russian Socialist Federate Soviet Republic agrees to give to A fghanistan financial and other help." And in the supplement to this clause Russia offers to give Afghan Istan the following help: "(I) Yearly free subsidy to the extent of 1,000, 000 rubles in gold or silver coin or bullion; (2) construction of a tele graph line - Kushka-Herat-Kanda har-Kabul; (3) over and above this the government of the Russian So cialist Federate Soviet Republic ex presses its readiness to place at the disposal of the Afghan government techniceJ and other specialists." Lord Curson also complains that flindu revolutionists with the knowl edge of western chemistry are en gaged in manufacturing smokeless gunpowder at Kabul and explosives n the eastern frontiers of Afghan istan for importation into India to be used against the British Raj. NIISTAN, )BLEM 0 UNTRY OF PROWESS IS TO ENGLAND in France, Between Ras for Its Love of Fair Play Ions When Aroused by Who Forced Great Brit ing Up Indian Cult and it-Growing Spirit of In Vast Oriental Country KOOMAR ROY. Harding most cordially re >use the Afghan commission, ed Valy Khan. The President sion a letter of warm felicita Amir Amanullah Khan of mission had just left London nger, only to be warmly wel ed by the President of the 'rench diplomats, as they once ous to their departure for and England have been doing their utmost to gain the undisputed upper. hand in Afghanistan. Officially England bought it with the annual tribute of $600,000 regularly paid to the Amir, who thus left his foreign affairs in the hands of thb Briton. England fought several wars of wan ton aggression with Afghanistan. The first Afghan war of 1838-1842 resulted so disastrously for the Bri tish that only one soldier out of 16.000 reached Jellalabad to tell the story. The last war was fought in 1919. Fighting, however, is still continu ously going on in the Afghan borders between the British forces and the Afghan tribesmen. The London newspapers are frequently publish ing account' of such encounters. The British papers in India are suggesting that the Russian Govern ment is financing these raids. It will indeed be long before the truth is known. In the meantime, Colonel Yate, a member of the Pritish Par. liament, has asked for the deporta tion of Mahatma Gandhi, for the latter frankly told a special corres pondent of the London Daily Tele graph that he "preferred Bolshevism to British rule." The Russo-Afghan bugbear has scared the Briton to such an extent that in the frontiers the British are busy night and day building forti fications and digging trenches; and even the Manchester Guardian is editorially advocating the building in India's Afghan frontier a "belt of wire such as was built before the trenches of the Western froot " e " with the modern appliances for alarm." BRITAIN'S SAVAGE REVENGE. On the assassination of Amir Hat ibullah Khan, on February 20, 1919, his third son, Amanullah Khan, ascended the throne, and as a pro test against the assassination of his beloved father, which was supposed to have been inspired by British agents, he declared the complete independence of Afghanistan, and at once declared war on the British government in India. His army invaded British India and occupied strategic peaks and passes. Defeated in battle, the British took reprisals on the civil populations of Afghanistan by throwing deadly bombs from aero planes And thus killing thousands of unarmed men, women and chil dren in undefended cities, After much bloodshed on both ,sides, a treaty of peace was signed on August 11, 1919, at Rlawalpindi. The victorious Afghan forced the vanquished Briton to openly state In black and white: "Afghianistan is left officially free and independent in Its affairs, both internal and ex ternal. Furthermore, all previous treaties have been canceled by this war.'' General Valy Kahn has been de claring this fact of Afghanistans i complete independence at the major capitals of the world. "What ia Afghanistan?" I w:' recently asked by an American. The average American does not know whether Afghanistan is the name of a man, a country or a bird; a moun tain, a flower or a constellation. It is, in fact, a country on the north west of India, nestling against the roof of the world. On the map of Asia, the largest continent, Afghanistan appears like a very small country. But this mountainous country covers an area of 250,000 aguare miles. In other words, four countries like France, Belgium, Holland and Denmark can easily be placed within its bounda e sand it has. a population of about 10,000,000. That in to say, one-tenth of the population of the United States lives in Afghanistan. It ~A II huffr sinl e betwee' ni h and Asiatic Russia on a side and VICTOR F INDIA IRUGGE A well-fortified Afghan presents a formidable barrii '4'' *f , mebe of eIda r 'I < x 4 'l betee Ia ant eri"o h ather The Aghan meados an an0ie. Th iht ou to Indi te~ heiaeo. tegad eu4fhrarhtcuetefns prdcs. I.a roc algod Bodyardo f mtnerl Air bn member. fTheicudtua prot inhue ric.ghat, mbardey. nd metrn, ountan and htoItis mtin of M.os.cow..: th.... an OVER C BY BA( D PEAKS MA pass near British-Indian fro r to invasion from any quart. _ r may- .1 7 Wit~,.,. II K I F4 i ' f Afghanistan filing through a ortrait of Maulavi Barkatullah, visional1 Government formed in Somne of its induntries are the hand mnnufneturi. of felts, silks, car pets nnel enniei end gnat hair goods. Afghanistan importe from India chiefly ('otton goods, sugar, hard ware, lenther, Indigo, dyei.qg mate rials nnd silver treasure. The value of such imports amounted to $8,035, 000 In 1919-19120. Afghavistan ex ports to Indian fruits, timber, vege tables, grnin and pulse, wool, milk, cattle, hides, tobacco, etc., worth about $9,875,000. The Afghan belongs to the Cau c'asian race. lie calls himself B~enl Israil. The people are mostly Mo hammedann, and the principal races are the l'athans, Wzhegs, Ilaxars, (Ghilzarls, Ameaks and Yijiks. The Aftghan is k id. courit ous and hospitabbe. ih- is a faithful friend ard'a willing slave to a benefactnr. and in ermally merine.. with trach REAT B KING N KE AFGHANI tier, with Afghan military C r. In the foreground are t] UR EST A A N/ S..-.. ALUCHISTAN S* Map showing strategic po on the east by India, sou Turkestan and west by Pen Russia is afforded by the pr Sea. erous friend.. That i. why the Brn tish do not like the Afghan. antd are ever ready to discredit him. In patriotlo seal and fighting spirit he is second to none. He is exceed ingly patriotio; this makes him a fearless soldier. Once an English cfvilian was walk ing behind an Afghan moldier. The muzzle of the loaded gun of the soldier somehow pointed at the head of the Englishman. He was afraid, and asked the Afghan soldier to change the position of his rifle. The Afghan calmly said: "If you are to die today, my changing the position of the gun will not save your life," and he laughed. The Englishman, however, could not join him in his laughter. Physically .ine Afghan is a superb specimen, Hie is a born horseman and a splendid shot. In spite of all recent attempts at reforms the Government of Af ghanistanl is still an absolute mon archy in spirit. But the young and handsome Anin Amanullah Khan is always in touch with the public opinion of his kingdom, and looks upon himself as a servant, and not a mianter of his people. Hie has im menseiy strengthened his power and pronstig" by maiking an alliance with the Turkish Nationalist Governinent at Anzora. FIAO FIJES-IN TURKEY. The offieial flag over the first Af ghan legat ion in Turkey was hoisted at Angora last June by Mustapha Kemutl Panha himself. The Afghan amannarior, Sultan Ahmad Khan, thus spoke on the occasion: "Now, at the moment when the iBrKtlsh imperinlists are trying to steai our rights andi destroy the in lomic world. Turke'y proven5 again her frinahin. The Turko-.Musn. RITAIN, LOVE FOI STAN NATUR amp at base. Greatly resemb !pes of Afghan natives. <.. . 't 4 N' 1.. 4 m*b N D I A 8b. sition of Afghanistan, bordered th by Baluchistan, north by ia, Easy communication with Dximity of both to the Caspian Afghan alliance will frustrat, the plans of invaders of our rights." Kemal Pasha replied by saying: "Our efforts in common are bound to have great weight in Oriental politic. and presage a happy era for the Moslem world. What the Mos lem world is now demanding is its irnlependence, "I am especially glad you refer to our joint alliance with Rusmia, which will prove the salvation of all the people. of the Orient, and which is bound to have more and more satisfactory developments." STRONGEST MOSLEM POWER. In military strength and offensive and defensive preparedness. Afghan istan is the strongest power in the Moslem world today. Under the consummate statemmanship and ex cellent organizing abality of the late Amir Hablbullah Khan and his father, the late Amir Abdur Rtaha man, the Afghan army was thor oughly reorganized, and the entire country wasn converted into an im pregnable fort. This land of Amire has a standing army of about 100,000 soldiers. But by a system of compulsory military training it has tremendously in creased its fighting efficiency. To day every Afghan is a trained snl dier. And at a short notice the Amir can easily mobilize a million soldiers faultlessly equipped with all the latest implements of modern war fare, including, to use the words of an English captain in India. "Ger man field guns, poison gas, gas bombs and masks, flame throwers, trench mortars, and even battle At Kabul there are several muni srmq, nmmnunitions andl suipplies are manuft ared undetr e'xperts from other lands. COMPLE] I INDEPI AL FORT | ling Bwitserlaad, Afghanistaa 3k 3 GEN. MOHAMMED VALY KHAN, head of the Afghan Mission which recently left England in anger because of antagonistic reception there. brant oenter of a sweeping storm that I. passing over the great con tinent of Asia and threatens to de stroy the last vestige of British par. amountcy in the East. The complexity of the Afghan situation has been all the more en hanoed by the establishment of an Indian Provisional Republican Gov. ernment in Afghanistan. under the leadership of the Hindu Prince Baja Mahendra Pratap and eminent Mo hammedan scholars like Maulavi Barkatulla and Dr. Hafs. It is also reported in the Indian papers that the illustrious All brothers-Mahommed All and hau kat Ali-escently arrested In India for turning Indian soldiers in the British azrmy into patriots, were In touch with the Amir of Afghanistan in more ways than one. MOHAMMED ALl'S SPEECH. In a stirring speech at Madras last April Mahommed All publicly do clared that he would help the Amir of Afghanistan with men, money and munition. if he invaded Britian India to free the people therein, but would fight the same Amnir if he came to conquer India. And again, in an interview on the same speech, he said, at Allahabad: "If 20,000,000 of Hindus cannot lib stte India without foreign help. I hope and trust that seven scores of Musselmen can and wilL" The friendship and oo-operation between the All Brothers and Ma hatma Gandhi symbolize the unalloy ed unity of Hindu-Moslem opposi tion to the British Raj for the eman cipation of the 830,000,000 people of India. Commenting on Mohammed All's attitude toward Afghanistan, Mahat man Gandhi writes "I would in a sense, certainly assist the Amir ot Afghanistan if he waged war against the British government. That Is to say, I would openly tell my countrymen that It would be a crime to help a government which had lost the confidence of the na tion to remain In power. "On the other hand, I would not ask India to raise levies for the Amir. That would be against the creed of non-violence accepted by both liindus and Musselmen. "Even some of the best of us to day really believe that the military hoalget is being piled up for protect hting iuti against foreign aggres ,4jon. I suggest that it is being piled up for want of faith in the Sikhs, ten Ourkh=. the Pathans and the (ES NDENCE Moslem Country's Mis sion, Headed by Gci cral Mohammed Valy Khan, Angered by London Reception M ter Cordial Welcome at Washington. RaJputs; i. e.. for want of faith to us, and for the purpose of forced subjection." The Indo-Afghan friendship has been growing for twenty years. There is a school of Indian thinkers who are even willing to offer the Amir of Afghanistan the throne of Delhi in order to be able to drive the British out of India. I remember how warmly Amir Habibullah Khan was received by the people of India during his trip in 1907. But the British government did its utmost to keep him out of the reach of the Hindustanese. What happened to me personally when I tried to pay my respects to him will ever remain sculptured in my memory: At Ollahabad I went to see my friend. Brish Chandra Vasu. the eminent Sanskrit scholar, off at the railway station. I found the sta tion so neat and clean that I was quite taken aback at such a sud den transformation. Out of curiosity I inquired and learned that the special train of the Amir of Afghanistan was soon ex pected to stop at the station. I asked a police officer if I could stay there to see the Amir. "Nor' was the abrupt reply. "You may go on the other platform, the up train side, and there stand." That I did. While waiting I heard a higher British police official shout to the policeman near me: "Bangali Babu Ko mkal deo, Bangali Babu Ko mikal deo" ("Drive out the Ben gali Babu, Drive out the Bengali Babu.") I was the only Bengali Babu on the platform. THREATENED WITH DEATH. Immediately a British policeman asked me to get out. I refused to do so. He was angry, caught hold of my right wrist and said: "If you do not get out at once, I shall throw you under the wheels of the run ning train." I quickly caught hold of his right wrist with my left hand and said: "Mr. Policeman, If you throw me under the wheels of a running train. I shall not go alone, I will take you along with me." Of a sudden the policeman's anger vanished. He took off his hand from my wrist, smiled, and said: "Babu. the Amir's special train is coming in." So it did. The long. long train stopped. But quite lucky for myself, the Amir's coach was just in front of me, and as the Amir was sit ing on the wrong side of the train, he happened to be exactly opposite the place where I stood. My joy knew no bounds, and I shouted India's rallying cry-the war cry "Bandemataram." The Amir laughed seriously. Suddenly he grow stern. He took the cigarette from his mouth, re turned my salute and said some thing which I did not understand. This was in January, 1907. If I re member right. The Amnir's tour and his sub tie speeches and acts Indisputably awakened the patriots of India Into a newer way of thinking. They be gan to realise the Importance of foreign co-operation to strengthen the new revolutionary movement that was scarcely two years old then. It is needless to disguise the fact that the Indo-Afghan Alliance is now an International factor of major Im portance, and that It has rendered the position of the British In India all the more periloui. The magnificent fight that the Moplahs of Malabar are putting up against the British military forces in India proves conclusively that India alone can win her indepebn dence, and that the days of the British rule In India are numbered. By her superhuman heroism on the battlefield, triumphant Ireland has undermined the foundation of the British Empire beyond redemption. It now rests with India and Afghan istan to give the finishing touch to free mankind from British slavery and England from the bondage of imperialism. "London to Paris" Air Rates Cheap A UUML~E8 with accommnodton for twenty, thirty, forty and fifty passengers will shortly be put in service on the London-Paris and Toulous Castblanca airways. The planes will have four engines reach and two pilots. They will be divided Into first and second class a novelty In air traveling-end indi viduial parachutes will hanq.on the back of each passenger chair just as lif,'hwtm hang In shlp. Faren between London and Paris hav~e been reduced until they areI now only hight per cent more them teailn and steamship aass.