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HERE TO( FROM SL; Persistent Questionlng ad Tobacco Seldom I in Series of Lies and to Reveal What Is Btought About Arrest gg ORING in" Is the nei tives on criminals or vigorously insist on maintain The "boring in" treatmen flent treatment. It may n< as the old-time third degree pummelled and kicked about tion to obtain a confession of No, the "boring in" treatn not leave bruises on the b brutal physical treatment, b1 nervous wreck, with a fagg stomach. Seldom does this new method fall to "break" the criminal, and often it has had the effect of wringing -a confession df guilt from an inno cent pe'son. And it is simple, consisting of nothing more than persistent ques tioning by detectives and the de privation of the normal amount of food and tobacco, and other things of life that the suspect has been accustomed to. The purpose is to trap the suspect in a series of lies, to make him change his stories time after time, and to finally force him by the persistent accusation that he or she lies to tell the truth about "the murder" or "robbery," or what ever he may be in custody for. "An innocent man has no fear of the boring-in method," Inspector Clifford L. Grant, chief of detectives, said. "If he has, there is no rea son fop him being disturbed. "We will run out his story and if It be true, he will be released," Grant said. "He may lie. If he does, then we will bore-in on him until he tells the truth" "But," it was suggested. "many FABULO Rich Deposits of Aluniti tives as Potash, Snlp! the Former Two Sal; the Last Virtually C Result. By RIOHAR1 T HERE is no doubt that Muscle Shoals propert offered more money for it t does not necessarily mean t a quick mover once he mal ernent is proverbially ulo1 Moreover, he threw such sa bomb shell into. the political camp at Washington by the mere avowal of interest in the property that poll ticians and "interests have not yet recovered from the shock. "What has Ford 'up his sleeve?" they all inquired. The Muscle shoals plant was built, er rather partly completed, to ex tract nitrates from the air. Ford is willing to pay the Government $5,000,000 cash and an annual rental for ninety-nine years of $1,600,000 provided the Gove'-nment will fin ish the partly completed Wilson damn. The Muscle Shoals develop ment would be almost useless to Ford or anyone else without the dam, and the engineers of the Gov ernment estimate the cost will be b'etween 820,000,000 and *25,000,000. Ford's engineers do not agree. Their top figure is about $15,000,000, and hers is where Ford and Becre gary Weeks began to fall apart. Ford is pretty likely to be right, and Mr. Weeks knows it, so he has dia. patched Thomas Edison, Mr. Ford, th'e Government eagineers and the Ford engineers dmw to Alabama and has told thema to settle it be tween theens.1v0. WEr RDm EaDE OFFER. They are now there trying to set, It, and if they sudeeed, and if the Wilson data is finished and the plant put in opegation something big ii wing to happen in Alabama, be eas Ford dosO big things and ii .ast bhUtag that property just tc MP, Est has never told exactl3 what 'es has in mind at Muacle Sol. e says he does not intent to use it to &mais another large~ for tutnqe but wants to demonsttrate how the Goernment can develop waitei powerseverywhere, kreep themn iror 1Nf.TRFL )HELPSI dSS USED lET TRUTH Ir CRIMINALS and Deprivation of Food Falls to Trap the Suspect Finally Force Him or Her Known of Crime Which v wrinkle practiced by detee. others suspected of crime who ing their innocence. t is just the opposite to the >t be as harrowing and brutal ,, when a bulldozing detective a suspect in his set determina guilt. tent is none of these. It does ydy of the suspect from any it it does leave him or her a ed-out brain and quite empty an innocent man is picked up by de tectives as a suspect for a crime who hesitates to give his correct name, address and business. He tears the harm that would ensue It It be known he was arrested as a suspect ed criminal, or murderer." Proteet Innocent. "That may be true." replied Grant. "but we always aim to protect the innocent. If we find their story rings true they are speedily re leased." On the other hand, Grant declares. he has no pity for the criminal who he and his detectives have every reason to believe is guilty and who refuses to tell the truth to confes to the crime he is sus pected of. No clearer illustration of the boring-in process practiced by not only the Washington police, but by those of other cities, is that of Z. S. Wan, the young Chinese student now on the brink of the gallows for the slaying of Dr. Theodore T. Wong, director of the Chinese Educational Mission, and his two assistants. C. H. Hoie and Ben Sen Wu. US ORE F : Abound in Such Deriva rnric Acid and Aluminum, ble as By-Products, and osting Him Notbing as a ) H. TINGLEY. Henry Ford wants to buy the y of the Government. He has han any other-bidder, but that hat he will get it. Mr. Ford is ces up his mind, but the Gov r. private capital, and lay the founda tion for an Industrial revolution through the use of cheap hydro electric current. He says he doesn't know any thing about extrac'ung'nitrates from the air and doesn't propose to go into that business. He admits, however, that he has studied the potash situation and asserts that he will turn his attention to pro ducing potash from some kind of natural deposit, of which there are many. He doesn't sy, however-, that he has found the very best and most econonmical natural deposit in time world-that he has known about it all the time, and that It is the fact of knowing about It that Influenced him In making his bid to the Ge, ernmient. The source of Mr. Ford's potash will be alunite, found only in a page. state lb the Tushaer mountain range of Utah, nesr Marystrifle. The surprise that he will have for the Potash trust of Germany, which has had a practical monopoly of the fertilizer potash business for years, will send the cold shivers down spines of its respective mem bers. He will also have an un pleasant surprise for the French owners of the Aleace potash mines, just beginning to get Into a post tion where they can export a por tion of their product. ALUNiTE'S PRoPERTIES. There have been many potash plants established in thin country since the war began in order to fill the lack in the German import, ann a * knowledie of what Ford proposes :n) so inl qltnttQ wio 'nnne th,.h LTMENT )ETECTI ' TWO \L George B. Emerson, Alis "Boston Frank," peinyweighter, who broke down under "borring-in" pilowing his arrest as a suspect In the triple tragedy, Wan was brought to Washington from New York and lodged in a room at the Dewey Hotel. For a week he was confined in the room, a uniformed polloeman sitting beside him every hour in the twenty-four. He sat there whether Wan was asleep or awake. There were three of them. alternating every eight hours. They were told to continually question Wan regarding the slaying of the members of the mission and on other subjects, to be on the alert for a slip of the tongue which might prove of Invaluable use In "break ing down" the Celestial's stoic protestations of innocence. Detec tives also were In and out of the room at all hours of the day and night. But little sleeping did Wan get while he was confined In that room, and he was seldom left to think for himself. Constantly he was questioned by Inspector Grant. the late Major Raymond W. Pull man, who was superintendent of police, and a score of detectives. It was this persistent questioning, it was this constant boring into the Celestial, not with an awl, but by word of mouth, that helped get him to make incriminating admissions which later resulted in his being EASON I CHART OF Rawsh II%( es ipha' ALUNITE SulphuricA Alumina53) Water 15) producers of aluminum and sul phuric acid. These are pretty big things to have "up ones sleeve," but tner a' all there. Very few people know anything about ahrnite. Not one out of a hundred thousand laymen ever heard the name. But chemistry knows all about it. It knew all about It In theory before any of the pure article had ever been found. Ford knows all about It because his engineers and chemists hav4 told him that pure alunite contains 12 per cent of potash, 87 per cent of aluminum and 28 per cent or suW phuric acid. They have told him of the huge deposits of alunite in the Utah Mountains, which can be had at a reasonable cost and which can be shipped to Muscle Shoals at a cheap rate. Ford knows he can get the .alunite, and tentative arrange ments for Its purchase In large quan titles already have been made pend ing his obtaining control of the Mus cle Shoals property. And this is what has attracted P'ord to alunite; with the facilities at Muscle' Shoals he can turn his at ten tion to extrac'ting the potash it non 'ins, and he will obtain aluminum ' ' wi ns hv prodne'ts at ora , ~, the oesh :ano ul erieufy.LducuL. alM. SUP ERSE ESTO " OCAL VICTIM oonvicted before a ju'y in the Dis triot Supreme Court and in his be ing sentenced to -e banged on the District gallows. 'A MISSED CHINEE DIET. It was also the tact that at the time this boring in process was in progress, Wan was ill. He was not given the usual Chinese food he was accustomed to and his nervous condition became such that his stomach refused to digest any food that was given him. At the end, when he was taken by a score of de tectives in automobiles to the mis sion house on Kalorama road, he was a fit subject to confess to the murder-to anything. "But we knew he was guilty." de clared Inspector Clifford L. Grant. ,"Just because this man told us he was not guilty did not satisfy us. It we took the word of every man brought into headquarters who claims to be innocent of crime She VHY HElN NEALTH IN H Alum Sulphate of Pbtai "a~r Caustic Rotash Sulphuric Acid C Aluminum Salts ofAlummnui Refractories Abrasives Now you have the whole story of what Ford has "up his sleeve;" why he wants Muscle Shoals. He wants all kinds of aluminum in the manu facture of his "fllvvers," and here he can get it at practically no cost, because he will already have taken the potash and the ,sulphuric acid out of the alunite and will have sold the former to the farmers at a fair price to fertilise their lands. and will have disposed of the sul phuric acid presumably at a profit. So why not aluminum at no cost? Alunite is a pinkish rock of vol canic origin. In most ancient days there was an active volcano In the Tushar mountaine-Mount Edna. It has been so many centuries since 'It has erupted that the crater is barely noticeable. In ancient time. the chIef occupation of Edna seemed to be the emission of liquid alunite, and millions of tons of the solidified lava now abound-thousands of feet in thickness. MINER'S DIS'OVERY. A group of Philadelphia capitalists were exploring the Tushar moun tains for gold. They tunneled and cut and sloped through enormous mnnen of the pink spar and threw it out ont the dump. They didn't now what It was. They wore gold nml, .-w npi ..:ereted~ mn any DES "TH REAK" C S OF "BORIN t quisuig a prisoner at polioe jails would be empty and the world would be rampant with crime. "We did not take Wan at his word No, we did not believe he told us the truth. We investigated the flert story he told us. It did not ring true. He went further. We investi gated thi story. We found that he lied-that his alibi was not true. We told him so. We kept on telling him so. We asked him again and again to tell us the truth-that It he could prove that he was not in Washing ton on the night, that Dr. Wong and his assistants were slain we would release him. He snt us on a number of wild goose chases. We finally cornered him with facts we had gathered as to his movements on the day that Dr. Wong was kill. ed. His handwriting, with that on the $6,000 check on which Dr. Wong's name was forged, also was BD t he denied any knowledge RY FORI IDDEN ORE PIash Alum Soda- Alum Ammonia Alum Mordents Water Plurifletion Sulphate Chlorate Formate Bromide -IChloride Fused Alumina seAlundum Carborundum who woke up to the tcet that there might be something of value in the rock his employers were wasting. The pink spar was taken to a chem 1st. The chemist knew what alunite was, but all the alunite he had ever seon before was so contaminated with impurities tbat it was practi cally valueless. In Larsons mple he found the pure article hitherto known In thsory only. As soon as Ford learned about It and what It meant to the three Industries named and a lot of other parallel Indus tries, he lost no time In getting as close to it as he could. There are but two owners of the Mount Edna pure alunite deposits' the Armour Fertiliser Company through a subsidiary. t"u Mineral Products Company; and the Florence Mining and Milling Company of Philadelphia. The latter company is responsible for finding the alunite and controls nine-tentns or the min eralized mountain. Both of thesne companies were active during the war in making potash. They had not yet learned how to conserve the aluminum and the sulphuric acid an by-products. Now they both know how and so does Ford. There in impure alunite in other ortions of the Tuishar mountains b~ut na the lava flowed away from the eruptting Ednia it heeame con taminated with other things. Many ROOKS V G-IN" AND / hedquarter. of the handwriting, or of the murder other than what he had read In the newspapers. But we pounded into him that we knew he was here on the night the members of the Chinese mission were killed. Then after al most a week he confessed and show ed us just how he committed the triple tragedy.' When Wan was brought to trial he not only attempted. through his lawyer, James A. O'Shea, to con vince the court and jury that he had been subjected to the boring-in treatment, but that he had been browbeaten, knocked down and cuffed about-subjected to the third degree. But he was convicted. TREATMENT JUSIFIED. Inspector Grant believes that the police are justified in using the aoj ng4n treatment. He said, hew e , that he was opposed to bru tality against any prisoner. He has given orders to detectives who serve ) WANTS of the large Utah mining companies have experimented with the Impure alunite and have failed to produce good results. It cost too much to remove the impurities. BIG BUSINESS A BARRIER. They all look with envy on the only two properties where the pure article Is found; and the owners of these properties-and Ford-are go ing to devote their energies to mak ing a lot of people who have had things all their own way in certain industries for a long time, sit up and take notice. Until Henry Ford appeared upon the scene and showed an Interest in Muscle Shoals, that plant, upon which the Government had spent an enormous sum of money, was in a fair way of being scrapped. The Sundry Civil appropriation bill of the last Congress contained an Item of $I,000,000 for the completion cf the Wlson dam. Before the bil was passed,. however, this Item was stricken out. It was understood at that time in Inner circles that big business in terests did not want the Government 4am completed nor the plant put in operation in the manufacture of ter tiliser and other things in compe tition with them, and so were able to block the plan and have the ap propriation removed from the bill. Whether or not the same intereets will be strong enough to block the present Ford deal remains to b4 seen. Big business does not like Mr ieord. Last summer, when his nam4 first came up In connection witi Muscle Shoals, representaltives 0o fertiliser, steel, explosive and othei Interests got together and decided they, did not want him in thai game. They said It would be tanta mount to an experiment In societ) control to turn that plant over tc him. Southern manufacturers said the) didn't want Ford's scale of wages introduced into their territory. Fer tiliser manufacturers were peevei at the Idea of his entering their bull ness In competitinn because thel knew that even with hi. high wag schedules, he culdl boat them out. JfEALOUSY OF RiVALS. The aluminum manufactureri were also much disturbed. It re quires large amounts of cheap pow er to make aluminum productioi successful, and they could readl3 see that Ford would have the bettel of them with the cheap Tennesase river power. It is no surprtn to the Glermia, 1.er*t iIl.'r p.-ople~ iiur, to the A* '.n. :leat Ia.aIidrrs of uttash th-' l'on prps:n o Into .he* pat~ei ntak DECREE VIT HOUT OU1 Z Charles . Zoes, Who was convicted of the murder of a boy and who snocumbedto "borring-in." in his office not to maltreat in phys ical form any prisoner. It Is not unusual for a suspect to be questioned for days at Police Headquarters by Inspector Grant and detectives. It's the regular thing when the suspect refuses to talk, or who lies as to his lmane, address, occupation and movements at a time when a crime, a burglary or some other felony is committed. "You would scarcely expect a robber, when arrested, to tell us 'right off the bat' that he is guilty. would you?" asked Grant. "Well, they don't. We question the suspect. We ask him about him self. We take his fingerprints and his photograph. Then we search our cabinets and galleries. If he is a 'good' crook, we'll soon find out. But in the meantime we are running out his alibi-all good crooks have alibis, and most of them have men of their eame standard who will swear they were in New York, Bos ton, Baltimore or some other city when a crime is committed. "Finding the alibi a failure, we then bore In on him. He has lied to us. If be was honest be would have told us the truth and our trouble with him would be over. But when he lied we know that if he did not do the job we are holding him for, he Is MUSCLE Aluminum to Be Yielde Ore Would Be Useft Potash and Aluminal Peril to Monopolies, A Vast Energy to Produ no surprise tiat he Intends to manu facture aluminum there. The Du Ponts, the American Cyanide Com pany, the Aluminum Company of America, the American Smelting and Refining Company and others largely Interested In the manufac ture of these products know this well enough. The statement frequently has been made that Ford Intends to do these things, and he has not denied it They' know nothing, however, of what Ford has "up his sleeve' 'In alunite, although they all know alunite and its wonderful qualities perfectly well. They only know that they dod not want him messing into their business in any way, even under the old and more familiar processes of manufacturing the things which Ford admit. he will RIGHT OF S& WORRIED 4 TONDON, Dec. 24.--To let! One of the finest sites in London. Who is going to buy the wa eant lot In St. Martin's le Grand, where tho old Central Post Offici once stood? The postmaster gen eral has it In his keeping, and a the Government does not intend to use it, owing to the heavy cost that would be incurred, It is going to the highest bidder, providing his bid be high enough. Any buildIng that is put up on the site will block the view of the fine facade of the Goldsmith's Hall, but that's a consideration not likely to count in these commercial days; it never did In the romantic past. Centuries ago St. Martin's le Grand was 'something more inter. -esting than a place for the receipt and dispatch of letters. There stood a collegiate church and sanctuary, founded, it is, said, by a king of Kent in the eighth century. and en larged 200 ye are later by Ingelrac IMarl of Nasex, and his brother, whose gooit d "ls werve cnflrt~i -d 1-y charter I.e i t'omtjuerdr. w~ho a'iso gave the .'ollege all the moor lands. witho.t C.-innlegate. "x '1" 44 BRUISES' SUSPECT WEARIED BY TALK The Palce Simply Ask 1Da Qusthe After Questin, Which Will Break Down Obstinacy. w.nted for o --., e. ad .., tis reason deres to hide his Mem. tity. AIM W3AE POIN. But it is the runisag out of these alibis that, as a rule, result in the suest's conviction after maing a onfeses.on. He may deny the esn. tension on the witness stand. His lawyers may attack the confession. saying it was obtained under duress, the third degree.. But the detectives usually have built up a case of air oumstantial evidence which cannot easily be battered down by clever criminal lawyers paid to get the thief olf. "No, we don't obtain confessions under duress." detinued Grant. "We simply bore In on our suspects. We get better results. You can be kind or rough in spesec. It an depends on the man you are osafrnted with." Most of the Judges who have re cently sat in the weigtaal divieus of the District Supreme Court have voiced their strong eppIom-ma to the third degree, that part ot It whish nets the detectives a s.a. s do. wil . th.y adlt a igned eon feleon union they a re Mly een vineed it was veiumtary aind. What may be enstued "welun tarily made" hay be a eiamedon obtained through the "6ering4n" method-the trappig of the sus past or erimia to a srsie of lies and then preddng Man her alter hour with the foot that he did not tell the truth, and eeabfeatng him with evidence gathered by detec tives during the pereed at quentumn Ins. Judges have not yet rused on confesions obtained through the "boring-in" system. They .ear my have to. ,SHOALS I In Process of Working I In Building His Cars. n Interests Alarmed by ttack His Project to Turn ction. make if given a chance. They do not know that he is rely ing upon the hitherto unknown alunite to supply the "feed" for h P mills at Muscle Shoals. When they do, will their efforts be strong enough to block the deal that seems imminent? secretary Weeks ap pears to be receptive as is evidenced by his sending Ford and Edison on a trip to inspect the property and come to terms. It is safe to say that once Mr Ford gets into action at that planat with his alunite Fordney will have to revise that portion of his tariff bill which refers to potash, alum inum and sulphuric acid. These commodities might then just as well be placed on the free list, for no for eigner will be able to touch the three-in-one prices. ANCTUARY 3LD LONDON Although standing within thecnity wall., the college was a liberty by itself, greatly to the concern of the mayor and corporation. Criminals on their way from Newgate to Tower Hill used often to mtake a last dash from their geolers through the gate of St. Mari-n's, and once. inside they were almoet sure of safety. Thus, In 1442, a soldier on his way from Newgate to the Guildhall was dragged by five of his fellows, .who rushed out of Panyer alley, in at the west door of the sanctuary; but that same day the two sheriffo came and took the five men froms the sanctatary, and led them fettered to the Compter, and then chained bg the necks to Newgate. The dean and chapter of St. Mar. tin's.. furioUs at this, complaned t4 the King, who, after hearing th( city. who denied the right of eans tv~ esa1l. to 'hlir foirmer retreat. cv r 19' .are ago, the en .nW w~ere - in for the enneral md una; . .': u:gi in; crypt *itsa o e' a 11 earlier foubs uaua.re discored.