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^esonj \ a? 9udyin|Mans Bi| Brother^ Jungle Home _#f*2_. - _ _____ ? The New York Natural History Museum's Expedition Hopes to Give Us an Intimate Picture of the Gorilla's Home and Family Life Which Science ' Has Never Been Able to Get Prince William, of Sweden, and the Gorilla He Shot for the Stockholm Museum. OF late years science has been more and more eager io know in intimate detail the habite and family life of the gorillas. These huge and marvellously powerful add highly intelligent relatives of man kind bear a close relationship to civilized man and offer many and perplexing prob lems which anthropologists are extremely desirous of studying. But of all creatures on the face of the earth science knows least about the gorilla. These great anthropoid apes live in the midst of the African wilderness in a com paratively small area of almost Impene trable Jungle. Science has been able to gather very little trustworthy information from the natives %who live In the vicinitv of the apes. The savages are in terror ot. the huge creatures and prefer to see and know as little as possible about them. When scientists push their way through to the edge of the gorilla country they find themselves unable to get much more than distant views and an occasional shot at a passing gorilla. Professor Garner, of "Monkey Cage" fame, endeavored to study the problem and gained little or nothing new of scientific value. ? Other animals can be captured and held in captivity for observation and experi ment. But nobody has ever succeeded in capturing a full grown live gorilla, and even the baby gorillas which have been brought safely out of the Jungle alive have never livod very long in captivity. And now the American Museum of Nat ural History has undertaken to supply science with the information it lacks. Several months ago an expedition of half a dozen or more, under the leadership of Carl E. Akeley, a scientist and big game hunter, was organized and pent to the African Jungle. The expedition was es pecially and peculiarly equipped to thor oughly cover everything of interest and scientific importance in regard to man's gigantic African relatives. Not only was the- expedition expected to shoot and send back for mounting the skins of a family group to be put on ex hibition in the museum in New York, but specially devised motion picture cameras, invented by Mr. Akeley, were taken along with the hope of being able to photograph Father Gorilla, Mother Gorilla and the lit tle gorilla boys and girls playing around, preparing their meals, putting the little ones to bed, standing on guard at the foot of the tree at night, and everything else pertaining to the habits, tastes, social customs, domestic life, food, morality and marriage customs (if there are any) of these great men of the forest. Much interest is attached to the motion picture end of the museum's outfit, be cause Mr. Akeley is the Inventor of a peculiar camera and has added a few im provements and some special appliances to meet the special necessities of this ex pedition. It is realized that while any motion picture camera can take e picture of a king, a president or a blushing bride, no camera ha? yet been able to csteta, a Interesting Photograph Showing the Powerful Neck and Back of a Gorilla with a Native Sitting Beside Him. picture of the real king of the African jungle The peculiar cameras Mr. Akeley will ? m? can be made to work in dark places in the dee>i> shade and foliage of tbe jungle. They are of a "super-speed" type and oper ate continually and noiselessly. The camera equipment also Includes panorama (?evlces with telescopic lens by means of which a gorilla and his wife half a mile away can be made to more than fill the screen. Along with the museum scientists is Mrs. Mary Hastings Bradley, tbe novelist, and ber six year-odd daughter, Alice. What the cold eye of the scientist may miss in the family life of the jungle gorillas Mrs. Bradley hopes to be able to observe, and what she misses she hopee her six-year-old child will take note of and call to her at tention. Dr. Lucas, director of the American M useunf of Natural History, says that there are no really well mounted skins in any of th ? museums. Although the mount ings may be well executed from a taxi dermist's standpoint, the lack of knowl edge of the giant apes' habits prevents a realistic, natural and scientifically correct presentation. This applies, both to single figures and to groups. Mr. Akeley bas al ready reported by cable that he has se cured five fine specimens of gorillas, in cluding a father weighing 360 pounds, with a span of seven feet ant' eight Inches from hand to hand. Curiously enough, another distinguished scientific expedition at the same time has been working in the gorilla country In A Trim for much the same purpose, but In behalf of the Royal Museum ht Stockholm. Sweden. This expedition is headed by Prince William of Sweden and a party of big game hunters and scientists Prince William is tbe younger son of King Gustsv of Sweden snd has \ just returned from his expedi _ ,,, tlon wUh a thousand animals, **** two thousand birds and nearly six thousand insects. "Game basteen "greatly diminished of late years," Prince William says. "Africa is, nevertheless, an El Dorado for the huntsman. The herds of topi are fantas tically numerous. Lions are also abund ant. More than twenty fell to our guns within a few weeks. I remember one night especially when we ?aw no fewer than fifteen lions gathered round the ani mal we had set out as a lure. There was only one male. When the great lion final ly moved a little away from the gluttonous assembly he received my shot in his side. In sudden fright the whole lot rushed to ward the stone shelter behind which I stood. Evidently starving, they returned ngain and again to their prey, regardless of our repeated firing. In the morning eight lions lay dead on the ground. Thence we crossed Lake Edward .and marched north through forests west of Ruwenzori. We came in contact with the Wambutti forest tribes. They are dwarfs of a very low culture level. The men are, however, wonderful huntsmen. Describing the country In which the gorillas were shot, Prince William says: "The mountain sides are steep, often precipitous, almost perpendicular toward the summit, and are separated by deep ravines. The thick vegetation grows into a perfect tangle. Bamboos, climbing ' plants and creepers, and hroad.-leaved racti are interwoven Into a hopeless en Innglement, through which one can only ml vanee by cutting one's way step by step. To approach wild game in such circum stances le well-nioh Impossible, and in nine cases out of ten yon catch but a ici) ion. te sur Omvay. Mrs. Mary Hastings Bradley, th? Novelist, and Her Six-Year-Cld Daughter, Alice, Who Ar? With the Expedition in the Jungle. glimpse of a twitch ing tail or the prick ing up of an ear be fore the quarry Is gone. "To follow a trail is also very difficult, as the fresher the trail is the more cau tious one must be, and it generally hap pens Hi.h the huntsman, crawling like a worm through, the tangled undergrowth, is unable at the critical moment to raise his gun to fire before it I? too late. The clayey soil, softened by showers and tin dried in the shade, which the sun cannot l>enetrate, is very slippery. "The Belgian Government had generous ly given us a license to shoot fourteen gorilles. To our great satisfaction we were able to bag this lot. They were animals of both sexes and all ages. How should one shoot gorillas? One must, to begin with, have strong legs and a stout heart. Few animals give the huntsman sterner work. You must, tramp about on the steep hillsides, clatter down steep ravines and climb up on the opposite side till you come upon a fresh trail. Then you must creep and crawl, balance your self from tree lo tree, endeavor to imitate the movements of the quarry. * "With good luck, after s day long pur suit, you may find yourseU in the midst erest Britain airhu mmwswm it Excellent Photograph of an Average Sized Gorilla Showing His Massive Head, Neck, Cheat, and Long, Muscular Arms as Compared with a Native. of a chattering group, of which you may bring down one or two ere the rest, with deafening screams and the rush of an avalanche, dart away through the woods, uprooting young trees and tearing away branches in their precipitate flight. They generally fly before man, and only turn when wounded. Then they rise on two legs and rush madly at tbeir foe; other wise they rarely quit their four-footed attitude. "I mast say, however, that the only gorilla I shot personally behaved some what differently. He rushed at me with lightning rapidity, before I had fired. But I believe this was to defend his retreating comrades. He was a sturdy old male, bent on repulsing the intruder, and doubtless ignorant of the danger he was Incurring. ? reit bound to enlighten him, and, above all. put a stop to his experi menting on me. Be sides, there was not much time to deliber ate. The beast had burst through the bush within a few feet from me. A .350 magnum bullet right through his lungs put an end to tbe old fellow's life. He was a white-haired giant and weighed nearly four hundred pounds." How little we know about gorillas Is proved by the intense Interest excited by the young gorilla, John Daniel, last Spring. He was four and a half years old and was the first gorilla to live to that age In cap tivity. He displayed Carl E. Akeley, Who Is in Charge of the Museum of Nat ural History's African Gorilla Expedition. the most remarkable intelligence and hu man ways when exhibited In the Ringling Brothers' circus. He sat down at table and ale like a well-behaved hoy, cleaned up bis plates and made hie own bed. Just when scientists were beginning to learn new facts about live gorillas John Daniel died, as every other specimen of his race had done In captivity. The American Museum of Natural History secured his remains, performed an autopsy on his organs and placed his stuffed skin on ex hibition, but all this gave only a little In formation about the life and habits of the gorilla. - The most interesting observation from Daniel's remains was an explanation why the gorilla cannot talk like a man. Be neath the tongue of Daniel tbe muscles were divided Into some five unconnected groups. In man the muscles are spread out into the shape of a fan. with Infinite numbers of small fibres, by which th* tongue can move with great rapidity and utter every word that makes up language as many aa 170 words per minute. The ape can only scream, squeak and howl. Of his method, of communication with bis mates ws beve little knowledge, but there is reason to believe thst be can express more by his noises than other animals. Strange to say, the gorilla was an un known quantity to civilization until 1847. It I? a larger animai than the chimpanzee. In the wilds It is sullen and ferocious, but becomes more amiable under human asso ciation and can be taught the manners of its captors. The hands and feet are broad, short, thick and webbed; the heel long, with great relative length of upper arm and a short forearm. The backbone has seventeen Joints, the same number as in man, of which thirteen usually carry ribs, to a ysual eleven in man. There are nine wrist bones, as in man. When walking Daniel sometimes stood upright and sometimes went on all fours, doubling the fingers on the palms of the hand. The big feet and big toes were for grasping, although the animal was able to utilize tbe short thumb and forefinger much like men. Female gorillas are smaller and weaker than the male, showing a resemblance 'o the human race. The tusks of the female are but slightly developed, the skull smaller, more rounded and without bony rims over the eyes. The nose bridge is shorter, the cheeks wider and upper,lip longer. The appearance of the female is much less ferocious. The gorilla at home has been described ae sitting at the base of a tree with the wife and family upstairs. He is supposed to be ready with his mighty arms to smite all enemies of his home. His head s win?-?? in all directions, and he lifts food to his mouth with great toe and fore toe, fea.in to leave hissarms engaged for an Instant. Daniel's skin varied from dark gray to black, corresponding to the skin color aivi pigmentation of the Australian African group of men. .The thorax of Daniel was of gri>ai widih and depth, but relatively short, producing a stout trunk and protruding paunch. T.v. blg thorax of the gorilla accounts for the tremendous noise he makes at times, and perhaps also accounts for his love of mak ing a further big noise by drumming wlili sticks or clubs on any kind of a sounding board or tin vessel. The gorilla has a tear duct by which it weeps as men do. Though the gorilla In many individuals has a larger skull than man. It is built for fighting, and has lw. a small brain with little thinking ability. The brain of Daniel represented about 1-150 of the total weight of the body, wh.lg In a man of similar stature the brain would comprise about 1-50 of the total weight. The area of Daniel's brain was only on. sixth of that of man. It is certain from the study of John Daniel alone that th? gorilla is extraordi narily close to man in brain snd structure. He possesses a higher order of Intelligence han the dog, but Is less teachable. There ?s ground for believing that if a gorilla :ould be thoroughly tamed he would be lavo very much like a low type of man. That is why scientists are so anxious to ?htain new facts about live gorillas. The Museum authorities are awaiting ?Ith eagerness the return of Mr. Akeley's ?xpedition.