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BenM orurdinte eln
HE orl-fmou "Bide ofBih atVncwih a1encle th0 ads ptintewoewrd will encefrth.b on- a lc o ap Bwint beasoated irn anyh a with the tri ngconeWnaion Wof unapypr onr . O ..tVitos T he woeldbrad bridgconct tihe at' Panace whe host beertnt cll bldnnthe cdetyo wih the whoen worat, Pion heeeothbe monpcuous happ tamsciain, reqmntead byloodstenths, tourid and excuity. rs AFtorg the Dsttie' inle orhundoeg wbllnt use manyiae in ant wayswum, the tralcetpoe and codmatin of nhpp pos otris. pioeso eetyash be cniedebre Onridew conets tho the beaafu, Cutest iroskant acised bfuing ihectwt theananscicoer Stt Prison wherethaed mr toiurser, was' dined romnthis n prio.tfl hs Te andseeciu ed. dwoaclsl beued myaitnyans an aong museum, the .conydn hasu tonoam the olsevd pis tocthetcourthose -and mank agonf the s bpencaonsfaed thpitre. nafws aro ceof asin oer tte canahls ofwVenico the aer inftroglaemted aofre th turde-. dwes dand mnces prson.tmsthth maThe msteryios veie womarin, cloel garddcyi tenanainlognlak,.a Butvye in autureoa fceero thes kod prion sbe actats wth this piceturuprof cesiongpss.ngThetate Prasnals tor encen the pwenrng scunlpyureminde othetr ae-l distuy an oncs oxle imes t that hae madae, the srey of Veist. hrilli andr famscb ding ,wihaedie rt r tr fortureosentoesover ithis knt will biere ainarmon with moderancie gropat buisb. Thsoer ad Prinais houeld crtea iodant cnte, amdwhee btuent tfu purrndingspu. adote r.wl Aleg tfasihe ofist. Mars ocapnd othe tremasue.s a patcula prlynsuital cen posre for students Moreoeriti ot ona freely au the Pridgeon was, ue bne end was closed to them. In ancient times prisnners were tried in the .Judgmaat Hal Tn Groa C a Wd A RecentPrisoner th out A Rce - PStepsef the ut of the Doge's Palace and then conveyed for excution, torture or imprisonment to the neighboring prison. So many prisoners have passed over the bridge that it has naturally grown tob' regarded as -leeply touched with sad mem orles, and even haunted with the spirits of the departed. Unhappy men and women have stopped here countless times during the centuries and aooked out of the win dows of the covered bridge and sighed as they took their last look at the sunligfit. Some were on their way to death arnd others to torture and lifelong imprison. ment in the gloomy dungeons beneath the prison. Byron has expressed the feelings that have impresseJi visitors to this thrilling spot in his lines which begin: "istood 'in Venice on the Bridge of Sigh. A prison and a palace on each hand." The bridge passes over the Rio Canal. It Is beautiful in design, but the canal is narrow, the buildings high and the water dark. Littie sunlight comes here during moat of the day, and the appearance of the bridge Is in harmony with its gloomy story. So suitable is the bridge considered for its purpose that it has been copied in prison architecture in various parts of the world, .a Ne.w er'st risn (te Tmbs) istoric" Fer Echoing fop od of the Coi 1- 1 ns of the Tort iy of Hope and One Of khe cg :the is Tarnowska, Passing Down the Ancient Pison. is connected with the neighboripg criminal Court by a similar structure. The history of Venice is more deeply crowded with tragedies and romances than that of any ottier medlaeval State. There are good reasons for this. 'The Republic of Venice became, early in the middle ages, the wealthieet and most luxurious community in Europe. It struggled for riches by every means in its power without a shadow of scrupU louasness. It intrigued for wealth and In fluence in every corner of the globe. Its envoys subsidized the monarchs of distant lands when they aided Vesletian designs and murdered or ruined them when they opposed those designs. Any Venelian who hindered in any way the prosperity or power of his city was considered to have merited the most dread fl death. Men who had merely counter feited the money of the republic were tor tured to death in a terrible manner. be cause they had attacked the commercial stability of the community. Even those who had simply entered into trade arrange ments with other States were put to death in a spectacular manner. When Venice was at the height of her power and wealth she fell under the con trol of a vt ry powerful oligarchy of rich families. This oligarchy was represented hy the natorious Concilt of Ten_ which Bridge o Centurw~o* d'emned nd t red It Will ati Arti8tiG$yei eatest Tragedies in Vehbdtian History escarl Breught Befoe. His Fathe, a, After a Terteed ad I Over the ge .f Sighs to the Judgament 1a . beard accusatioas a*nst anyb"dy passed judgment Is seeret, infficting any term of death or imprisonment it pleased. The swiftness and cruelty of Its judgments beame notorlou, throughout the iorld. The ruling oligarchy was deteraned that no individual, however able or powe , should become stronger than the domin class, and the Mission of the Osuncil of 1ee was to carry out this policy. Hence no person in the State. however high or noble, was safe from ith terrible and secret judg ments. Even the Dege, the Chief Magis trate of Yence, was subject to the forts diction of the dreaded Council of Ten. One Dogs after another lost his head simply because he was acused of havlng ee sIT ambitions. It the Dogs plinned to marry his fair young daughter to a fmep pftee the ter rible Council might sedher -t the block or the torture chamber iIthout the 1east compunetlon, becauee they thought she weald be the meas of giving her fhther or her husband too much power ever Venice. In order to faeilitate the makin et ae cusations there was the celebrate ioa's head. at the entrane t6 the ante4*eber et the Council of Tea. Any yoyps wished could, under cover of 4VlArkpas place an anonymous accusation la the Hos's mouth, bringing charges agaient any per he chose to name, even the DoWe hself. This was'bound to be investigated by the Council, and often swift snd terrible as tion followed upon thle nameless accusa tion. Thus everyhody i4 Venice lived in more or less danger of torture and execution. But in spite of this they lived a merry life. Their motto- ifas "Let us eat, drink and be merry for we may die at any mo ment." Their carnivals, masked balls, water fetes and other gayeties becamp noted in every country. Never wasn there sneh splendor, such sensual enjoyment, suash ardent romance as la the beautiful pai~5 of Veniee. And nobody knew whether !he nocturnai delights trould end in a sumn mene before tht dreaded Council of Ten, Among the many tragedies that arose from these conditions in Venice the most conspicuous naturally centred about the Dogs's Palace, the Bridge of Sighs and the State Prison. For many centuries Important mrisonere were tried in the Judgment Hall of the Palace and conveyed over the Br .ige to the Prison for execution or in carreration. Roth beneath the Dog5e Palace and the Prison thiere are subt* ranean torture chambers. Theme are filled with racks. thumbaarews, huge gridirons and many other dreadful instruments- of iediaeval torture. These were used upon the unhappy prisoneig both before and after trial. P'ehaps the most tremendous of all the tragedies that have been enacted In these buildings was that of the l)oge Foscari and his son. The circuinstangse have been used in Byron's play, "The Two Poscari." Franceso Foecari was Dogs from 1423 to 1457. and greatly increased the territory of Venie.. His only son, Giacopo Foacari, was un justly accused by trecherous enemies be fore the CnunnM of Tan at treasonable @ne. d 'n te -Prismers Have Been Cc lasbI to Be Transf flepo oe 1ththe Turks. He was hdr 1CIy tortured In the subterranean dungen of the pt-ison and then dfagged 61edSihg and halt dead across the Bridge of SIis to the presence of his father in the J2ggnent Hlall of the Degee Palace. The Doge, because of his great patriot Isa3, buppressed his feeling as a father and conirnmed the sentence of banishment passed by the Council. Th4e son~uoon a! terwaryf sucesabed to his Injuriee and the fatheidled of a brokes heart. Anoiber very .celebrated tragedy was that df the Doge Marino lalleri, who was executed in 1355. Hie had been offended hy an Insult to, his beautiful wife by . voudg nobleman who had relatives on the Great (lonntt. ftnaaied with the alight puipen t inflicted on the nobleman, the Toeospired with the plebeians to make himself saftIg of Venice. He .was convieted and beheaded in a moot ?gpettculer madner at the foot of the #6bnd thirway of the Doge's Palace. 14.isace 14i the gallery of portraits of all the eogs fit the "batage Is taken by a picture showing' an empty throne with a blach pall thvown Over it. The methods of the Venetian Coneil of Ten at ofie period have been retealed in a rem tbe diary by Marino Sando, who WSa mman oftthe opnull. A typlaal pe the awful swiftnes with th1 e Test stenck dewn traitors Ic sffte by en entry Ia Sanedo's dairy. 'Oae s. ordilng '1n' 14W8," Sanudo writes: "Purs atg me wntd way to'the Palee I tieali eiverybodly saying: 'This night, jtistice bath been done :' and as 1 passed along tie plassa I raised my eyes to the 4to c* mns,. andi thtere saw hanging An tonio *i Lando, our gecretary, who used to keep all our secrets, translate our cypherand attend the geaate. "Afl the city marvelled for that nothing was -knsw about it, and he was hanged by ni lti the official dress with sleeves aomnel; and this te what had ed: Now ReIt known this was done eause he h reveded our sedrets to one Eu n Battist TEeVian, formetty of ear chan etery, bet cashiered and aetta as a kitad of seretary to the Marqnis of Vana. nd ths, t w.. ls.anv==d- Trhis An. Photograph Aof the Bridg of Sigh. WhCih Connects the Dog.'s Palace and the State Prison 'a nd Passe.s Over the Rio Canal. ' inducted in Gondolas to the Prison, emed into an Art Centre. tonio. licet he was old, and had only 180 ducats a year, kept a certain mistress called Laura Trovolo at St. Trinita, and this Zuan Battista did also visit her, and dur Ing the evenings they spoke in Latin to gether. Now, Laura told this to her love', one Hieronimo Amadi, who concealed him self behind the arras and heard the two speak in Latin of State secrets. "And the said Laura had not the courage to turn informer, but sent her'lover to the Ten, who arrested both lover and mistress, and seized Antonio at Laura's lhouse on Sunday, who lay sick there; and Zuan was caught in a boat on Monday morning. And so L.orenzo Venier, the Councillor; Troyola Malipiero, eilef of tho Ten; the Avogador of the Clommune and 'the Inquisitor met. barred all access to the Palace and put the prisoners to the torture. That same night Antonio swung from the gallows. lHe died imp~nitent, and woid neither eat, confess nor take the sactament. "No one was allowed on the Piazza, and so swiftly was the execution determined on that no rope could he found; and since all the shops were closed, a messenger was dispatched, hot foot, to the arsenal, who returned with some ship's cordage, and Antonio wala straight way throttled ; and while hanging, uat dicitur, he fell and broke his arm, and was then hauled up again. No woed was heard,. and folk said he was strangled in prison. But this is how things happened, and I saw him with the rope round his neck in two knots, and his dress all muddy; and the said Antonio was left a whole day on the gallows, and at evening was buried. He had served the Seigniory for forty years, was very poor and had a wife at Pa dua." False coiners we're punished with terrihie severily. After*torture they were usually burned alive. The Ten were equally a vere against biasphemners. In March .180, one was taken between the columns, his ha cut off and tongue and eyes plucked out. In 1619 some blasphemers, including a priest. were exposed .n a boat along the canal, their crime being proclaimed, then taken to the hostelry where they had blasphemed. Then their tongues were cut out as an example to others. In Septemnber of 1612 the noses of ten smugglers were cut of hetweon the columns.