THE NATIONAL ERA.
(J. BAILEY, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR; JOHN G. W H IT T I E R, C 0 R R E S PON D1 N G EDITOR.
& VoirIV?NO. 12. WASHINGTON. THURSDAY, MARCH .21, 1860. WHOLE NO. 168.
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BUSLL a BLAH .'HAHI), PKINTBKS.
THE NATIONAL ERA.
WASHINGTON, MARCH IS, 1850.
A STORY OK THE ISLAND ESTATE.
BV MBS. BMMA H. K. SOUTHWOBTB.
A KAKLOH XTOKM _ I
H?l ? wu m>t tbfcf blia l. i>?pri???u7iP?*e,
A wjr<l e?a kindle aixl a wurd axxuagc,
Hut The deep workings of a auui unmixed
With aught of pity where Itn wrath had ttxed
Mrs. Armstrong reached her chamber, and by
a peal of bells brought Kate Jumper to her
"Have Mr. and Mrs. Stuart-Gordon left the
shores of the Island yet ?''
44 Yes, madam !''
" How loug since ?"
"An hour, madam !"
" Do you know what direction they took ?"'
41 Up the rirer toward the falls, madam !*'
44 It is too late and too far to recall them. You
may go!?stay !'
?" MadamP' - "
%"Go into Mrs. Stuart-Gordon's room ami pack
up her wardrobe. We return to Mout"t?ry*iai
41 Yes. madam!"
" And, ohterve f be silent upon this matter !''
41 Yes, madam !"
"When you hare completed the packing of
Mrs. Stuart-Gordon's wardrobe, return hither to
pack up my own ! Go P
And thus dismissing her attendant, the lady
seated herself in stern calmness by the window,
and took out her knotting.
The tall mulatto stalked on to the apartments
of the bride, to execute her mistress's orders.
The suit of apartments appropriated to Louis
and Louise consisted of one bed-chamber, between
two dressing-rooms, and connected with them.
The dressing-room assigned to Louise was fitted
up in the most costly and elegant style. It was
a front room on the second floor, and its two tall
windows overlooked the terrace, lawn, river, the
opposite bank, and the bride's own home, Mont
Crystal Between these two high front windows
hung a tall cheval mirror?and the windows and
the mirror were curtained and festooned with
blue silk and white lace, tied up with ribbons,
and wreaths of violets. The carpet on the floor
and the paper on the walls were of fhe same color
and pattern?blue violets running over a white
ground. The bureaus, wardrobes, dressing-tables,
4*c, were all of that beaulfful white satin wood
that looks so much like ivory.
When Kate Jumper stalked into this room, she
found it alrendy occupied by a little, old, short,
thick-set negrcss, who was not employing herself
by setting the room in order, but amusing herself
by trying on one of her young mistress's exquisite
little French hsts, and viewing with much
self-satisfaction the effect of the soft white velvet
and delicate white plumes surrounding a face
black, shining, senuied, and wrinkled as a dried
This was Seraphina, the wife of Apollo, and
the nurse and waiting maid of all the Mistresses
and the Misses Stuart-Gordon for the last fifty
years?now the personal attendant of Louise.
"Good morning, Mrs. Jumper!"' said the
seraph, laying off the white hat and feathers indifferently.
Kate Jumper disdained to answer, except by a
short nod, and, striding up past the Abigail, she
took the hunch of keys from the dressing-table,
aud began to unlock the bureaus?
" What tire you going to Jo, Mrs. J umper ?"
The mulatto Jid not think it worth while to
' I say there! 1 say there! don't tech them
Brisales laces and rihbons! I never "low anybody
to tech urn but myself! 1 say! why don't you
/i?ir in? ! why don't you s'op ? Are you criuy?
Stop o' rntnmidgin' my missis'# thingumies?will
you T Here, give me the keys! I never seen
sich impidence in all my life! ^ ou must be
cracked! Here! gim roe them keys!" and, running
and waddling towards her, the little woman
possessed herself of the disputed keys with a sudden
Kate Jumper, without speaking, quietly held
out her hand to get them again. Seraph huggrd
them under her fat chin with both hands. With
a silent but peremptory gesture, the mulatto
started to her feet, and demanded their return
"1 won't! I shan't! Set you up with it, indeed
! Kuramidgiii my young missis's drawers!
You dont look like the moe' honestest person in
the worl' no how ! / don't know nuflin bout your
With a quiet, quick dart of her hand, the mulatto
gripped her talons around the throat of
Seraph, and choked her until she grew full in the
face, and dropped the keys; then, druwing her
towards the door, she silently thrust her out. closed
the door, and locked it on the inside.
All this passed so quietly that ons in the next
rouiu wuuki urn nine Known wnm Wfi8 on '
S?rAph, on the floor out?iJe the door, convulaed,
heaved, spluttered, sneezed, coughed, and recovered
" The Lor' a massy upon me ! DU is wuss 'an
de landin' o' de British ! I say in dere ! you nonition!
I'd holler murder, only I wont make a
'fusion to sturb de family! But I'll have you
put in jail for "salt and batterin' me! an' for abreuk'.n'
open of my missis's drawers! Oh, you
won't speak ! Never you min1! you'll see! you
good for nofhio' poor white aum's darter yon?"
There' that was the most insulting taunt a
pure-blooded Virginia negro could cast upon u
mulatto 1 Aud, having spent the force of her
fury on this last eipletive, Seraph gathered herself
up and waddled down stairs, leaving Kate
Jumper to go on with her packing.
Kate pursued her task until she had completed
it, even to the strapping of the trunks, and then,
taking with her the bunch of keys, she went out
of the room, locked the door to prevent the reentrance
of her antagonist, Seraph, and took the
keys to the chamber of Mrs Armstrong She
found that lady still seated at the window, knotling
with apparent composure.
41 Hsve yon done 7"
" Yea, madam, everything is packed and ready,
and Mrs. Stuart-Gordon's shawl and hat are laid
out upon the bed for har to near. Here are the
" Very good! I shall keep my room until dinner.
When Mrs Stuart-Gordon returns, let her
know that I expect her here. Now go !"
And she went en very qaistly with her knotting.
By no outward aign oould the moat suspicions
and aente observer have detected the fell
dstemination of this pilileas mother I
There she sat by the open window, watching
the Bummer nun slowly decline, unmindful, unoonacinus
of the resplendent beauty of the scene
stretched out before her?a landscape whose gorgeous
glory would have caught the breath from
any other beholder. There she sat, watching the
gun's splendid descent, impatient for its setting,
which would bring Louis and Louise home, and
hasten the hour of her departure with her daughter?the
hour of her vengeance. There she sat.
resolved, though knowing how much Louiseloved
Louis?aye, and latins her for thus loving him?
knowing bow this separation would torture Louise,
and taking a secret and diabolical pleasure in the
idea of the torture?smiling grimly to herself at
the thought of this separation ! smiliug grimly at
the thought thnt Louise should suffer lor having
thus transferred her affections?that Louis should
be agonized for having won from herself this
love?that General Stuart-Gordon should l>c humiliated
for having doubly mortified her, in the
disappointment of ner ambitions projects both for
herself and her daughter. This signal seywrrtvixra
and ita cause would lay his pride in the dust !
For herself, was too really ami essentially i
proud to care what construction might be put <
upon her actions. She sat there, stern, erect, res- i
c4?te,- detwmtMtl,. but eal*nr ejcp'-Viheo iWA- J
sionaily that diabolic il grin distorted her features, I
going on with her knotting without- (troppingbooe I
stitch or missing one mesh. I
At last, when the snti had sunk behind the i
mountain, and when the slanting shadows had
stretched quits across the river, darkening the i
whole scene, a rap was heard at her door, and
soon after Kate Jumper entered? i
" Mra. St uart-G onion has just returned, madamx i
and is coming up to her roo\p to change her dress i
for dinner. Let me have the keys"
" Did yon deliver my message to her T"
" Yes. madam; hut she prefers to dress first."
" Louise pays very little regard to my wishes
since her marriage," thought the mother, bitterly, i
then she said, " Go and tell Mrs. Stuart-Gordon
that 1 am waiting for her here."
The woman had scarcely left the room ltefore
the light step and clear voice of Louise was heard
tripping and singing tip the stairs, a merry, Ihrilling
quadrille air. The dancing and the singing
abruptly ceased as she reached the door of her i
mother's apartment, tad rapped before venturing
to enter. i
"Come in, my daughter!"* wild the voice of t'ne i
lady, in kinder tones than these she usually employed
in speaking to her child, or to any one else
in fact. 1
Louise opened the door softly, and entered the i
" You have a very unladylike manner of enter- i
ing a house and ascending a flight of stairs, my
daughter. I am pleased, however, that your bois- i
terousness moderated a little as you uearcd my !
" Dear mother, Louis loves to see me merry? I
encourages me to be wild?and indeed 1 lately
have a tendency that way, so that I sometimes I
forget you "
"Oh, I have no doubt in the world that you
forget me. 1 was not that, however, of which I
wished to speak to you. Come and sit by nty
The girl took the indicated seat, the footstool
!ll ner motncra tect, on'j, inytrig nvr snun uver
her mothers lap, looked up into her face, to gee
what she was about to say?
" Do you lore mo, Louise ?" asked the lady, in
a serious tone.
" My dear mother ! would you ouly hi me lore
" Yet for a month past you hare neglected and
forgotten me for a comparative stranger."
This was partly true, as under nil the circumstances
it was wry natural. This was true, nud
Louise could not deny it. She was conscimcestrickcn
and pricked to the heart. She was
"Yes! my child has eea ed to love inc?my i
child has forsaken her mother for a comparative
Louise hung down her fair head, and the tsars
began to gather in her eyes aud roll down her
" My child, thr.t I Sore t.nd nursed?that I
brought up and educated?that 1 never would send
from me, even to sleep?my only child, has ceased
to love me.
The tears of the daughter were falling fast.
She was subdued by the thought that her mother?her
proud, lof:y mother?should bend thus
a supplicant for a share in her child's heart.
"Yes. she had ceased to love her mother her
mother, whose whole and sole thought has been
for her welfare alone."
Louise, filled with remorse, had no power of replying.
" Yes, she has ceased to love me; me, who re- i
majned through nil the best years of my life unmarried
for hrr sake ; she has ceased to love me.
and i nm desolate?a widow, childless, and desolate."
Here, with her deep knowledge of human na- 1
tare, she purposely touched a chord at which the
brides and the iltinyh/rrs heart vibrated to the I
quick. With the one idea of the young wife, the i
one idea of wedded love, tilling her tnind, she sud- 1
denly recollected that her mother was?a hirloir, 1
ami her whole soul filled with an overpowering
tenderness of love and pity, and casting her arms
around her mother, she exclaimed? I
" A vidowf Oh, my dear, dear mother, forgive I
me that I never thought of that before ! A ttulotrf I
Oh, my mother, I never knew how much sorrow 1
was in that word before. A nulom! Oh, iny
poor mother, how much, indeed, you must have 1
suffered! A virion! Oh, may the Lord in mercy
preserve me from ever becoming 1 tnJoir ! "
And a shudder ran through nil her frame. <
"Ob, my dear mother. I do love you, will love
you, all that you will let me. It is xrwt to be *
permitted to love you so, mother " j
Mrs. Armstrong soothed and caressed her child. <
Had this tenderness in the mother been a cus- i
tonnry. thing, it would not then have possessed x
such all-suhdulog power over Louise. It was the I
long desire I. unhoped l#ve. that, suddenly tnani- s
festing itself, completely subjected the will of the
And Mts Armstrong pressed her to her bosom,
smoothed back her golden hair, and kissed her t
snowy brow, while Louise would murmur softly
"Oh, it is so sweet to have you love nie so,
mo'h'r?moth'T lingering over the last word, I
" slowly, with ineffable tenderness. t
Suddenly, Mrs. Armstrong said to her, very l
"Now my daughter. I have something very serious
to say to you."
"Say it, iny dear mother " ]
"Louise, I hare been insulted, outraged"
"Insulted! outrnged!" repeated Louise, looking i
up in aatouishment.
" Yes. my daughter '
"iusulted! yoxi" she exclaimed, raising herself
up in a sitting posture, and gazing at her
mother in amazomeut; mother, you ' Who has
"General Stuart-Gordon . no less n person'
"General Stuart-Gordon!" reiterated Louise,
in stupefied wonder
" General Hltwrt'Goriion.1 I
"He! Mother, I am thunderstruck ! Mother, <
am I awake? Shake me. mother."
" You are awake, Louise
"And sane !?am I sane, mother ' I
" And sane, Louise."
"It seems to me that I hare the nightmare! I 1
wish I could rouse myself. General Stuart '
" My dear child, listen; 1 will tell you all uliout
if General Stu art-Gordon informed me yewler- <
day that he was about to be married " <
" To be married !" I
" My dear child, pray ceane thcae vexation* I
-*?et ??'>*? Anil liutiin ?nl? I
r?tiniuiiuijr rtjmiinwun, ???' ? -*" 7
he informed me he wan about to l?e married to
Hritannia O'Riley "
" Britannia 0 Riley ! what! Brlghty coming
"Once more. Mrs. Stuart-Gordon?I mean my
dear Louiae?I moat entreat you to reaae repeating
ray words; it impedes nn<l etnl?arrtute?w m*.
Well, General Stuart-Gordon infi>rme<i me. a* I
"aid, of his approaching marriage with Mis#
O'Riley. Louise, what do yon think of this marriage
"I cannot beliere it. It c&uoot be true.'
"Why not t"
" It la too unlikely."
"Upon what anoount??Mia" O'Riley'a want
of birth?fortune 7 "
00? 'I**1 ? nothing '
' Why, Itrighty'* a gi?/, and General StuartGordon
ia an old gentleman. Oh, yon know, of
courae, mother, it waa a joke, ihui waa a joke;
though I a lrait that It wita almott insulting to jeat
witk you about it, mother."
" My dear, it waa no joke; it waa trull). This
marriage ia to come off in a month."
"No, mother, no, it must beamiatake It can
not be true "
" I tell you that 1 am aaaored of it beyond a
possibility of a doubt. Besides. I am not apt to
be mistaken in anything, my duughter."
" But poor, dear Brighty, then?dear, brilliant,
sparkling Brighty?to be lost an."
"And that is the light in which you ri? w it '
Louise. Yvu. had you been nerer so poor, could
not hare married an old man
Louise shuddered and paled.
"Oh, mother, don't; it inakea my blood run
;old the wrong way," exclaimed Louise, w ho fully
altered herself the type of all womankind in this
respect. "Poor Brighty. dear, radiant llrighty,
:o be so extinguished. Mother, dear mother, tell
Her uot to hare hint. Save her."
"1 cannot, unfortunately. Miss O'Uiley is
rery capable of marrying a dotard for the sake of
attaining a brilliant position. Your sympathy is
sesides quite thrown upon Miss O'ltiley, who is
i clear-headed, cold-hearted, selfish, and calculating
woman, who will be happy in her destiny "
A brilliant position! so is that of the Hindoo
luttee a brilliant position, and one. it strikes me.
?s imim aa grtoai all Vmimmmon as ine otner.
Dearest mother, since you are so kind, and permit
me to spetik so freely, let me eutrent jou to talk to
General Stuart-Gordon on this subject. Beg him
not to take advantage of Brighty's poverty, and
her lesw ef elegancy and irer in experience Tell
him Brighty is nothing but a hit of a girl." continued
the little matron, "tell him that she will
grievously repent it. Tell him to be magnanimous,
magnificent, princely. Tell him to adopt
Brigbty as his daughter; to bring her here and
make her feel at home among us. Tell him, if he
wants to marry, to find some lady near his own
age. who will not he compelled to wish him dead
all the days of his life, and to leave poor llrighty
alone to seek her own share of this world's life,
love, and joy."
" You are very much changed, Louise!"' said
her mother, in surprise?" very much changed.
Who would have supposed that you had reflected
so much?that you would have confidence to give
utterance to your reflections ?"
" Mother, it is dearest Louis ! lie talks with
me, and encourages me to talk, lie listens to
ine?stimulates me to think. Oh mother, I have
thought more, hoard more, talked more, and lir>d
more, in the l ist month, than in all my past existence
! 1 seem ty) have received sn impulse?to
have' taken a new start in lifh." The, vista <-f -v
universe seems opening before me; my soul
seems to have dropped its fetters?escaped its
prison?and revels in liberty sud light.. Aid
Louis has given me this new life, mother !" The
brow of the lady darkened. "And that is the
reason, mother, why 1 do so pity dear llrighty.
She closes upon herself the prospect of a happilues
like mine"? Arrested by a feeling of bashfulness.
Louise suddenly stopped in the full-flowing
Btream of her confidences', and blushed.
Soon she recovered her composure and said.
vou will speak toueuerai muart-uoruou uooui
this, will you Dot, my mother ? "
" My daughter, it was of that I wished to talk
to you. I have spoken to him upon thia subject."
" Became offended."
"Used offensive language to me "
" VwlfMi language, Louise."
" Mother! "
" Ordered me to quit his roof."
"Mother! no!" exclaimed Louise, starling
to her feet as the blood rushed to her brow.
" Be calm, my daughter. Be composed ; be
lady-like. Remember yourself. Recollect that
all such manifestations of feeling are vulgar. Be
quiet?you sec that I am."
" Oh, my dear mother! but you have been outraged
! " said Louise, bursting into tears.
" My daughter, let us talk composedly. It is
certain that I canuot r>vann here! "
" Nor J, mother! "
"What do you say, Louise?" inquired the
mother with surprise and delight, thinking her
paths mnde very straight before her. " What do
you say, Louise ?"
" I say that 1 oannot stay here, mother ! "
" Explain, my daughter."
" Could 1 remain under the roof of a house
fiora which rav mother has b?-#u driven? No,
mother, no! Louis will not expect it! Louis
will not desire it! Louis will respect a daughter's
feelings I will entreat him to hire a house
and take me hence ! We will leave this gorgeous
palace to General Stuart-Gordon and any lady
he may be pleased to set over it, and we will go
iuto souie humbler house, in which, at least, my
mother can he safe from insult, and secure of
"A new, revised, and improved edition of love
in a cottage!" sneered the lady, but quickly reuumberinir
that her cue was love and confidence.
she replied, " my daughter, I thank you ; but thin
plan of yours is impracticable."
"Yea, my daughter! Lonis is just eighteen
I le yet wants three years of his majority. Until
that period arrives, he h is not a dollar hut what
his father gives him. Whfn that period arrives,
he is in possession of all this vast estate. Uiiiil
that period arrives, he has no means of hiring a
house, or servants, or iu any way supporting
himself or his wife, apart from his father."
"Oh, Heaven! what shall I do?"
" You cannot, of course, remain under a roof
from which your mother has been ex|?elled!"
Louise did not reply. " You do not think of it,
I trust, my daughter." Louise was weeping siently.
" Why do you not answer, my daughter!
\'ou do not think of remaining here after I have
>een thrust forth."
" Mother. I cannot leave Louis ' "
My child has ceased to lovo me?my cult/
Here followed the same line of argument, the
lame logic, eloquence, and passion?tho same
mthofl about the widowhood, the solitude, the
lesolation?that had melted the. heart of Louise
n the first of this scene. It subdued her again,
ind more completely than before. Whil- she
aid her head, sobbing, upon her mother's lap, she
"What am I to do, then, mother? Tell me
vhat I am to do ?"
" Return with me this evening to Mont Crysal
1 Mother! mother!"
' If Louis loves you, he will follow you thither
will invite him to remain, and we will all live
here together until the majority of Louis tiuts
lim in possession of the Island ICstatc and The
Isle of Rays Will you ngroe to this, Louise? "
" Mother! "
u Will you return with me this evening to
Mont Crystal ?"
" Mother, my heart is breaking, but I will do
" Yon promise this? "
" I promise it!"
" God bless you, my daughter ! "
" God yi'y me, my mother !"
The ringing of the dinner-M| Aroused them.
" Will you godown. mother?"
" No, my daughter."'
" And I, I hen, mother; what hHm.11 I do?"
" Go and prej>are for your journey, my daughter
; and when you are ready, men me in the
Louise left the room, weeping
' Dinner waits, madam,a; said a servant, rapping
softly at the door.
" Let it wait," was the curt reply of the lady,
who was adjusting the folds of her ample Mack
In a few minutes more, Mrs. Armstrong,in full
carriage costume, descended into the hall. Genrrul
Stuart-Gordon advanced from the drawingroom
door to meet ber.
M Mrs Armstrong, I have come to solicit your
pardon for the intemperate words uttered in my
excitement of this morning. Will you honor me
l>y accepting the support of my arm to the drawing-room
in token of forgiveness?"' siid he, in a
deep, earnest, and deprecating tone and manner
"Sir!" replied the lady, drawing her majestic
figure up to its full height, " I hear no malice
towards heists, idiots, or dotards, 1 only protsct
myself from their violeuce in future."'
With a grave, deep bow, General Stuart-Gordon
receded, and allowed her to pass
" I ordered my carriage at five o'clock. You
will be so good as to see if it waits, sir," she said,
in the arrogant tone of an offended despot speaking
to a slave, as she sailed on
" C'ttninly, madam, with pleasure !*' replied the
General, with a second and deeper 1>ow
She entered the drawing-room, snd stood there
waiting until Louise should join her. She had
not long to wait. 1-ouise soon entered, arrayed
for her ride, in a white crape sh iwl, white bonnet
and veil. Her veil was down, to hide her flowing
"Your carriage attends you, madamf announced
General Stuart-Gordon, reentering the
44 Are you quite ready, my daughter 7" inquired
44 Yea, quite ready mother; hut Oh! I must
see Louis first. I.have not seen him for an hour? *1
not since we returned from rowmr I do not
know where he can be!" replied the bride, in n
44 Where sre you going, Louise >' inquired the
General, walking up to his daughter-in-law
' Home with mother!" she tnnrmnred. sinking
weeping into a chair.
May I inquire, Mrs. Louis, If your husband
is advised of this proceeding on yosr part V
w No, sir "
44 And you leave this roof without his knowledge
Oh ! sir,' murmured the poor little girl, in an
almost iuaudible voice, 411 cannot find him. My
mother?alone?insulted?all the child she has
got?how coulii you?" and melted into a sea of
4,Sta!" address your eonvcrsatiou to us, who
well know how to auswer you?and <io not brow
heat the child, like a dastard !" eic'sirned Mrs.
Armstrong, striding up, and niacins herself between
them, nnd in front of Louise.
41 Then, madam, I desire to know the meaning
of all this!"
44 It is very plain, sir. My daughter returns
with me to MoutL'ryeW-" ? "
And for what purpose, and to what end?"
"To reside henceforth under my own roof."
Here Louise raised Lor uirful f*tr< from (he
hun t kerchief in which it was buried, A I looked
up with surprise. General Sfnart-Gor Ln's brow
grew hsrd and stem, as that of the lady to whom
he spoke, aa he replied?
' And I r:iy. madam, that Mrs Louie does not
atir out of this house without her hnalmnd's permission
being first obtained."
"Ha! ha! we shall see! Give me your arm,
" Lay off your bonnet and shawl, Louise !'"
commanded the General, in a tone so stern and
peremptory, that the poor girl started and instinctively
and hurriedly obeyed
"My daughter, are you mad? What are you
doing? Resume your bonnet, and let us go!"
"I)o not budge, Mrs. Louis. Do not stir a
" Give me your arm, Louise! 1 commm?l you !"
" Movent your jrril. Mrs Louis!''
"Am I to be oh?yrdy Louise ?" sternly den and ed
" Do you fr*nr me, Mrs. Louis?" thundered the
"Oh pity, Lord!'' prayed Louise, with clasped
hands and blanched cheeks, her very tears congealed
with terror?looking from one antagonist
to the other.
"Ah! good! here is Louiv!" exclaimed the
General, as Louis Stuart-Gordon quietly entered
the room, and stood nrrestcd In an attitude of
surprise, iu the inidst of them
1 Louis! Louis!" exclaimed Louise, as. throw,
ing out her hands, she flew to his arms, as a bird
to her nest?flew from the storm of anger raging
around her, and casting her fair arms up around
his neck, and burying her head in his bosom, she
hung there, palpitating, her pale gold locks and
white muslin drapery tbfwing over his black
drefl?. And Louis! He stood there, encircling
her with one arm. while with the other hand he
stroked her locks and shoulders?soothing htr
perturbation?and instinctively mesmerizing Wr.
Meanwhile the war of words raged on.
" Sir, my daughter returns with me to
"Madam! my son's wife abides under ogjp
roof!" And Louise shuddered, even in the sluv
ter of her husband's arms
It was now that Lonis Stuart-Gordon looked
up, and with a gesture of the most imposing o-om
| mund, arrested the storm of controversy. Then,
j with a silent hut peremptory inquiry, he demanded
the explanation of the scene. Moth antagonists
essayed to speak at once. Mrs. Armstrong
turned full upon him, and commenced?
"Mr. Stuart-Gordon, circumstances hare, transpired,
and are about to transpire, that constrain
mo to remote my daughter from this house?"
while General Stuart-Gordon was saying?
" Louis, this lady designs to separate you and
yonr wife P 1
' My dear father, let me estreat yo? ?o grant 1
the iviy preoedence in this explanation,' said
" Certainly, my son ! Be so good as to proceed,
And Mrs. Armstrong, in a few curt, haughty
words, explained the motive of her act.
' So you perceive, Louis, that this good lsdy
wishes to separate you from your wife 1 Of
course yon will not consent to apy such measure 1"
decided the General.
" My daughter muij. return with mo!" persisted
the lady, with awful sternness.
" My sou's wife'siiai.i, ' abide where she is!''
concluded the General.
I^ouise started nnd shuddered in the srms of
her husband. Louis pressed her closer to his
bosom, stooped and soothed her; and then, erecting
his slight hut elegant form, he waved his
hand, and imposed silenoe by a gesture full of dignity.
Aud. looking from one to the other, with
something of grave rebuke in his tone and manner,
" My honored father! and my esteemed motherin-law
I you do battle over my wife as though
she were a slave in whom both of you possessed a
property?to whom both of you laid a claim!
This mni cast ! '.Shall' ami1 shall not' arc terms
that must not be applied to my wife. Commands
and threats are things that she must not. suffer.
Louise is free! free I as God made all creatures
ami she must not be deprived of her divine birthright!
of her own GoJ-given freedom! She
shall direct her own life, coutrol her own destiny
No one shall compel Icr choice?no one shall
even so much as unduly influence her will.
Louise shall decide in this matter, as in all others,
tor herself?and," continued the young man,
growing a little pale, " a?d I will abide by her
UUmJI I ll,? ...Jill... ID ..I.I Mm
. ? ?wrp> vuc W.I ...wuun< 1"."
Armstrong. ' Let Louise decide for herself. I
too will abide by her decision!"
"Hai>! I say ! it will not do! You commit
on error, Louis! You give this girl her own way.
and her will must succumb to the first strong will
that it encounters?must succumb to her mother's!
She has never been accustomed to selfguidance?never
will be fit for self-guidance!"
" Never, unless she is permitted to gui le herself
my father! Knongh 1 We will have the
decision of Louise, an',1 accept it"
" And abide by it," chimed in Mrs. Armstrong,
who felt no doubt in her mind as to the favorable
(for her plan) decision of her daughter.
"Zounds! ran there be two sides to this question
7" exclaimed General Stuart-Gordon, put
past his gallantry..
" Look up, Louise. Look up, my own!" murmured
Louts, bending over her until his lips were
at her ear "Look up, Louise, and set this vexed
question at rest. No one shall constrain your
will. Look up and tell us?will you retuaiu with
me or depart with your mother T*
She preased closer to him, weeping
"Say, my darling?will you rentaia with
"With you, Louis?with you, angel, Louis?
you?you," murmured Louise, dropping words
and tears both in his bosom '
"What does she say 7 You are not to coax
her!" exclaimed the mother.
" She says that she will remain with me," said
Mrs Armstrong turned pile, strode up to her
daughter, and exclaimed, bitterly and sorrowfully?
" My child ! mine onh, child! do you abandon
me thun 7 roe in my nge ! me in my ? ulo* hoo.l f
me to endlcea, childless eolitude 7 Oh. Louiee!"
"Mother! no! no!" ei claimed the poor bride,
Ruddenly nturting from the gentle arm* of Louie,
and throwing heraelf upon the Itoeomof her mother.
"Mother, no! I will go with you!"
" dome, then! yoar nhawl and bonnet where
are they T"
"Hut l<onia! oh, Lome'" once more coating
herself in the armn of her huaband. J
gf1 Again, my obild, will you ooue V'
"Yea, I will go with you! no! atay with
I<ouie! Mother! Louie! mother!?oh, mtrry, I
And, broken between conflicting claims and
cmotiona, the poor bride and child fainted over
the arm of her huabaud. ,
"Tmark Oonf" eiclaimed General Stuart- I
Gordon, aavagely in the tonaof an oath, "Take
her to her room, Louia ; lock the door on the in- 1
aide, and remain with her. Don't be alarmed?a 1
fainting fit ia nothing. Call Seraph to attend you,
and be ijulck, for abe will recover in five minutes
and all tbia trouble will be to go over again!"
And Lonla, raining her in hia artna and calling
loudly for aaaiRtanoe, bore her from the room
Men. Arwwiroag etarted to follow, but General
Htuart-Gordoo with a spring placed biaaaelf before
ber in the doorway
" Let me paaa, air!"
"No, you ahall not, by Heaven, madam* Louia
ia a fool, and yon are? Ma Armttrong ' Thank
God that I km alive to save ray daughter-in-law
from perishing through the folly of her husband,
or being destroyed by Ike cruelty of ber
" 1st M' pass, sir
u Vour carriage wait*, madam and your way
to It lies through the other door !w
u Lrt mk pass, air!''
u Your carriage waits, madam' Will it please
you to deliver us from the inconvenience of your
Haggard with rage, bat perfectly impotent,
at least for the time being, Mrs. Armstrong turned
abruptly, strode from the room, entered her
carriage, and was driven to Mont Crystal, there
to brood secretly over schemes of deeper vengeance.
| TO BR t-OttTINVRD )
r* 4 I ICODVil liMlnv ?vn DDimniiU 1
voun vur?m, Ulliv/.l, Alll/ r IVC.ljL/UiW.
SPEECH OP WILLIAM H. SEWAED.
ADVIIVMOX ()F( ALIFORM t.
P:V. statsa,-Masai*>t'. <*> r
Four years ago, California, a Mexican Province,
vcarcetj- *t?h:?bited and noil* unexplored, wji uiikno\
ti even 10 our usually immoderate desires, except
l.jr a harbor, capacious and tranquil, which only
statesmen then foresuw would be useful in the oriental
commerce of a far distant, if not merely chimerical,
A year ago, California was a ntere military dependency
of our own, and we were celebrating with
unanimity and enthusiasm its acquisition, with its
newiy-discovered but yet untold and untouched mineral
wealth, as the most auspicious of many and tin- ?
To-day, California is a State, more populous than
the leust and richer than several of the greatest of
our thirty Stntes. This same California, thus rich
and populous, is here asking admission into the
Union, and finds us debating the dissolution of the
No wonder If weare perplexed with ever-changing
embarrassments ! No wonder If we are appalled by
ever-increasing responsibilities! No wonder if we
are bewildered by the ever-augmenting magnitude
and rapidity of national vicissitudes!
Small California ?a ascaivco? For myself,
upon mv ia<ii.vVd,w*lttfdgmcnt and Conscience, I answer.
Yes. For niyaelf, as an Instructed representative
of ur.c of the fitsOw, in that one even ol >v?r
States which is soonest and longest to be pressed in
commercial and political rivalry by the new Commonwealth,
1 answer, Yea. I.et California come in.
......J ... n ?M>V, .......... .............. ....... .... .......
or from the West, every new Slate, coming from
whatever part of the continent the may, is always
welcome. But California, that comes from the clime
wlu re tli.i west <iu>H away into the rising east; t'nlifornia,
which bounds u( once the empire and the
continent; California, the youthful queen of the Pacific,
in her robes of freedom, gorgeously inlaid with
gold?is doubly welcome.
And now I inquire, first, HTty ihould California
be rejected f All the objections are founded only in
the circumstances of her coming, and in the organic
law which she presents for our confirmation.
1st. California comes cm bhkmonioi'kly, without
a jrreliminary consent of Congress, and therefore by
usurpation. This allegation. I think, is not quite
true; at least not quite true in spirit. California is
not hereof her own pure volition. We tore California
violently from her place in the Confederation of
Mexican States,and stipulated by the trenty of Guadalupe
Hidalgo, that lite territory should be admitted
States into the American Union as speedily us
Hut tho letter of the objection still holds California
does come without a preliminary consent by
Congress to form s Constitution. Hut Michigan and
other States presented themselves in the same unauthorized
way, and Congress traired the irregularity,
and sanctioned (ho usurpation. California pleads
these precedents. Is not the plea siifiieient'I
But it has been said hv the honorable Sena tor from
South ('aroltna, [ Mr. Calhoun,] that the Ordinance
of 1787 secured to Michigon the right to become a
Stale, when site should Itave sixty thousand inhabitants.
Owing to some neglect, Congress delayed taking
the census. And this is said in palliation of the
irregularity of Michigan Hut California, as has
been seen, had a treaty, and Congress, instead of
giving previous consent, and instead of giving her
the eustomary Territorial Government, as they did
to Michigan, tailed to do cither, and thus practically
lOStiiMikliiith ami so ntmndoaed the ?w?w utmnutsity,
under most unpropitious circumstances, to anarchy.
California then made a Constitution for herself, but
not unnecessarily and presumptuously, as Miehigsn
did. Site made a Constitution for herself, and she
comes here under the law, the paramount law of aelfpreservatlon.
In that she stands justified. Indeed, California is
more tltun justified. She was a colony, a military
eolonv. All colonics, rsporliilly military colonies, are
incongruous w ith our political system, and they are
equally open to corruption and exposed to oppression.
They are, therefore, not more unfortunate in their
own proper conditior^mn fruitful of dangers to the
parent Democracy- Wililornia, then, acted wisely
and well in establishing self-government. She deserves
not rebuke, but praise und approbation. Nor
does litis objection conic with a good grace from
those who oiler it. If California were now content
to receive only a Territorial charier, we could not ,
agree to grant it wit hour an inhibition of slavery,
which, in ilint case, being a Federul act, would ran- |
der the attitude of California, ns a Territory, even ,
more offensive to those w ho now repel her than she |
is as a State, with the same inhibition in the Consti- ,
tulion of her own voluntury choice,
A second objection is, ( Vil<tornia luii assigntd her t
men boundaries xrithrmt the previous authority of ( 'ongress,
Hill she wns left to organize herself' without I
uny boundaries fixed by previous luw or by prescrlp- j
linn. She win obliged, therefore, to assume bound- I
nrirH, ilnr* without boundaries she must have re- n
mnined unorganized. t
A third objection in, tluit < 'aldnriiis in loo large. *
I answer, first, there is no comrnon standarii of '
States. ('nhlornbi, although greater than many, ia
less tluin one of the .States.
Secondly. California, if loo large, may be divided
with Iter own consent, which in all the security we (
have for reducing the magnitude and averting the j(
|iri ponderance of Texan.
Thirdly. The boundaries of California aeent nut n
lit all unnatural. The territory circumscribed in
altogether contiguous and compact.
Fourthly. The boundaries are convenient. They n
cml>race only inhabited portions of the country, y
commercially connected with the port of Sun Fran- ^
risen. No one loin pretended In ofit-r boiinitaricn v
more in harmony witli the phynicai oullincn of the
region concerned, or more convenient for civil ud (|
miniatraiion. ' ,1
Hiit to draw doner to the question, what Nhall he ^
the hoimdarien of a new State enneerna?
First. The State hernelf, and California of courne
in content. '
Secondly. Adjacent communities. Oregon does ^
not eompUiu of uncromhmciil, and there is no other y
adjacent com in unity to complain. .
Thirdly. The other Stated of the Union. The |(
larger the Pacific State*, the smaller will be their
relative (tower in the Senate. All the Stntea now ((
here are Atlantic State* and irdtuid States, ami
surely tlicv may well indulge California in the largest |(
liberty of boundaries.
The fourth objection to the admission of Ouliforilia
I*, that no census had Iteen taken, and no law*
[^escribing the qualifications of suffrage and the
ipnortionment of Representatives in Convention, H
existed before her Convention was held (l
I answer, California was left to act ah initio. She
must Ix-gin somewhere, without a census, and with- ,,
out such law*. I hr i ilgrtiii )-utlier* bi t/mi in tin: (
aaiiii: way on board I In- Mayflower; unil, since it w
ha* been objected llirit some of the electors In Call
lorn i a may have been ntlcn*, ! ndd, that alt of the Pti- y.
Kri111 Fathers were ulirn* und stranger* to the Com
monwenlth of I'lymouth, 1
Attain, the otnerrton ntny will In* voir"/, if the "
Constitution of I 'aliloriiia i* MUti*laclory, firat to her- 1'
*elf, secondly to the United States. ,v
Ural. Not a murmur of discontent ha* followed
California to thi* place. '
Second. A* to ourselves, we confine our inquiries
alauit the conatltuiion of a new State to four (hint;*
I at. The Ixmnilnrit* ii*minied; und I have eon- '
*iden*l that point in thi* caac already.
2d. That the domnin within the Slate i* aeeured
to it*. And it i* admitted that thi* ha* been prop- *
il That the Constitution *hall be republican, and
not aristocratic or monarchical. In tin* raw the
only objection i* that the Con*tltution, inasmuch
a* it inhibit* slavery, ia altogether too republican. ^
4th. Tint the reprenentation elaimud ahull be just r'
and equal. No one dcnlc* that the population of
California, ia auflieient to demand two repreaenta- j(
Uvea on the federal haaia; and, aeeondly, a new
n nutia i* mi hand, and the error, if there la one, will ^
be immediately corrected.
The filth objection l??California comet under ,J
Executive Influence, let. In her coming aa a free (
State. '2d In her coming at all
The firat eharge rnntaori atiapicion only, la peremptorily
denied, and the denial ia not controverted by
oi ...i- I diHUiia* it altogether. "
Tlte uecond ia true, to the extent that the prea- "
cut President adviaed the people of 4 'altfornta, that, Jhaving
I lean laft without uuy civil government, under '
the military attjiervlalon of the Executive, without ?
any authority of law whatever, the adoption of a
Constitution, subject to tlte approval of Congress, c
would be regarded favorably by the Prealdent, Only li
a year ago, It wis complainet that the exereiaa of It
the military power to maintain law and order in a
California, waa a fearful Innovation. Hut now the r<
wind haa changed, and blow* eveu atrongcr front the rt
opt>o*lte quarter if
May Ihia Republic nevoi have a Prealdent commit It
a more acriotta or more dangeroua usurpation of ai
power than the act of the present eminent Chief n
M atrial rate, tn endeavoring to induce legiaiative au- n
thorny to relieve hint from the eaerciae of military w
Cower, by eatabliahlng civil Inatilutlona regulated by ft
iw in distant provinces Route would have been m
landing thin daf, if sin* had had Much general* and j
3d. Hut the objection, whether tr?i?* in part, or t
even in the whole, is immaterial. The question is, j
not what moved California to impress any particu |
Isr leature on Iter Constitution, nor rrrn what in 1
duced her to adopt a Constitution at all; but it is
whether, since she has adopter! a Constitution, she
hall be admitted into the I'nion.
1 have now reviewed all the objections raised
against the admissjpn of California. It is seen that
they have no foundation in the law of nature and of
nations. Nor are they founded in the Constitution,
for the Constitution preaeribesno form or manner of
proceeding in the admission of new States, but leavrs
the whole to the discretion of Congress. "Congress
may admit new States." The objections are all
merely formal and technical. They rest on precedents
which have not always, nor even generally, been
observed. But it is said that we ought now to establish
a safe precedent for the future.
I answer 1st. It is too late to seize this occasion
For that purpos ?. The irregularities complained of j
being unavoidable, the caution should have b?cn ex- ,
wised when, 1st, Texas was annexed; 2d, when j
we waged war against Mexico; or, 3d, when we rat- i
ificd the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
I mwu-er >.t W. I....' f,. 1.1...I. ...tr?. ? .1
ilea sure. Our successors will exercise t'nir pleasure
liiout following.ihe.qj^ just. na wchl>v? di'/iejn jucj? .
I answer 3d. States, nations, and empires, are apt
io 60 peculiarly ratiricious, not only us 10 the fime
ul even ms to (he maiinrr of their In-ing (huh, ami
is to (heir subsequent political changes. lin y 11 re
tot accustomed to conform to precedents. Callfor- 1
tia sprang front the head of the nation, not only
ouiplete in proportions and full armed, but ripe for
(filiation with its members.
I proceed now to state niv reasons for the opinion
hat California oi'uiit to bk admittbo. The popuatlon
of the United States consists of natives of t 'anasian
origin, and exotica of the same derivation.
Phe native mass rapidly assimilates to itself ami 1
ibaorbs the exotic, nnd thus theae constitute one
lotnogeneous people. The African race, bond and
ree, and the nbnrigines, savage and civillxed, being
neapable of such assimilation and absorption, renaln
distinet, and, owing to their peeuliar condition,
hey constitute inferior niasses, and may be regarded
is accidental if not disturbing political forces. The 1
tiling homogeneous family planted at first on the
Itlantic shore, ami following an obvious law,.is seen I
ontinuiilly sand rapidly spreading its* If westward '
ear by y*nr, subduing the wildcrnt ss and the prairie, I
nd thus extending this gTenl political community, 1
vUieb, vv* fast us It advances, breaks in'o distinet t
States for municipal purposes only, while tlie whole '
**-> i -f,; ;
Well established calculations in political arithmetic <
"nublc us to say that the aggregate population of the |
nation now ia - 2*2,000,000
That 10 years hence it w ill lie 30,000 000 1
" 20 do do - . 3H.OOO,OOt)
" 30 do do - - 50.000,000
" 40 do do - . 04,000,1**1
" Rtt do do - HO,000.000
" 100, that Is, in the year 1050 - 200,000,000
equal nearly to one-fourth of the present aggregate
population of the globe, and double the population
i?f Knropc t? the lime of the discovery of America.
Hut the advance of population on the Pacific will
fur exceed what has heretofore occurred on the At- 1
lantic coast, while emigration even hero is outstrip- <
ping the calculations on which the estimates are 1
lui-ed. There are silver and gold in the mountains
ind ravines of California. The granite of New i
Kngland and New Vurk is burren. I
Allowing due consideration lo (lie increasing density
of our population, we are safe in assuming, that t
long before this muss shall have attained the inaxi- '
iiutn of numbers Indicated, the entire width of our 1
>o*?cssions from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean ,
a III be covered by it, and Is- brought into social nia- t
urity and complete political organization. I
The question now nrises, Shall this one greut
jeoplc, having a common origin, a common Inn- j
[tiHge, a common religion, common sentiments, inereats,
symputliies, and liopea, remain one poUiicnl
state, one nation, one republic, or shall it be broken
nto two conflicting and probably hostile nations or
republics? There cannot ultimately be moro than
iwo. For the huhit of ussocintion is alrendy formed,
is the intorestsof mutual Interroitrsearebclng formed.
It is already ascertained where the centre qrf political
power must rest. It must rest in the agricultural
interests and mnssca, who will occupy theinterior of
the continent. These masses, if they csnnot all
command ncccss to both oceans, will not tie obstructed
In their approaches to that one, whieli oilers the
greatest facilities to their commerce.
Shall the American people, then, be divided ? Before
deriding on this question, let us consider our
position, Iiol power, aiMI oupabllletes.
Tile world contains no scat ol empire no magnificent
as this j which, while it embraces all the varying
climates of the temperate suae, and is traversed
by wide expanding lakes nnd long branching rivers,
offers supplies on the Atlantic snores to the overcrowded
nations of Kuropo, while on the Pacific
coast it intercepta the commerce of the indies. The
nation thus situated, and enjoying forest, mineral,
and agricultural reaouroes unequalled. If rndnwrd
also with moral cn? rgics adequate to the achievement
of great rnterpris s and favored with n Government
aduptcd to their character anil condition, must command
the entpiro of the acus, which alone Is real empire.
We think, ttint we may elaitn to have inherited
physical and intellectual vigor, courage, invention,
nnd enterprise; and the systems of education prevailing
among us open to nil the stores of human
The old world and the past Were allotted by Providence
to the pupilage of inniiklnd, under the hard
iiscipline of arhiirury power, quelling the violence ol
Human passions. The new world and the future
teem to have been appointed for the maturity of
mmkind, with the development of self-government
<per.itlug in obedience lo reason and judgment.
We Imvr thoroughly tried our novel system of
Democratic Federal Government, with Its complex,
ret harmonious and eiliietivecouibiniilion ol distinct
oral elective agencies, lor tin- conduct ol domestic ;
dliiir*, mill Iim com toon ccnirnl elective agencies, for ,
lie regulation of internal interim* and of Intercourse ,
villi foreign nalioriH; mid He know, that it irf a ays- ,
cut equally cohesive in its parts, and capable ol all y
le*ii able expansion; and that it is a system, more- ,
iver, perfectly it Jupted to secure domestic tranquillity,
chile it bring* into activity all Ilia eleeicnis of
lational aggrandizement. The Atlantic .States, *
hrougli their coinniercial, social, and political nlhn
lie* and sympathies, are sleaJily renovating the ,,
iovernmenl* and the aoclal coriatliutiona of Kurope r
nd of Africa. The Pacific State* rnnsi necessarily H
erforni the Haine aiiblime and beneficent function*
1 Asia. If, then, the American people shall remain '''
n undivided nation, the ripening civilization of the
Vest, after a separation growing wider and wider It
rr four thousand years, will, in its eircuit ol the u
arid, meet again and mingle with the deellning n
Ivllizntion of the Kaat on our own free soil, and a e
ew and more perlerl civilization will arise to Mesa tl
he earth, under the sway of our own cherished unit ?i
eneliceut democratic institutions. I
We may then reasonably hope for greatness, felirl- h
y, and renown, excelling any hitherto attained hy a
ny nation, if, standing firmly on the continent, we a
one not our grasp on the shore of either ocean, o
Uu.tlier a destiny so magnificent would nc only purally
ib-feutcd, or whether It would he nltnperhrr font tl
y ii relaxation of that grasp, surpasses our wisdom p
i determine, and luippilv it Is not Important to bede- p
rmlned. It I*enough, if we agree thai expectaiiun* t>
u grand, yet so res sons hie arid so just, ought not to N
e In any degree disappointed. h
And now it seems to me, that the perpetual unity S
f our empire hangs on the deeision of this day and p
I this hour. a
California I* already a Stale, a complete and fully n
ppointed Nia'e. She never ugalri can Is- less than p
tut. She can never again lie a province or a col#- a
y ; nor can she lie made to shrink and shrivel into II
le proportions of a federal dependent Terrritory. tl
'alilortila, then, henceforth und forever, must he, a
rhat she is now, a Stale, ri
The question whet hi r she shall he one of the United v
'tales of America An* depended on Iter and on us. Ii
I r election ha* been made. Our consent alone re- ri
tain* suspended; and that consent must Is- pronounc- n
d now or never. I say noir or tirrer. Nothing pre- q
enisit now, but want of agreement among ourselves, o
fur liarmony cannot Inereaae while this question re- |i
min* open We shall never ugrcu to admit (Jaliforit,
unless we agree now. Nor will < 'ulllornia abide 2
uliiy. I do not say that she contemplate* Indepen- p
ne e ; but, if alie does not, It Is Isicauae she does o
ol anticipate rejection. I'o vou *ay that site can b
ave no motive .' < 'onslder, I lien, her attitude If re- c
cted. She needs a constitution, a legislature, und e
ingistrates; she neids titles to that golden domain n
r miru within her borders : good title* to . and voii I,
mat ?ivu tltriii on your own term*, or nhr iinmt ft
ik? thrm without your leave, She need* a mint, a h
untoni-houac, wharven, honpitaln, and institution* of u
-timing; ehe need* fortification*, und road*, arid *1
iilromlw; nhr ni-ed* thr protection of an army and n
navy ; either your ?tnr* and atripi? muat wave over h
rr porta and hrr Hoot*, or she iiiuat ruix; aloft a h
tandurd for hrraclf j nhr nrrdn, at Irani, to know 1
rbether you urn Irlrnda or encnilr*; and, finally, nhr ni
coda what no Anirrlrun community run liva with- t<
Ut, sovereignty and Independence rlihrr a junt and u<
iiu'al ahare ofyourn, or sovereignly and Indrjiondanrr fi
f her own.
Will you nay that California rould not aggrandize
ernelf by separation 7 Would It, then, be a mean 0
million to art up within fifty vrarn, on the Pacific r
uaal, monument* likr thonr whlrh wo think two
und led yearn have lain well aprnt in catahliahing F
n I lie Atlantic count 7 ?|
Will you any that California liaa no ability lobe- "
nine independent I Nhu han the aamo moral nl.il- "
iy for enlerprlne that inhere* in uatand that ability *
in plica romniand of all phvaical tneana. She hun 1
drainage* of position. Hhe in practically further !
moved from you thun Kngland. You cannot .
nach hrr hy railroad, nor by unbroken amam naviatiun.
You can send no arniiea over the prairie,
w mountain, and the deaert, nor actoaa the remote "
nd narrow lithtnua within a foreign jurisdiction, F
or around the Cape of Ntorin*. You may aend a "
avy thera, but she has only to open h?r mines, and *
ha can seduce your navies ami appropriate your "
oeting bulwark* to her own defence Let her only r
rize your domain within her bordere, and your
commerce in her ports, and ahe will have at
"nee revenues and credit adequate to all her necessities.
Besides, are we so moderate, and haa the
worli become so just that we have no rivals and no
enemies to lend tlieir sympathies snd aid to coinpass
the dismemberment of ottr empire?
Try not the temper and fidelity of California?at
least not now, not yet t'hsrish her and indulge her
until you have extended y. ur settlements to her
borders, and bound her lust t<y railroad4and canals,
anil telegraphs, to your interest- until her affinities
of Intercourse are established, and habit' of loyalty
are fixed?and then she can never be disengaged.
California would not go stone Oregon, so intimately
allied to her, and as yet so loosely attached to
us, would go also; and then at least the entire Pacific
coast, with the w??trrn declivity of the Sierra
Nevada, would be lost. It would not depend at all
upon us, nor even on the mere forbearance of California,
how far eastward the long line across the
temperate tone should be drawn, which should separate
the Republic of the Pacific front the Republic
of the Atlantic. Terminus has passed away with
all the deities of the ancient Pantheon, but his sceptre
remains. Commerce is the god of boundaries.
ami no man now living ran toretcit Ins ultimate decree.
Hut it is insisted that the admission of California
shall be attended by a compromise of questions
which hiue arisen.nut of oavsv* i.?
1 AM OPPOSED TO ANY HPCH COMPROMISE, IN ANY
A WD ALL THE FOB MS IN WHICH IT HAS BEEN PROPOSED.
Been use, w Idle admitting the purity and the patriotism
of all fr.itu whom it ia my mlstonun> to ditb r, I
think all leg'sl itivecompiomises radii ally wrong and
essentially vicious. They involve the surrender of
th* exercise of judgntrnt and conscience on distinct
and s parate questions, at distinct and scparato
times, with the indispensable advantages it alfoi.is
for ascertaining truth. Tliey involve a relinquishment
of the right to reconsider in future the derisions
of the present, on questions prematurely anticipated.
And they are u usurpation as to luture
questions of the province of future legislators.
Sir, it seems to nie, as if slavery had laid its par
alyzing hand upon myself, and the blood were coursing
less freely than i's wont through niv veins,
when I endeavor to suppose that such a compromise
has been ell'.-eied, and my ut'rrnnre forever is
arrested upon all the great questions, social, tnoral,
and political, arising out of u subject so important,
and us yet so incomprehensible. What am 1 to receive
In this compromise I Freedom in f'ulifornia. It is
well; it i* a noble acquisition: it is worth a sacrifice.
Hut what am 1 to give as an equivalent ?
\ recognition of the claim to perpetuate slavery in
lie district ?f Columbia ; forbearance towards more
itringent Uws concerning the urrest of persons sus m
ii r?-.ves.faut? rhc /? <? irtatat\. . *
teurance front the l*rori?o of freedom in the char
crs of new Territories. None of the plans of compromise
otVercd demand less than two, und most of
llmm insisi on ull ol these conditions. The equivalent
then is, some portion of liberty, some portion
of human rights In one. region fur liberty in another
region. Hut California brings gold and commerce
?e weft as freedom, i nm, then, to surrender some
portion of human freedom in the District of Columbia,
Hnd in Kast t'slilwain and New Mexico, for the
mixed consideration tflliberty, gold, and power, on
lite Pacific coast.
Tiu? view of legislative compromises ia not iuw.
ft has widely prevailed, and many of the State Conitltiitiona
interdict the introduction of more than
me subject into one bill submitted for legislative acion.
It was of such compromises that Burke said, in
>ne of the loftiest bursts of even his majestic pariumentary
" Far, far from the Commons "f Oreat Britain be all manI
it ol reulvire ; batten thousand limes tarlher from them,
is liir as from pole to pole, he the whole tribe ol spurious,
iffeeleil. rounlrrfcit and hypocritical virtues' Torse ur>
lie nouns wnn il Hit* (t il thousand lime* more M \v?r with
riil virtnr; these are th# thing* Which ?rr Irn thousun I
I turn ninrr at war willt real duly, than any vicr knuw n uy
Ik iiainr ainl itiatiiiuniahrit hy its proper character
" l'ar, lnr from tia he that talae ami alien, 4 candor I list
i* eternally In treaty w th crime that hall virtue, which,
like the ambiguous animal Unit tins about In the twilight
ot a riini|iriniiiNe hrtwren tlay ami night. Is, to a just man's
eye, an odious anil disgusting thing. There 11 no intdille
point, my l.ordi, in which the Commons of Ureal llrituiu
can meet tyranny anil oppreaslnn "
But, sir, if I could overcome my repugnance to
compromise* In general, I should object to thi* one,
on the ground of the inequality unii incongruity of
tite iiitoreaia to be compromised. Why, tor, according
to lite views 1 luive submitted, California,
ought to come in, nnd must come in, whether slu
vciv stand* or full* in the District of Columbia;
whether shivery stands or fulls in Mew Mexico ami
Ktisiern California; nnd even whether slavery
stands or lulls in ths slave Stales. California ought
to come in, lieing a free State; and, tinder the circumstances
of hi* conquest, her compact, In r aban
donment, her juslihuble und necessary establishment
of u Constitution, and the inevitable dismemberment
of the empire consequent upon her rejection, I
should have voted for her admission even it she
had come as a slave State. California ought to
rorne in, nnd must come in at till events. It is,
then, nn independent, a paramount question. What,
then, are these questions arising out ot slavery,
thus interposed, but collnter/il questions? They urp
unnecessary and incongruous, and therefore falsa
Issues, not introduced designedly, indeed, to defeat
(hut great policy, yet unavoidably tending to that
Mr. FOOTK. Will the honorable Senator allow
me to ask him, If the Senate is to understand him
as saying lltat he would vote for lite admission of
California if she came here seeking udmission as a
Mr. SF.WARD. T reply, as I said bsfore, that
even If California had come as a slave State, yet
coming undcrthnrxtnordinaryeirciiius'nnces 1 hnva
(escribed, and in view of the con* queneesof a dismemberment
ol the empire, consequent upon Iter
rejection, I should have voted for her udmission,
ven (hough she had come ns n slave State But I
ihould not have voted for her admission otherwise.
I remark iu the next place, thst consent on my
tart would Is* disingenuous and fraudulent, beeuuao
lie compromise would he unavailing.
It Is now avowed by the honorable Senator front
South Carolina, | Mr. Cai houn,) that nothing will
lulisfy the slave Slates hut a compromise that will
onvinee them that they can remain in the Union
(insistently with their honor and their safety.
Did what are the concession* which will have that
Hid ? Mere they are, in the word* of I hut Sunator:
" Tie* North must do justice by conceding to the South
n npinl right in the acquired territory, nnd do her duly
y i nlistng tin* sliprilslioiis relative In fugitive slaves In ho
lifhhilly luUtlled cease the agitation of the slave queson,
nod provide lor the Ingertlon of s provision In tt e
institution, hy nn amendment, which will restore to ths
until in substance the power she possessed id protecting
neinre trie equilibrium between the sections wan
i-stroyeil liy lilt- sclioil ?>( tin* Unveriimeul."
These terms amount lo this, ihnt the free States
aviiig already, or although they inny hereafter have
lajorttics of States, majorities of population, and
tajorilirs in both Houses of Congress, shall concdc
lo I ho slave States, being In a minority in both,
tin unequal advantage of an equality. That is, thai
re hIimII alter the Constitution so h? to convert the
Sovernmcnt from a national democracy, operating
V ? constitutional niiijorlty of voices, inio a federal
llinncr, in which (lie minority hIihII have a veto
gainst lint mnjoriiy. And this in lo return to lint
rigiual arlicleti of confederation.
I will not stop lo protest ncnins! the injustice or
lie me*|MwiU'iu v of aa Innovation which, if ii wns
ruelieitlde, would lot so entirely subversive of the
rinclple of democratic institutions. It in enough
> sny that it in totally impracticable. The free
tales, Northern and Western, aeqtiiencrd in the
ills'and nearly unbroken ascendancy of the slave
lutes under lite < 'onnlitution, because the result hapcried
un Ii r the t '(institution Hut they have honor
rvl Interests tn preserve, arid there is nothing in lite
attire of mankind or In the character of that pcole
lo Induce an expectation that they, lovul as they
re, are insensible to the duty of defending them,
lot tlte scheme would still lie impractlcabV, even if
lis difficulty were overcome. What is proposed is
jMjiUieal equilibrium. Kvcry political equilibrium
uuires n physienl equilibrium to rest upon, and is
afueleas without It. To constitute a physical eqmlirltllii
lab ween lite slave Suites and the free Slates,
quires first, an equality of territory, or some near
ptiroiimallon. And this is already lost. Hut It reulren
tnueli more than litis. It requires an equality
r u proximate equality in (he number of slaves and
eeinen. And litis must lie perpetual.
Hut the census of li-MO gives a slave basis of only
.MR),000, and a free haais of 14,600,000. And tha
opiiialion on the slave basis Increuaes In the ratio
f 2.r> per cent, for ten years, while that on the free
usls advances at the rate of 38 t?er cent. The aceloraiiny
movement of the free population, now
iiinpiiiiiii'ii or, miii in enpy uir in*w Terrltorlm with
lorn?*rn, and every ilny increases the difficulty of
rclng or Insinuating slavery inlo regions whirli
'earucn have pro.occupied. Ami If tliia were possi
Ic, lint African law Irade ia prohibited, and the do
icatic increase in not sufficient to aupplv the new
lave .State* which are expected to maintain the
ifuilihriuin. Tile theory of a new political equlhriuin
claims that It once existed, and has him
mf. When lost, and how / It begun to be lost In
7H7, when preliminary arrangementa were made to
dmit live new free Slates in the Northwest Terri
>ry, two year* before the Constitution was finally
dopted t that ia, it began to be lost two years be?re
it began to rxiat!
Sir, thaojuilibriutn, if restored, would I e loet again
nd loat more rapidly than it was before. The progress
I the free population tato be accelerated by increased
migration from Kurope and Aala, while that of the
laves |a to be checked and retarded by inevitable
rtlal emancipation. "Nothing," aaya Momesluieu,
" ruduce* a man so low as always to see Ireenen,
and yet not be free. I'arsuoa in that condition are
lalural encmioa of the Stale, and thi-ir numbers
vould be dangerous If Increased too high." Sir
he fugitive slave colonies and the emancipated
lave colonies to the free Slates, In Canada, and in
.Iberia, are the heat guaranties South Carolina has
ar the perpetuity of slavery.
A or vould luriu attend any of Ms data tfs e/
He compromise. And, first, I advert to the proioaed
alteration of the law concerning fugitives from
ervlee or iabor. I shall apank on this as on all
uhjecta, with dus respect, but yet frankly and within
rew ivaiion lite CoaMltunon contains only a
oinpact, m hit h reals for ita execuiion on the States,
[a.. rot-.T. raex j
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