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THE NATIONAL ERA.
(}. BAILEY, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR; JOHN G. WHITTIER, CORRESPONDING EDITOR.
"~VOL. IV.-NO. 26. WASHINGTON, THURSDAY, JUNE 27, 1850. WHOLE NO. 182.
rhr *?tieu?l Bra U Pwbllahed Weekly, Seventh
Street, eppmlte O.ld Fe llew.' Hall,
TERMS.
Two d >llars per annam. jsayable ?? advance.
Advertisements not exoeeding ton lines inserted
three times for one dollar; erery subsequent Insertion,
twenty-fire cent*.
Ail communications to the Era, whether on
business of tho paper or for publication, should
b.' addressed to O. Bailky, Washington, D. C.
Ht'KLL ft BLANCHASD, fKINTKKS,
Sixth street, a fee doors couth of Pennsylvania
THE NATIONAL ERA.
actUNCU'ON, JUNE 23, 18.'>0
(OOFT-BISH* BtCtJRSD.)
THE MOTHER-IN-LAW.
A STORY OF THY. ISLAND ESTATE.
BY MRS. KMMA D. E. SOt'THWORTH.
BOOK THIRD.
IV.
LITTLE BKIOHTY.
An airy, ploiaaut chamber, with the rose vines
Woven around the ca?eineiit.? Afiij Mitford.
A youthful mother to her infant mulling,
Who with spread arm. and dancing feet,
And cooing voice, return, an answer eweet.
Mist Butltt
1 am about to take you into a pleasant room
and into pleasant company. If there was one
room more delightful than all the others at the
Isle of Rays, it was Brighty a summer room. ?.
was on the ground floor, and opened in front by
glass doors upon the piazza, and at the back by
similar doors into the garden of roses; in fact,
' -as the room on the left, corresponding to the
pleasant breakfast rootfc^ .-?* ?.gui-A#? ?*?<>??.
of roses running the whole length of the back of
the house Brighty had chosen this room for her
midsummer boudoir, for the sake of her two passions?the
music of birds, and the fragrance of
flowers, borne upon the summer breeze into the
chamber. These could not be hud in an np-atairs
room, for Brighty could not delight in the songs
of birds imprisoned in cages, or the perfume of
flowers dying iu rases. To give her pleasure,
there must be freedom and gladness in the bird,
and life und freshness in the breath of the flowers.
Brighty said t-he would always feel a quaver
of sadness in the merriest trills of a caged hirJ,
and a scent of faintness in the richest odor of a
plucked flower. But perhAps Brighty was fanciful?which,
as mistress of the Isle of Rays, and
as the darling wife and spoiled child of General
Bluart-Gordon, she had a right to be. Well!
this summer room, with its vine-shaded piazza in
front, and its garden at back, and the cheery trill
of birds and the dewy frugr&noe of flowers wafted
through it?this beautiful room ! with the carpet
on the floor, and the paper on the walls, both
of the same pattern, namely, a white ground with
red roses running over it, with its white muslin
over pink curtains, with its lounge and ohair
Offers of fine pink and white Marseilles quiltwork?this
cheerful room, with its bevy of gay
girls gathered around one leaping, crowing, laughing
baby?that is, to wit, upon the fifteenth of
J uly, in the year .
As might have been expected, both from her
position and her personal accomplishments, Mrs.
General Stuart-Gordon became the leader of the
ton in the county. The Isle of Kays became the
seat of elegant hospitality. And never had the
black satin vest of the stout General required
greater breudth for expansion of the oliest, than
when seated at the foot of his own table, doing
the honors of a dinner party, at which hie young
ani beautiful wife presided with equal dignity
and grace.
And Britannia enjoyed her position immensely,
1 assure you. Yes, I am afraid, above everything
else, until one fine summer's morning, while the
sun was shining and the dew glistening?while
the flowers were blooming and the birds singing?
little Brighty arrived, and Britannia had a revelation
of another heaven than that of marble palaces,
silver plate, and priceless jewels; and the
gates through which that heaven was visible were
the azure gauze curtains of a rosewood crib. Yon
know that Britannia, even in her cold, polished
girlhood, while eschewing love with youthful
soorn, admitted that she did love whom she pitied
or protected?judge, therefore, how she loved this
bright new claimant for her pity and protection.
" A nd I am very glad she is a little girl," thought
Britannia ; " because this dear General has a son
already . besides whieh hp has Much a Dxrtialitv
for girls of all ages, from infancy to old maidenhood
"
So the General had?especially since his two
Brighties?his damask rose and bud?had rejuren&ted
him So the General had?a grand fatherly
fondness for baby girls, a fatherly fonduess for
young girls, and a brotherly fondness for old
girls Oh! it was no wonder the General required
such a eery large black satin rest?be had
each a large heart under it. And as for the
girls?babies, maidens, and spinsters?ihry oil
lored the General, as kittens lore hearth warmth,
or as flowers lose sunshine.
But the fifteenth of July, in the rose-colored,
rose-scented summer room at the Isle of Rays,
were assembled Britannia, Susan Somerfille,Ger
trude, and Zoe. Miss SomerTille, at the earnest
and repeated solicitation of General and MrsStuart-Gordon,
had been persuaded to spend some
weeks of the midsummer at the Isle of Rays
'/,<>? was onfrnpc***! to assist in making up an infinite
number of summer garments there, and Gertrude.
being for the tiiue deprived of visiting the
Crag* or the Dovecote, favored the Isle of Rays
with an unusual portion of her time.
And now these three girls were all down on
the rose-figured carpet, contending for the favor
of?whom ' a little, wilful, bright-eyed sprite of
four months old, mhotrouldfo to one, and MwWa'f
go to another, just as iu capricious will dictated.
Britannia was passing iu and out, engaged in
some pleisant household duty, assumed more
from choice than necessity. The General was
walking about the room, riding-whip and hat in
hand, now pausing to smile at the group around
the babe, now jestingly wishing that he had a
magic chair in which to enchant Britannia, so
that she should not make him nervoos by fidgeting
ahont so; in fine, quite unable to take himself
away from the charming room and its lovely
inmates.
Presently Britannia entered, preceded by old
Neraphina?or Serry, as the girls called her?
bearing a basket of plums, peaches, and grape*.
ami >?- ?v -
?ww mr uenml laid down hia riding-whip
"?' b<< tod draw off hia gloves, oalliag through
be Tin^ahadrd window to Apollo, who Hood bofor
e the door with two horaea saddled I ona ftf hia
master, and ona for himaolf, to put up tha horaea,
for he ahould not ride to-day, aa it waa growing
late and getting warm. Ajd than tha General
brew himself upon ona of the settees, and
Hrightj turned sharply round, and, smiling gay ly,
clasped his rough chin la her hand, by way of a
wiucy weloome, and Zoo, bonaoinf up, ren up
'ataira, and ratnrnad with hia blue and white
rhioti dreeaiog gown, and hie sheep-akin slippers,
and than aha tosh hia eont and gaiters, and carried
them away. Of eowrsa little Zee gat a earaaa
for her peine, end then she aet dawn and aalaotad
tha ripest grspea for the bnby, whloh she held
upon her Up, while the others ate fruit. Liuie
_
Zoe ha*! always a need of some one to worship
and wait on, and since the death of her adopted
father, nod the estrangement of Louis, she
had attached herself, lichen-like, to Britaauia
and the General Zoe sat there with little
Bright;, careful); peeling ripe gripes for her,
until old Serry had oirried away the basket and
returned.
Wanting an excuse to remain in the room, old
Serry went up to Zoe, and raying, "Gim me de
chile. Miss Zoe," took the little one away, and
sat down with her near the window.
u Where is Louis?" asked Gertrude, paring
her peaob, " 1 never see anything of him lately."
" I have not seen him since breakfast," replied
the General.
" I hah," said Serry, putting in her word with
the freedom of au old Virginia domestic, " I hab
seen Marse Louis dis moruin'. You see, Miss
Drertrudo. Murse Louis, he never let me put
Miss Louise's rooms to rights?never. Won't
let me 'sturb & single thing no more an nothin'
at all. Dat room is & scan'lous sight! Here's
Miss Louise's workstan' jes' as she done left
it?drawers all out, things all strowed all over de
top, and even so much as her Deedle a stickiu' in
her sowin', jes' as she got up an'left it de day
she went home wid her ma. Oh! my blessed
Heavenly Marser, don't I pray for dat 'oman's
'version?three times down on my knee# every
day, regtar as the day comes. 'Taint no!
use dough?not a single bit. I goin' to stop
of it; 1 goin' to stop a botheriu' my Httffenly
Marser about her, 'cause you see, Miss Drertrude,
and young ladies, it aint no sort o' use. Marser
can't do nothing *t all wid her ; he done let her
alone; he done gib her right up to de debbil!"
<l But where is Louis. Aunty?" reminded
Gertrude.
Oh, yes?where is Louis?" asked Zoe.
" Well, 1 gwine tell you. I see Miss Louise's
rooms open, an' I thinks now I take dis chance,
and go in dere and clean up. Bless you, I aitit
done irone in dere more au' a vear. so I irone in.
an', as I tell you, dere work all strow over floor,
dere wreaf of rosea hung over do glass all done
gone, 'cept the stems and de string, an' leaves all
dry as powder all strow over de toilet clolF?am
Miw Uavt't loose wrapper, all lying over de
'de ?-atjl - .Awwiis. he j^elia' down
by de side ob UM>eti, ail white, wiu ms fturufl
taugltd, and his face on de wrapper, and his
arms stretched up over it. So I jea' looks in, an'
I saw dat, an' I jea' pulls de door too softly, an'
comes away?I was hurted to the heart?and soon
after 1 sees him get on his horae and ride away.
Dere! dere's where he been all day a takin' on in
Miss Louise's room. Now he done, lock it up
agin, and gone away Ah, Lord, I like to see the
'oman as would part me from my ole A pple. D<-re!"'
dere! dere! dere! its Aunty aint forgot dehahy!
its Aunty will peel another peach for de baby
hunton." And the old lady gave her attention to
her little charge.
"Butdo you never hear from Louise?" questioned
Gertrude of Britannia
"Never. We have discovered that they are
liviug at New Orle;ins, in great splendor; that
they are very much in society, and give large
parties"
" Does Louis never write ?"
"Never. All his first letters seemed dropped
into a bottomless well, for any response they
called forth "
"Nothing will be done with Mrs. Armstrong
until J take her in hand, and 1 shall do it eventually."
said Gertrude, with a determined look.
"There is no particular hurry. Louis and Louise
are young enough yet?dear me, yes! Louis is
but twenty, and Louise but eighteen. Bide a bit,
Mrs. Armstrong."
" Ah, Lor'! l wonders, I does, er she nebber
think of her end?when that shet-up-eye oome!
Don't she memorize d&t Louis is got s mother np
in Heaven?an angel always a standin' in de
presence of the Lord, who oan say to him,' Lord,
look down through ae slopes ob space, on earth,
and see what is goin' on there, see how a wicked
'oman is a sarvin' out my son, dat I love.' I
wonder Bhe don't think oh dat. I wonder she aint
afeard to injure a youth as hns a mother standin'
in de presence ob de Lord, night and day. Goodness
! here comes marea Louis now!" exol&imed
the old woman, ^s horse's feet elattored up to the
door; and Louis, throwing himself from the saddle,
hurried, pale and agitated, into the room.
All were struck with surprise and dismay at
his extreme perturbation. He Bank into a chair,
grasping in his hand a paper. Susan Somerville
poured out a glass of water, and handed him: he
drank it?pressed the kind hand that offered it,
us he thanked her with his eyes. Then turning
to his father, he said, " I wish to speak with you,
sir ;" and, rising, he left the room.
General Stuart-Gordon followed.
When they had reached the study, and were
both seated?
" There, sir," said Louis, "there are the hopes
of a life destroyed."
And he laid the Virginian Republican upon the
table between them, pointing out a paragraph. It
was under the head of " Proceedings of the Legislature,"
and was as follows:
" Hon. J. C. La Compte, from the Committee
of the Judiciary, reported a bill for the divorce of
Louis Stuart-Gordon from his wife, Louise II. A.
Stuart-Gordon; which was raid, and laid upon
the table."
"There was some foul work here, Louis!"
"Upon what pretence could this have been
claimed ? upon what trumped-up story ? what
perjury!"
" Heaven knows, sir! 1 only see the conduot
01?OI?Mwue, in iui?. i umjr joci luui I u?r?
grossly deceived my well in my estimate of that
young lady."
"Exactly! Precisely ! Compare^ier with Miss
Somerville, Zoe, Gertrude?with my own queenly
lady?with any right-minded, right-headed girl
or woman?and then judge her."
Louis was very pale and thin, and he seemed
drooping with a general lassitude as he leaned
b ick in the high-backed chAir, his paleness thrown
out into ghostly relief by the black leather of its
covering and the black cloth of his dresa; and his
very voice, when he spoke, seemed fuint and broken,
from physical debility or mental despair.
Genial Stnirt-Gordon looked at hitn for some
moments in silence. Then he said ?
" You are a Stusrt, Louis?a genuine Stuart.
It is curious to observe in you the very same
traits of character, with the same cast of features,
that ruined your ancestors?the same tenderness
of heart, the same infirmity of purpose, the same
infatuated attachment to the one object of idola
try, whatever that mav be. Oh! Loois, be a
man?rouse yourself. Zounds, boy ! it is a very
lackadaisicttl thing to pine away and die of a broken
heart for any woman, even your fugitive
wife."
Louis did not reply. There was a weight upon
his bosom a general sinking, that made it dilhoult
to sustain his part of the conversation
" Listen to me now, Louis. I think I am rather
healthier in mind and body than yourself. 1 will
volunteer my counsel; you will accept it or not,
as you see fit. First, then, you know, of odurse,.
that Louise can never obtain a divorce, however
uiuch khe may wixh it, eiuoe nothing can t>e
brought against yon ? since she herself is the
fWithleas party, while you are guiltless towards
her. It is only the blameless and the injured
party with whom remains the privilege of divorcing;
and certainly in justice It should be so.
Thtrrforr, no power on earth can free Louise from
her matrimonial bondage, but your own. Are
you heeding me, Louis?"
" Yes, sir, I listen.'
" My advice to you, then, is, to write to Louise."
" Of what avail were that, sir 1 They take no
notice of my letters 1 do not know that they even
open and read them."
"Ah I yon may be very sure that Mrs. Armstrong
reads every letter you address to Louise
or to herself, though I presume that Louise never
sees them, and that Mrs. Armstrong would certainly
not lose the advantage over us of gaining a
knowledge of our sentiments and wishes, by reading
our letters, while she studiously avoids revealing
or committing herself by replying to any one
oi mem. rvevertneieiw, i *m nurt ?n? wouw nply
to the 1 otter thai 1 erfvtve you to write. It ia
tUi; wrUo to i mi ook bar if hrr happiness
ia involved in this matter of freodom from her
marriage honda; tell her that, if eo, yen, ia whom,
from her faithlesraeto, reota the only power?that
yen will free her, by an applioation for a dlvoro*
to the Legislature. They will reply to '*"* letter
!"
44 A letter whieh I shall not write, my father!"
answered Louis, rising and walking the floor
* Why not, Louis?"
"Oh, dr! the whole matter la repugnant, repulsive."
44 I know that you are morbidly delieate ? fastidious
even to a fault; bat no odiam can attach
to yonr divoroo that doeo not now attach to your
separation"
" Sir, it is not altogether that. There are higher,
broader, deeper motivw ot conduct than gen
oral odium or approbation, or individual happiness
or misery. Marriage is the moat sacred tie
on earth. The peace of families, the social welfare
of the whole community, depend upon its being
held so. If Louise and myself have contracted
an ill-judged marriage, we must suffer for it,
and bear the penalty. Better that individuals
should suffer, than that the general tone of moral
sentiment should be lowered. Oh! olyerve, sir!
in modern times, in Christian countries, divorces
were so rare as to be almost unheard of, until two
men in the power of place sot a very baleful example,
that spread like a slow pestilence over
their respective countries. Mince the divorce of
the Empress Josephine by Napoleon, and that of
Queen Caroline by George 111, divorces have Income
far more common. 1 trace it to the influence
of that high example! My father, we exert
in ?? county an influence quite as strong,
if not as extensive, as that of the illustrious persons
1 have named, and. beat.** ?>v, it uougerous
to introduce a respectable precedent for an
act of questionable morality in a neighborhood
Still?atill?I have not considered this "ery
deeply, the suggestion is new. Perhaps, were
the happiness of Louise really involved. I might
be induced to set aside all objections not positively
founded on pure right, were it not for oiu
thing?one fetter that biuds us together, and
must sever, never be broken but by death !"
" A tad that ??
" Is our daughter 1"
"Louis 1 nousense! The little one is in the
hand* of her mother and grandmother, who it is
to bo presumed love her fondly. She is sure of
the best education that wealth can procure for
her, and will be, besides, the heiress of a Urge
fortune. And, Louis, more than all, by the
time you are thirty-five or six years, when you
will be still young, though not youthful, jAe, your
daughter, will he grown, and most probably married
and settled in life. Mrs. Armstrong 1s a
great hand at early marriages, as you know to
your cost?and you at tbirty-aix will find yourself
unsettled as now. Louis! No weakness, if
you hate any regard for me. Observe ! you married
tbig child of sixteen, lived with her for five
or six months, when she left you. She bcctme a
mother, and took away her child to a distant city,
and has absented herself for nearly two years, re\.KU
you o? tycw
family, even by letter. Poop! pooh ! Your marriage
was a farce!''
" Not ao, sir!" said Louis, with a sort of bitter
mile, since we have a daughter who is heiress to
two immense estates that comprise more than onehalf
of county, and are valued at nearly
two millions!"
_ "Hum! you might marry again and have a
Aon, a Prince of Wales might disinherit the
Princess Royal. Zounds, sir 1 this girl has
abandoned you with the levity of a mistress.
Treat the case even so. Divorce her; settle property
on her; and forget her?as a paid-off mistress
The pallid brow of Louis Stuart-Gordon flushed
to crimson, as he replied?
" r-nougn, sir ! 1 mu mr. i ne uonor 01 my
wife and daughter are dearer to me than my
own and, lifting bis h&t from the tabic, he bowed
and left the room.
"1 wonder if I could not get a writ of lunacy
out against that young gentleman P exclaimed
General Stuart-Gordon, testily, as he arose to rejoin
the ladies.
A month passed away?a month during which
nothing more was heard of the Mont Crystal family.
Then General Stuart-Gordon, accompanied
by ali his family and Miss Somerville, went to
spend August and September at the sea shore.
They returned to the Isle of Rays about the middle
of Ootober.
Gorgeously beautifhl was the Isle of Rays in
early autumn. The scarlet foliage of the oak, the
golden leaves of the hickory, the rioh purple hue
of the dogwood tree, and the bright dark green of
the pine and cedar, all growing tall from the Isle,
made it resemble from a distance a large and
splendid bouquet, set in the clear waters.
The family returned in renewed life to their
gorgeous home. Even Louis, by the healthful
ministration* of nature and the soothing oompnnifltthlp
of Mb good angel, Susan, was visibly improved
in health and spirits.
ft was late in the afternoon of a glorious day,
just oool enoogh to make the prospect of home, a
blazing fire, and a warm supper, highly inviting;
and twilight was gathering duskily on, giving the
neighborhood a sweet, dim, mysterious obscurity;
and the wind was rising in the northwest, with
that shrill, hollow blast so pleasant to hear in the
early winter, when one has a snug fireside, and
new warm-hued autumn dresses, waiting to he enjoyed?when
the large family oarriage stopped
before the portico at the Island mansion
Lights were glowing through the crimson-curtained
windows of the drawing-room; and as the
carriage approached, a perfect flood of radiance
poured from the hall doors, that were flung wide
open by Gertrude Lion, who bounded out to wel
coine tne new comers, as tney uescenaea from tne
carriage. She caught Britannia in her arms
first.
41 Oh! Brighty, you are so handsome! your
cheek is like a carnation rose! And you too,
Susan) you are blooming likeapeaoh blossom!
And Louis!" roared the amazon, breaking into
a loud laugh,411 tow and declare ? how Louis
does grow! if he Is not almost a man! And you,
General! " exclaimed she, starting back and clapping
her hands?"you, General! drums and fifes!
s'eeds and spurs! how grand! how sublime! how
heavy and pompous you look! Oh! General
Stuart-Gordon, shake hands with me, that I may
oatoh some of the glorification, as school children
catch the"
Here General Stuart-Gordon interrupted her,
by starting forward and offering a warm response
to this saucy salutation But the beautiful giantess
arrested him by one strong grip of the shoulder,
and held him with one hand, while she lifted
the other, and raising her snowy finger, shook it
admonishingly at him, as she said, with a queer
mixture of fun and solemnity?
44 N-n-o?you?don't! I'm not Zee, nor Louise
My lips are not as common as a barber's chair!
Everybody has their pet pride. You are proud
of your military fhms?of a name that will blaze
down the centuries, illuminating the history of
our country. Britannia is proud of A-rie//?Britannia.
Mrs. Armstrong is proud of her prvU. J
also am proud
41 It must tie of your incredible strength, my
audscious beauty!"
41 It is this?that my lips have never been stained
by a falsehood or touched by a kiss!?no,
never, even in my loving childhood; and that
which made the sorrow of the child, makes the
glory of the woman I There; I've made my
speech; and now you'll understand, sir, that if in
your exceeding great affectionatenesa you were to
deprive me or tlmt glory?mere u w a row :
And the amazon relaxed her hold, gathered up
her falling torrent of golden hair, and fastening it
by running the blade of her bunting-knife
through the knot, stepped back to let them pass
' it the Vruae General Stuart-Gordon laughed
heartily, as he drew the arm of Britannia through
his own, and walked into the house. Louis followed,
with Susan on one arm, and leading little
Brighty by the other hand. Gertrude shook
hands with the coaebrnan, patted the horses'
heads?talked to them?a good supper and a good
rubbing down?and then sprung, with three
bounds, into the house. The travellers had retired
to their rooms, to change their dresses
Zoe, after having welcomed the party, had gone
into the wainscoted pturlor to await them.
This room was the very perfection of comfort.
The dark and polished oak walls, the crimson
carpet, curtains, and chair oovers, and the blatinr
hickory Are, all imparted a glowing and genial
warmth. The tea-table was set, and the wax candles
on the mantel-piece shone down upon the
daizling white dam isk eloth and the glittering
silver tea-service. Zoe was tripping about, receiving
dishes from the waiter as he brooght
them in, and arranging them on the table. At
last, all was ready, and Zoe rung a peal of bells
Soon Britannia and Susan entered, looking oharmingly
in their first fill dressex ?Susan in a dark
alate-colored Milk, and Britannia In a rich parpie
nut in The/ were attended l>jr the General and
Louia. Never waa a more genial and cheerful
oompaay assembled arouud a aocial tea-table la a
oomfortable parlor. Even Louia glanced and
mailed, and talked?and the ghoet of Mr*. Armstrong
and her viotim child was not Buffered to
intrude, for that oae evening at least.
" Now think of that dear little girl taking it
into her gentle heart to come over here ta prepare
for us, and welcome us home!" eiolaimed
the General, looking with affeotion at Zoe.
"How oame you to think of it, darting7" Inquired
Britannia.
" Why?beoauee it is so dismal, coming home
to a cold, dark house, with no one but the servants,
though they are warm-hearted poor creatures,
to weioomo yeu. Coaeiag home should be a faatival;
aad so I told Gertrude that we would oome
over here and aaaka boom oakes and jeiltea, and
have things bright and nice, and give you a
welcome Besides, to tell you the truth, I vu
pining for a little extra housekeeping flourishes. |]
I was dying to make jellies and cakes. Gertrude,
though she hates everything of the kind, indulge*
me in everything; so dear Gertrude came over
here with me, to keep me in countenance."
The evening passed in gay conversation. Gertrude
and Zoe had a million of questions to ask,
and a million of items of neighborhood news to *
relate. Nevertheless, as the ladies were some- '
what fatigued, they retired early. Then General
Stuart-Gordon and Louis sent for the mail- g
bag, which was emptied on the table between tl
them. There were a number of business letter* u
of various dates within the week past, but the?e V
were soon thrust aside, when one, directed in the *
hand of Mrs. Armstrong, to Louis Stuart-Gor- s
don, and bearing a black seal, caught their eyes c
Louis seized and tore this letter open with a trem- g
hiiug Mrs. Armstrong, and n
read us follows : v
Richmond, Stytztnhti 15, 18?. n
Mr. Loms Siuari-Gordon : It becomes my e
painful duty to break the long silence maintained r
heretofore between ns, by announcing to you the
demise of your infant daughter, Margaret, who B
died of scarlet fever, after an illneas of six days, ?
ana upon ine iohiaui. 1 4
I presume any offers of condolence qh idj p*?V
would be (i work of supererogation. You will
not probably be inconsolable for the lose of a
child, after whose welfare you hare never once
inquired
"Never once inquired!" interrupted General
Stuart-Gordon indignantly. " Why, was ever such
h consummate piece ofhypocrlay as that 7 when she
knows she has received letters monthly, weekly,
sometimes daily, from you. But I see! she is
cautious not to commit herself. Go on, Louis"
Louis passed his hand once or twice over his brow,
and resumed the perusal of the letter.
The last tie that binds you to my uuhappy
child is thus cut in twain. You can now have no
excuse for retaining a claim upon the hand of one
whose peace depends upon your freeing hrr Y'ou
surely cannot value the possession of one whom
you have never written to
"She notually wishes to make us believe that
she has receive none vt cur- letters 5" in^
f , I I
Louis finished the letter, the remainder being a
consummate piece of eloquenoe, by which, without
descending from her pride, she artfully appealed,
now to his disinterested love, now to his
chivalrio devotion, and all to one end?what she
called the emancipation of her heart-broken
child.
" Now, then, what do you intend to do, Louis 7"
"My daughter is gone!" Louis buried his
face in his hands for a few moments, and then
rising, said?"Yes, I will write to this poor sorrowing
young mother! I will write to her, and
ascertain if I can by any means promote her
happiness" and, axousiug himself, he retired ,
to his own apartment, where he spent the night
in writing a long, passionate, and eloquent letter
to bis wire, expressing nis earnew syuipamy, uis
deep affection, his infinite patience, his willingness
still to wait, and hope for their future reunion?his
resolution to renounce that hope, if
her peace of mind demanded the sacrifice. He
closed by beseeching her to reflect deliberately,
prayerfully, before she decided. This letter was
mailed the next morning.
The news of the death of the little girl was announced
the next morning after breakfast It
threw a gloom over the heretofore merry family
party. Britannia clasped her own child with
tremulous affection close to her bosom, as she
wept in pity of Louise. 8usan Soraerville wished
to return home, but General Stuart-Gordon would
upon no account hear of it. "You must not leare
Louis now, my dear young lady. You alone, of
all the world, understand and know how to oonsole
Louis. He lores you as his twin sister j do
not leare him just now! r he said, " and you shall
nex tr leare him if I oan prerent it," he resolved
M ies Somerrille was thus constrained to remain |
Zoe also remained to make up ths mourning; but j
Gertrude, who had a mortal repugnanoe to grare
faces and bom basin d reuse*, fled from a spot
where she felt unhappy, without being able to
alleriate the uuhappineee of others.
Louis had ouroufy eapaatod u anau or to his
letter for a week or two. He was surprised to I
receire a reply by return mail. It was from Mrs.
Armstrong, stating that she wrote at the request '
of her daughter, who was too ill to write herself
The letter assured Mr. Stuart-Gordon that the
happiness, nay, the vwry life of Louisa, depended
upon her deliverance from her matrimonial ties.
A single line at the bottom of the letter was in |
the hand of Louise, though the letters were nearly
illegible, looking as though they were written
with a tremulous hand. This was the line: ,
" Yes, Louis, my happiness, my repose, depends
upon your complying with the request contained
in this letter. Louise Stuakt-Gobdoii "
" It is done," exclaimed Louis, growing deadly
pale.
The Legislature met in December Among the
first petitions presented was that of Louis StuartGordon.
His case was so well known?had excited
so much general sympathy, that the divorce
that had been indignantly refused to the petition '
of Louise, was at once granted to the npplication '
of Louis. The bill passed without a dissenting "
voice. *
It was Christmis at the Isle of Rays, and all "
the neighborhood was assembled there to spend '
the holydays. It was the day after Christmas, "
at night, that a large party were gathered to- "
gather in the drawing-room, when Mr. Turner, "
the solicitor of Louis, was announced. Louis im- 1
mediately retired with him to the library, where
the solicitor laid before him a copy of the act dia- R
solving his marriage. Prepared as he bad been ft
for this?the announcement!?the printed bill 81
before him?like the sight of the fabled Gorgon, 11
seemed turning him to stone. He gated, without
reading, for the letters swam before him. All (had
seemed unreal till now. He had seemed to B<
have lived in a dream till now. Now the terrible, ?
the strange reality, that Louise, his beloved wife?
Louise, his own from infancy up, still loving, ?
was nothing to him ? swam in upon his brain jj
witb a force of conviotion that again overpowered "
his delicate organisation, and. with a hesrf-bnrtt- P
ing groan, Louis fell forwaru upon his face. A r
long and severe spell of illness followed the events 81
of this evening. Miss 8omerville remained and "
nursed him. 8he alone, of all the family, posses- ''
sed the power of soothing biro. Even in his wild- *
est delirium, his fremy was beet controlled by
the gentle voice and soft band of Sosan. He ]
could not bear to miss that gentle sedative tone ']
aod touch. He would lie for hours quiet, with
the hand of Soaan on his brow; but if she left J'
him for an hour, to take needful rest or food, "
Louis would, with the thoughtlessness or selfish- D<
ness of illness, grow restive, end fret himself into w
a fever. j*
In truth, the gentle and considerate Louis Stuart-Gordon
was thoughtlessly cruel hut to one "
being on earth?to the one who loved him most *
purely, and disinterestedly, of all the ^
world. How many spoiled childrys. ??W ead ^
young, resemble Louis in that particular! with J
every effort Miss Somerville would make tore- *
turn to the Crags, Louis would suffer a relapse s<
Poor Susan! She was not bis happiness?only 9
his oomforter; not his health?only his nurse, f
not his pleasure?only the anodvne of his pain "
Yet not now, as formerly, did the life she gave "
Louis depart from her own soul. Susan was calm, y
strong, sod mistress of herself now. Her love P
was now so high and pure that she could have ?
resigned him without a pang to any other more V
beloved woman. Jc
[to bs oowtikukd J
m Hi
WHii.t-SiiooTiBo?Captain Robert Brown, of ''
the ship North Star, of New London, is about
sailing on a whaling voyage, and intends to use
his whaling guns in the business. Harpoons, ?!
with linns attached, are fired from these guns
and, so far as they have been tested, they have 0
- .AMmtful la a vovace of the ?
hip Kieotra, Captain Brown took eleven right r
whales nine of whioh were taken with the gun*. H
in taking polar whalea, the guna were not re- 11
quired, ae they were very tame and eaeily cap
tured. h
r
CArruak or a Slattt* ?The brig hlaoelieat, of 1<
New Orleans, arrived at Nerfolh on the liMh, front o
Ambreeir, Africa, in charg* of Lieut*. Bruce and 1
Oaneevoort, of the navy. The Kicellent wae nap- *
tured off the ooaet of AfHea, by the United State* h
hip John Adam*, on uepleion of being engaged
in the elave trade The African squadron were I
well, and the ooaet healthy.
InroKTArr Dk inion ?-John Norrie, of Boone ?
oounty, Kentucky, recover ed a judgment off.',*00 f
againet New Ian, Crocker, and other*, last weak, <
in the United Stateo Circuit Court at Indlennpor ?
lie, Indiana, for eiavee which they aided to OMapo' I
from Eforri* at South Bend, Indiana. The eeete i
are about 92,000 more. I
SPEECH
Of
:fl>. THADDEHSTEVENS, OF PEfflimViNM,
ON
THE CAUKORMAqttVHOl*
Huuss of Representative*, Night Session, June 10, I860.
Mt.Chaibman : How far Congress can legislate
>t the Territories, and admit new State* into the
Jnion, has been matter of grave discussion.
The power to admit new States is expressly
iven by the Constitution. Hut the extent of
bat power is by no mems settled. In roy judgient,
it refers only to new States formed out of
erritory previously belonging to the uation. Such
ras the opinion of Mr. Jefferson, and 1 have never
ren it successfully controverted. Clearly that
lause conferred no diplomatic powers ou Conress.
Consequently, Congress could enter into
10 negotiation with foreign Powers; for that
rould be an sot of diplomacy. The right to adait
foreign independent nations into the Confedracy
is nowhere given to Congress, either by diect
grant or necessary implication. 1 do not beicve
it exists anywhere, except with the treatyaiking
power. This question will probably be
erioualy considered and dually decided, when
I'exas comes to subdivide her territory into States,
.nd claim their admission into the Union, if that
unfortunate event should ever happen.
The right of Congress, and the extent of that
igbt, to legislate for the Territories, has beoome
t question of fierce discussion by the ablest minds
>f the nation. For sixty years and upwards, after
he passage of the Ordinance of 17N7 and the
idoption of the Constitution, no one seriously
loubted the right of Congress to oontrol the
vhole legislation of the Territories?to estubibh
Territorial Governments; create courts; fix
he tenure of the judges and other officers?in
ikort. to exercise ail acts of municipal as well as
i-olitical legislation. For sixty years, all that auhority
has l>eeu exercised over the Northwe?t!ru
Territory, the Southwestern Territory, over
-ouisiana, Florida, and Oregon. In the mean
ime, the question had t>een definitively and conlusively
settled by all the branches of the GovTjjment?by
Presidents, by Congresses, by revested
decision* of the Supreme Court of the
iTnited Stats* KU^nUyv writers, 8tory, Hawle,
ind others, baSl ?<^HiirtuvKa (btVlv.
It is only since our dismeu>l>ertneut of the
Mexican Empire, that this question has been
opened, and found able and apparently sincere
itatesuien totally to deny the power.
Those who, half a century hence, shall be led
to examine the archives of the nation, will naturally
inquire what new light had been shed on
this subject; what new event had happened to
disturb this wall-settled opinion, it inuy possibly
be found, that even in this free aod enlightened
Republic, mon, statesmen and demagogues, were
actuated by the same cupidity, lust of power and
of oflioe, which governed the people of the old
and corrupt nations of the world. That an independent
nation, without treaty and without warrant
in the Constitution, by the mere act of Congress,
was corruptly admitted into this Confederacy
for the avowed purpose of extending the
dsminion of slavery ; and that California and
New Mexico were acquired for the same object.
But that it was found that Congress, unexpectedly
to the South, determined to exclude slavery
from them; and had actually passed a bill for
that pur)K>se, through the House of Representatives,
and it was lost in the Senate only for want
af time. Then Southern statesmen discovered
that the only chance they had of currying out
their original design, was to deny the power of
Congress to pass such a law. They abandoned
the position sanctioned by themselves, and by the
prescription of sixty years, and boldly assumed
this new attitude.
But to be successful, they must bring Northern
aid to this new doctrine. They put in requisition
the means which before had always availed them?
the political weight of slavery. A Presidential
election was approaching. lie alone, who was
willing to receive this new light, and surrender
his conscience to its illumination, could receive
their support. Among the most prominent of the
aspirants to that high office was a gentleman
of distinguished talents, of great scientific and
Vagal attain stent*, who JwU raaohsd the mature
age of nearly three soore years and ten. 1 Is was
particularly versed in the Constitution and laws
which regulate the Territories He had grown
up with them. He had filled several offices, und
among them the highest in Territorial Governments
established by Congress, lie acknow- j
lodged the exclusive power of Congress over
them, and its power to exclude slavery from
I hem. He was prepared to vote for the Wilinot
Proviso, aud expressed great regret that he was
deprived of the opportunity, by a debate which
was protracted to the end of the session of ]N4fl.
There seemed hut little hope, that his judgment,
thus matured, his opinion formed with c ire, and
sonsolidated by the action of a long life, could
ever be so changed as to entitle him to Southern
mipport But miracles have not ceased in the
noral, whatever may be the oase in the physical
world. Southern alchemy was applied ; straightway
a shaking was seen among the dry bonos, and
le stood up, regenerated, illuminated, and trans'ormed.
The soales fell from his ancient eyes,
iud he saw bright visions. He now denies to
Congress the least power over the Territories!
I'o vindicate, not his consistency, for that is hopeess,
hut his honesty, he has devoted thirty odd
aortal pages of a speech, to show the error inlulged
in for the last sixty years, by Cougresses,
y Presidents, by Supreme Courts, by oonstituIamaI
wnilAM atiH hv himtnlf
I bhitll not attempt to follow bis labored arguieDt,
especially aa very few of hia Southern
Hies now endorse It. All, however, must feel
incere regret that he changed his opinion* under
nch peculisr circumstance*.
My opinion as to the extent of the power of
longrcss in legislating for the Territories differs
imewhat from those who admit the general and
xolusive power.
The Hupreme Court, the ultimate arbiter fixed
y the People fiuilhj to decide all questions arising
nder the Constitution and laws of Congress,
are, by repeated decisions, derived the exclusive
ower of Congress to legislate for the Territoies
from the clause in the Constitution which
tys?" The Congren shall have power to dujiotr of
ml muke all needful rules utul regulations re.sjtectxnn
it Trritory ami other prOjnrty of the Untied
tales."
I do not suppose that any branch of this Govrnment
is at liberty praotioally to disregard
isse decisions. It would be as improper in the
resident, Congress, or any other functionary of ,
le Government, as it would be in an individual.
> him it would be a misdemeanor. If it were
ow on open question, I should hesitate to rest it
holly on that part of the Constitution. There
much weight in the argument that " Territory"
used in the singular number, and coupled with
te phrase "or other property Mongutg to the
Tutted States.'1 it seems to hsve been intended
l apply to a single Territory and the Governrent
property therein. At the adoption of the
oustitution, the United States owned but one
'erritory (the Northwestern) Nor did the Conitution
provide for the acquisition of any other.
Irarlv no such Dower is riven to Centres*
iiber expressly or by necessary implication It
i to be found, if it sxlst* anywhere in the Oovroment,
in the treaty-making power alone. The
upreme Coort have fortified their opinion of the
ower of Congress over the Terrltoriee, as the
eoessary ootisequeno* of the right to acquire by
eaty. it I were allowed to Indulge my own
idginent, I should plaoe the right of Congress to
iglslate for tbe Territories acquired from foreign
ations wholly in tbe oonsequenoes resulting from
lie right of acquisition
By the law of nations, when a nation actjniroe
'errltorr, either by oonqurst or treaty, it brumes
subject to the will of tbe acquiring Power,
'be laws of such Power, however, do not spread
ver it until some express legislation. In the
iean time, their own laws remain in full force
lot unfrequently such subject provinces are for
long time governed by very different laws from
he country to which they hcoome attached Canda,
aad other British provinces, are to this day
lut the very flaot of acquisition gives to the soveeign
power of tbs acquiring State all power to
egialate for such acquisitions. It requires no
onetitutionai or traaty provision. Wherever tbe
iM?{nlniUa iwiwnr r%t tkss nam tanwaritlirn Im nlflPJtfi
rhether la King, Parliament, or Congress, there
i the whole and only power to govern thew.
Onr Constitution places tke legislative p> war
a Coagreea Consequently, Coagreaa kae exoluivt
power over tka Territories newly acquired.
The Constitution Itself does not extend to them,
ad oaa kave no iafluenee upon tkem, exoept so
er as It ersetae and deftnea tke laglalative organ
if the eoverriro will of the nation None of the
ifteereln tke Territories hold by a constitutional
euro. No law of tke United Huts- was ever
apposed to lie extended to any of the Territories
7 tke sere foroe of tke Constitution. The proit
?.. .
visiou for th? return of fugitive slaves does not
extend to the Territories. Any slave escaping
or being taken into .New Meztoo or Oahlhroia.
would be instantly free llenoe, by the act of
1793, express provision for the subject was made
with regard to the Territories which we then had
it follows that Congress alone has the exclusive
power to legislate for the Territories . and" that
any sot ion by the inhabitants in forming Governments
for -themselves, until authorized by Congress,
is irregular, and, as is justly argued by the
gentleman from Virginia, | Mr. Skddon.) and
other Southern gentlemen, mere usurpation. I
do not think, however, it is such usurpation as
is to be treated as criminal; hut may be either
aanctioned or disallowed, as Congress may deem
moot conducive to the general welfare.
But it is contended, that although Congress
has exclusive, it has not unlimited, jurisdiction.
That it may and is bound to legislate to protect
slavery, but cannot prohibit it.
A distinguished Senator from Kentucky [Mr.
Clay.] controverts this doctrine, and holds that
Congress can abolish, prohibit, or estublnh slavery
in the Territories
I can agree to neither of these propositions
In support of the tint, it is argued that the prohibition
of slavery would violate the provision of
the Constitution which says that "The citizens
of each State shall he entitled to all the privileges
and immunities of citizens of the several States.''
I can see no force in the argument. This ar
tide simply provides that the law shall not discriminate
between citizens of the several States.
Now, a law which prohibits ewrj person from
holding slaves in the Territories does not discriminate,
but grants to all equal "privileges'1
and " immunities1'
But such law is said to be partial, because a
portion of our citizens cannot take their property
with them. This is not true in point of fact.
b>e-y man may take his property, conforming to
the local law when he gets there, if any of them
possess property which by the law of nature or
of man would be worthless, of course he will leave
it behind. A large capital, in Pennsylvania, is
invested in stock, tools, and implements for smelting
and manufacturing iron. If it turns out, as I
believe is likely to be the Lot, that moat of
our newly-acquired territory has neither ooal nor
iron ore, wuac ngrfr rfau'Shr Genermi ii'overoid'-nf
4 ?;:r *VT ~T <? y ^ -/> <?>->lory
to which the Pennsylvania iron masters oould j
not take their property without rendering it |
worthless! The argument is quite as cogent,
and more just, than that used by the slaveholder
The only fair inquiry is, do the same laws operate
on all, without regard to the quantity or
quality of their property, or the section from
wheuce they come ?
But it is said that such a law would violate the
rights of the slaveholder, by depriving him of his
property?his vested rights.
To divest him of property in slaves in free
Territories, it must be first shown thnt he has
such property, it is a principle of the common
law, quite us sacred ns the doctrine of vested
rights, that by the general law man is not thesuliject
of property ; that he caui be held iu bondage
only by express local law . and that, wherever tho
slave is beyond the jurisdiction of such local law,
no matter how he gets there, he is free. This
has never been doubted since the celebrated decision
by Lord Mansfield, in the case of the negro
Summersett. Nor does it make any difference
whether the slave jurisdiction and the
free jurisdiction belong to the same or different
Governments By the common law, if a slave escapes
from a slave State into a free State, he is
free. That principle of the common law, however,
is prevented from operating in the Statoa by
a clause in the Constitution. But it is in full
force in the Territories, to which that provision
does not extend. The master, therefore, who
takes his slave into free Territories, has no vested
rights or property in him which can be impaired.
The slavo becomes a man, and has a vested and
insltrnnble right to liberty.
While it is thus found that Congress ban (he
right to prohibit and abolish slavery in the Territories,
it dot* not follow that it has the power
to establish it.
1 admit that Congress has all legislative power
over the Territories necessary for the legislation
of a free Oovernment, except when expressly restrained
by the provisions of ths Covutitation, or
the fuiniamuntal pruuxpUs of thr Government. It is
not bound by the article which reserves to the
States all powers not expressly granted to the
United States.
Still, there are general principles restraining
! the power of Congress wherever ii extends
There are certain other principles, not mentioned
in the Constitution, whioh Congress oannot annul
or violate, because they are the foundation of
our Government. They are enumerated in the
Declaration of Independence. Wherever those
principles are not altered or overruled by express
compact in the Constitution, they potentially con
trol the aotion of the General Government. 1
admit that, in forming the organio law, they
might have been repudiated. Some of them unfortunately
were.
At first it was supposed that they controlled
the State Governments also. It was deoided by
the judicial tribunals of some of the States, Massachusetts
for one, that the Declaration of Independence
abolished slavery without any legislative
enactment. Hut it came to be more reasonably considered
that the Declaration was not made by the
Statee, but by thp Natioual Government, and
that the principles of State rights and legislation
must he sought for in State document!.
This Bill of Rights of the American nation declares
liberty to be an inalienable right. Nor
does the Constitution give Congress any power to
restrain or take away this right, exoept in the
oase of fugitive* from labor into other Siatei. The
legislative power of the aeveral States Is control- 1
lea by similar principles They have generally 1
formed a Declaration or Hill of Rights of their I
own. '
I find that every free State has adopted a Hill '
of Rights similar to the following, which are to be 1
found in those of Massachusetts and New I lamp- I
shire " All men are born free and equal, and '
have certain natural, essential, and inalienable '
rights; among which are the right of enjoying 1
and defending their lives aud liberties; and thftt
of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property." i
Those Constitutions nowhere prohibit their Le- J
gislutures from establishing slavery, or violating 1
vested rights. Yet I suppose that no sound states- 1
man would contend that they oould do either, be- 1
cause it would be inconsistent with the fundamental
principles of their Government, as ex- 1
pressed in their Hill of Rights. It would, in my
judgment, be equally preposterous to assert that 1
Congress possessed such power, when the Hill of !
Rights of the nation declares liberty to be "inalienable."
1
I think it follows inevitably, that Congress may
abolish or prohibit slavery wherever it has ex- !
olusive jurisdiction, but can establish it nowhere. 1
I should not have deemed it necessary to give
any reaaoni now for such exclusion, had it not
been lately repeatedly contended on this floor,
and in the (Senate, that slavery la a bUsswg.
Northern gentlemen have here said that they do
not view it with much horror; and uy colleague
from Luzerne |Mr Biiti.ekJ look* upon it as a religious
or divine institution, if I rightly understood
him. This seems to render it proper again
to examine the character of tha institution. This,
I am aware, will bring down upon me ail its
venom.
When I ventured some time since to give my
opinion freely of the real condition and evila of
? a i?d t. i.-. ?11^4
i pl|?cuwi w i;c wbiiwj \jj ioc uviouucib
of the institution. While that greatest, moat
honest, and moat fearless, of modern aUteamen,
who waa stricken down by death in this Hall,
was, almost unaided, defending human rights,
and denouncing the horror* of slavery, we saw
him, from year to year, the objeot of the bitterest
personal abuse in this House, and by the slave
press everywhere. No motives waro too foul to
impute to him; no crimes too stroeiou* to charge
upon him It w:u sought to expel him from this
body; and it was prevented only by his own
gallant defence. Hir, 1 trust it will not be supposed
that I have the vanity to expert to be
touched by any of the rays of that glory which
will forever surround hia name, on account of the
calumnies, the insults, and the persecutions, which
he endured in this high and holy cause. But if
1 con Id indulge "tf?h hopes gentlemen from the
South, and those who ere no gentlemen from
the North, are kindly contributing to my ambitious
aspirations. My late speech has been deemed
of sufficient importance to attract attention, not to
it, but to Its author. Sir, our acts and our remarks
hers are lsgltimate subjects of oomment and rigid
examination; and when any humble effort of mine
shall receive aueh notice in the only way which
gMtfhmcH will purine, it will give me pleasure to
retract what 1 am oonvinoed is wrong, and oalmly
to defend the mi, however severe may be the
criticism.
I do not rem eta bar one of the numerous asntlemen
who have referred to my remarks, who has
i
sttfinpted to deny one of the ??ci*. ?r refnte one
of the argument" , they have noticed them merely
to vituperate their author. To such remark*
there can he no reply t,y him who in not willing
to place hiir,helf on a level with blackguards. I
out)not enter that arena. 1 will leave the filth
anil the slime of Billing-gits to the fi?h-w<>men.
and to their worthy coadjutors, the gentlemen
from Virginia, (Mr Muw,iv.| from North Carolina.
| Mr. Stanly,| from Kentucky, |Mr. 8tanto*,1
from Tennessee. |Mr. Wii.lums,] and all
that tribe. With them I can have no controversy.
When 1 want to combat with such opponents and
such weapons, I can find them any dty by entering
the fish market, without defiling this Hall.
I beg those respectable fish-ladies, however, to
understand that 1 do not include my colleague
from Bucks county among those whom I derm fit
to be their associates. I would not so degrade
[ them.
There is, in the natural world, a little, spotted,
contemptible animal, which is arinrd l?y m.tutu
with a icetid. volatile, penetrating rtrvs. which so
pollutes whoever attacks it, as to make him ofTensive
to himself and all around him for a long tiu<?.
Indeed, he is almost incapable of purification
Nothing, sir, no insult shall provoke me to crush
so filthy a beast!
Mr Chairman, i crave jour pardon for this
unprofitable digression I trust I shall never
ag:in be betrayed into a similar one, even to
brush off these invading vermin
When I turned ofi' iuto this episode I wis
stating that gentlemen on this floor, and in the
Senate, had repeatedly, during this discussion,
asserted that slavery was & moral, political, and
personal blessing; that the slave r,i free from
care, contented, happy, fat, nnd sleek. Comparisons
have beeu institute.! between slaves and laboring
freemen, much to the mlvuntage of the
condition of slavery. Instances are cited where
the slave, after having tried freedom. h:.d voluntarily
returned to resume his yoke Well, if this
be so. let us give all a chance to enjoy this blessing.
Let the slaves who choose, go free, and the
free, who ohooae, become slaves. If these gentlemen
believe there is a word of truth in what they
preach, the slaveholder need be under no apprehension
that he will ever lack bondsmen. Their
slaves would remain, and many freemen would
seek sdoj - -o happy or-ndirton Let
thee* f fbeir/ryinr.i/'Uu
Vfe w i . if mey eeiaMieh societies
in therewith for tLai purpose?abolition societies
to abolish freedom. Nor will we rob the malls to
search for incendiary publications in favor of slavery,
even if they contain seductive pictures, and
cute of those impletneuU of happiness, handcuff*,
iron yokes, and cat-u'-nine-tails.
If these Southern gentlemen end their Northern
sycophants are sincere aud correct, then I
must admit that they hnvo just cause of complaint?the
only real aggression which the
North ever inflicted on tbeui. For it cannot he
denied that for two centuries the North has
mainly contributed to secure to a particular race
the whole advantages of this blissful condition of
slavery , and, at t he same time, have imposed on
the white race the cares, the troubles, the lean
anxieties of freedom. This is a monopoly inconsistent
with republican principles, and should be
corrected. If it will save the Union, let these
gentlemen introduce a "compromise," by which
these races may change condition , by which the
oppressed master may slide into that happy state
where he can stretch his Bleek limbs on the sunny
ground without fear of deranging his toilet;
wheu he will have no care for to-morrow , another
will be bound to find him meat and drink,
food and raiment, and provide for the infirmities
and helplessness of old age Impose, if you pleuse,
upon the other race, as u compensation for their
former blessings, all those cares, and duties, aud
It may be objected that the white man is not
fitted to enjoy that condition like the black niau.
Certainly, at first it will be ho. lint let not that
I diaoourage him. lie may soon become so.
I will not go into a discussion ns to the original
equality and identity of the human race, i am
not learned in thoae things, nor, unfortunately,
in any other. But 1 appeal to the learned men
of this House, the gentleman from Alabama, (Mr.
iluxuKi),] from Massachusetts, |Mr. Mssk,]
i from Vermont, |Mr. Mkacham,) to say if the
| ethnologic*! researches of the past and present
age?whether drawn from tho physiology or the
philology of tribes and nations of men?do not all
corroborate the reoorded fact that " He hath made
of one. blood oil tuitions of menand that their
Eresent great variety in color, form, and intellect,
i the effect of climate, habile, food, and education
Let not tho white man therefore despair on account
of the miafortune of his color. Homer informs
us that the moment a roan becomes a slave,
he loses half the man ; and a few short years of
apprenticeship will eipungo all the rest except
the faint glimmerings of au immortal soul. Take
your stand, therefore, courageously iu the swamp,
spade and mattook in hand, and uncovered, and
half-naked, toil beneath the broiling sun do
home to your hut at night, and sleep on the hare
ground, and go forth in (be morning unwashed to
your daily labor, and a few short years, or a generation
or two at most, will give you a color that
will pass muster in the most fastidious and pious
slave market in Christendom. Vour shape also
will gradually conform to your condition 1 our
parohed and swollen lips will assume a chronic
and permanent thickness of the most approved
stylo. Your feet, uuoonfined hj shoes, and oocustomcd
to a marshy soil, will shoot out behind
and sideways until they will assume the most delightful
symmetry of slavery. Deprived of all
education, out off" from all ambitious aspirations,
your mini! would soon lose all foolish and perplexing
desires for freedom; and the whole mau
would be sunk into a most happy and oonteuted
indifference. And all these faculties, features,
and color, would deseend to your fortunate
posterity ; for no fact is better aeiablished than
hat the accidental or acquirod qualities of body
ind mind are transmissible, ami heoome herediary.
True, your descendants will be black, stujid,
and ugly. Hut they would only bo so many
ncontestable evidences of their natural rigbtand
fitness for the enjoyment of this state of moral,
political, and personal happiness I
Among others, numerous clergymen are found
defending this institution, and praising its comlorli
and udvtiniugfj. The same spirit which in
luced them to defend tyranny in the time of the
Uharleses, and the Jameses; to maintain the
divine right of Kings, to inculcate the duty of
passive obedience ami non-resistance; and to
anathematize those who resisted the tyranny of
the "Lord's anointed"?prompts them now to
Lake the side of the oppressor against the oppressed.
They find the satne kind of argument
In the Scriptures to uphold slavery, that they
then found to justify the despotism of profligate
Kings. I shall not answer their abeurd and blasphemous
position. That has been effectually
done by the honorable gentleman from Maesn
chusetts. | Mr. Fowi.r a.) Hut 1 will aay that these
reverena parasites do more to make infidels than
all the writings of Hume, Voltaire, and Peine.
If it were once shown that the Bible authorized
sanctioned, and enjoined human slavery, no good
man would be a Christian. It oontains no such
horrible doctrine. Rut if It did, it would be conclusive
evidenoe, to mv mind, that it is a spurious
imposition, and not the woau of the Ood who is
the Father of men, and no respecter of persons.
I have before me a work ny clergymen who
maintain the abovo doctrine They descant
largely on the comforts of slavery. One of the
heads of this pious discourse is, " Slavery it a beneficent
institution ! " ?
I know there are many degree# in the miseries
of slavery. Home masters treat their servants
with great kindness ; othert more severely; others
with merciless cruelty, according to their dispositions,
for that alone govern* their oonduot. But,
notwithatiiiding thia diversity In Buffering, he
must have a callous heart who oan speuk of the
ttmrhctncr of slavery.
Dante, by actual observation, makes hell consist
of nioe circles, the punishments of each increasing
In intensity over the preceding. Those
doomed to the first circle are much lees afliloted
than these in the ninth, where are tortured Lucifer
and Judas Isoariot?and I trust, la the next
edition, will be added, the Traitors to Liberty.
But notwithstanding this difference In degree, all
from the first circle to the ninth, inolusive, is
hell cruel, desolate, abhorred, horrible hell ?
If I might venture to make a suggestion, i woqld
advise three reverend pervertere of Scripture to
devote their subtlety to whet they havs probably
more Interest in?to ascertaining and demonstrating
(perhaps su accompanying map might be
useful) the exact spot and location, where the
most comfort might be enjoyed?the oooleet oorner
In the Lake that burns with fire and brimstone
t
But not onlr by honorable gentlemen in this
House, and right honorable gentlemen In the
other, but throughout the oountry, the friends of
Liberty are reproached as '' transoendsntalista
[?*> roue I'M raut J
A

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