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I V
_ THE NATIONAL ERA. "
O^BAILE Y^ED'-r OR_AND PROPRIETOR; JOHN G. WHITTIER, C 0 R R ES P^T^n, Tn ? " ""
~ ?? ~ :? = 1 ??'P *
VPL. IV.?NO. 31. WASHINGTON, THUKSDAY. M ..I -1 |. l,sr,?. ' W||0U.: N()
T?f HmMMi fli is faklliM WmMi, *?r??ih
StresfteffWslte Odd Fellows' Hall.
WW TUMI.
('wo d rflmnfftr &&num, payable in advance.
Advertisements not exoeeding ten linee inserted
three times for one dollnr; everj subsequent insertion,
twenty-five oents.
All communications to the Era, whether on
business of the paper or for pablioation, should
be addressed to GL Bailey, Washington, D. C.
HUKLL It HLANCHAKI), PRINTKKS,
Sixth -trset, s few doors south of Penneylrsnii st?bus.
the national era.
WASHINGTON, JULY ?, i?r,?
SKETCHES UF OUK VILLAGE.
No. a.
A KABBATH OF 1?7??.
HV MjiBTHA Rt'SStLL.
Lste in the full of 1047, it was my good fortune
to spend several delightful hours in the gallery
of thtef* Art Union''in New York. Among the,
many exquisite pictures that graced its walls,
was one which particularly attracted my attention.
Not that I either comprehended or was much influenced
by the learned and technical criticisms
of the connoisseurs at my elbow, but it was a New
England scene, "The first news of the battle of
Lexington," by Kanney, and for its truth and
spirit 1 could well Touch.
It represented a New England landscape in the
capricious month of April, with all the shows of
awakening agricultural life and industry. A village
smithy in the foreground, which I could
have almost identified, under the projecting roof
of which stood the brawny-armed smith himself,
with vtpj."' "^ kr^tted $>rows, fastening
a shoe to the reeking horse of a courier, (how
much more significant tfce old Ssxon word Wrt)
who still in the saddle, hurriedly told his tale of
" fate and fear" to the excited listeners that had
already reached the spot. All along the road
were seen hurrying stalwart forms, with the implements
of toil still in their hands ; in the fields,
the plough and oxen were left midway in the furrow,
while their master, without bridle or saddle,
sprang upon the stout farm horse, and with his
strong hand twisted in his shaggy mane, the gears
still trailing at his heels, and nose high in the
air, guided him, at an undreamed-of pace, across
the fields, and oyer fences, toward the scene of
eicitement.
I knew many in my native village that might
have stood as the originals of those men, aye, and
not a few horses that might upon occasion have
taken that very look and gait. But more than
this, as I gazed upon that picture, the shadowy
forms of the white-haired fathers of our village,
seemed to take the place of the gaily-dreeeed
people at my side, and stand leaning, as was their
wont, over their stoat oaken sticks, as they told
over again their " tales of the times of old." One
of theee, which that picture vividly recalled, and
which would not be an unmeet subject for the artist's
pencil, I shall attempt to relate.
One Sabbath morning, during the gloomy summer
of 1776, when the hopes of the patriots seemed
likely to go down in darkness and blood, and
even the God-sustained heart of Washington
grew troubled, and almost sank within him, the
people of our village came up to the house of God
with wui an/1 kuSi Nawi
travelled slowly then, and they were chiefly indebted
to such wounded soldiers as passed through
the village, on their way to their homes, for their
information of the movements of the army. They
knew tnat wasnington dtii neta rvew * orx, ana
the last poor wounded fellow that had reached
home had told a fearful tale of the state of our
own diminished army, and the horde of troops under
the Howes, that were gathering around it like
locusts.
It was a beautiful mid-summer morning. A
light thunder shower, during the latter part of
the preceding night, had laid the dust and given
coolness to the air. The rain drops still hung
trembling from leaf and spray, and came dropping
down in showers, as the footsteps of pedestrians
or the heavy tramp of horses, bearing in most
instances the double burden of man and matron,
with perchance a rosy child or two, startled from
their quivering perches the silver-throated birds.
The grain was already harvested, but many
tielda of grass were still standing, brown and
sunburnt. and it was very evident that many of
the crops suffered from lack of proper cultivation,
for many of the most expert wielders of the hoe
and scythe had already exchanged them for the
musket and sword. Still, here and there a piece of
Indian corn stood up thriftily, through the broad
leaves of which the faint west wind rustled with
a low murmurous sound, like the dropping of
summer rain, in the southwest, just above the
top of Totoket, appeared the white caps of two
or three of those singular clouds, known among
the country people as " thunderheads." But the
people, as they pursued their way along the green
lanes and over the forest-crowned hills, had othir
thoughts than of the beauty of the landscape.
Their hearts were with their brothers and
friends ; their thoughts turned towards Him who
is both able to build up and cast down, before
whose altar they were accustomed to cast all their
c ires and troubles
As with slow and reverent steps they fiUd into
the meeting-house nnd took their sests in the
t'luvre pews, it was easily seen that the greater
portion of the male part of the oongregation coneisted
of men advanced in years, and boys in
their teens The morning service passed as
usual, and, after a short intermission, the people
again gathered to their places, and the earnest
prayer was offered, and a sermon, suited to the
exigencies of the times snd the wants of the audience,
was commenced. Suddenly, the congregation
were startled by the heavy tramp of a
horse, which rapidly approached and halted by
the meeting-house door. In a moment the rider
had thrown himself from the saddle, snd stood
within the door. Handing a note to the aged
deacon, who was hurrying down the aisle to ask
the cause of this untc??r>1 .ttk ..
-r""-i """""
audibly whispered injunotion to act with speed,
he a* hastily mounted, and kept on his way. The
deacon cast one glance at the superscription of
the paper, then marched reverently up the pulpit
stairs, and placed it in the hand of the minister,
with the same whiepered injunction. Deliberately
the old man finished his sermon and prayer, then
glancing his eye over the paper, he laid its contents
before the people. It wee a pressing requisition
from Washington for more troops. He
was daily expecting an attack from the combined
forces of the enemy, and each town and village
called upon to furnish what aid it could
A fter a few apt and eloquent remarks on the critical
situation of ths beloved chieftain, the worthy
man continued?w Let as not be too maoh oast
down, my brothren. Our oause is tb*t of truth
ind justice and righteoesnem, and, strong In
these, ws shall yet assuredly triumph. This
business is urgent; and, 1 trust, It will not be
deemed derogatory to our Christian character,
Mr an iafringoment upon the holy 8abbath, if we
take such measures as seem most pressing, to-day
Therefore, ell who are willing to tako their liree
in their hauda, ami stand by the side af the Cammander-iu-ehiaf,
la this hour of trial, will, after
the does of these servioee, please range themselves
in single file, upon the village snmmna."
Then, with hamls duped, and raised towards
Heaven, he took up the subline invocation of
David:
" Keep not thou silence, O Qod ! hold not thy
peace, and be not still!
" For, lo, mine enemies make a tumult, they
that hate thee have lifted up the head
" They have taken crafty oounsel agaiust thy
people, and oonsulted against thy hidden ones.
They have said, Come, let us cut them off from
being a nation, that the name of Israel may he no
more in remembrance.
" Let them be oonfounded and troubled forever;
yea, let them be put to shame and perish
"That men may know that thou, whose name
alone is Jehovah, art Most High over all the
earth f
There was silence for the space of some moments.
and then to the strains of old " Mear,"
full, clear, and distinct, from all parts of the
44 Attend, yt armies to the tight,
And be onr guardian (rod,
In vain shall numerous foer unite,
Against thine uplifted rod.
"Our tronpe, beneath thy guiding hand,
Khali gain ajfrtat ren<?? ;
'Tie God that make* the feeble at and,
And triads the mighty down "
The deep silence that foRtyredlhe U-uedictiou
was broken by the low muttering oT dtktant-ehmnder,
for the white capped thunder clouds of the
morning were climbing with giant strides up the
western sky. Contrary to their usual custom,
the people waited in silence, until their pastor
had descended froui the pulpit, and passed down
the aisle; then the aged deacons mowed forward,
followed by the congregation in due order. As
they issued from the wide dooiway, the whole
male portion, as if mowed by one impulse, took
their way to the village common. Thoughtfully
and silently, to the roll call of the booming thunder,
they took their places, shoulder to shoulder,
and the old minister saw before him the available
strength of the village?each man capable of bearing
a musket, from the gray-haired veteran to the
i>oy of sixteen. Grouped around him, was a small
band, to whom age and debility bad left nosvail1
- JftJrnnd jmyt-r Ose rtht; '
group must not be forgotten the mothers, wives,
sisters, daughters, of those men upon the common,
who reihainsd clusTtefed kround the meeting-house
door, watching with breathless interest the movements
of their friends. Love, pride, anxiety, hope,
and faith, lit up their excited features, but I trow <
there was little cowardice there. (
The old minister's heart glowed within him at c
the sight of the resolute, determined-looking faces c
before him, as they proceeded to a choice of 1
officers. The subordinate offices could readily i
be filled, but who should leAd them to face danger \
and death ; who should be their captain 7 1
Who so worthy to do this as he who had stood t
by them in all times of trial and sorrow ? he who ?
had already aided them to fight the good fight of i
faith, their spiritual teacher and friend, whose <;
moral and physical courage were undoubted?and, c
with one accord, they named the Rev. Samuel <
Eells. t
The old man was much moved by this unexpect- j
ted proof of their esteem nnd confidence. It was \
the highest honor in their gift, and he fully up- ]
predated the oompliment and the responsibility. ,
He had too mnch of the old Puritan spirit in him
to decline; his heart was in the cause, and in a
few apt, but broken words, he signified his willingness
to stand by them in life and in deal h. Then, <
beckoning the females to advance, he bowed
his head, and, like a true Cromwellian, called
aown the messing or ileaven on mem ana ineir
cause
This was the first company raised in our Tillage
; such waH the spirit with which our fathers
responded to the requisition of Washington : and,
in justification of the wisdom of their choice, let
ns add, that
" Like a soldier of the Lord,
With his Bible and bis sword,"
the old pastor led them safely through mauifold
dangers, until they joined the main army in New
York
Kor the National Kra. i
THE FREEMAN'S DREAM : A PARABLE.
BY HARRIET BEECHER SIOWE. .
It seemed to him that it was a fairsumtner even- ]
ing, and he was walking calmly up and down his
estate, watching the ripening grain and listening '
to the distant voices of his children, as they played '
by his door, and the song of his wife as she rock- ,
ed her babe to rest, and the soul of the man grew I
soft within him, and he gave God thanks with a 1
full heart.
But now there came towards him in the twi- (
light a poor black man, worn and wasted, bis l
clothes rent and travel-soiled, and his step crouch- s
ing and fearful. He was one that had dwelt in
darkness, and as one that had been long dead; t
and behind him stood, fearfully, a thin and trem- e
bling woman, with a wailing babe at her bosom, t
and a frightened child clinging to her skirts: and
the man held out his hand wistfully, and begged h
for food and shelter, if only for one night, for the o
pursuer was behind him, and his soul failed him a
for fear. a
The man was not hard, and his heart misgave n
him when he looked on the failing eye and toil- p
worn face?when he saw the worn and trembling
bauds stretched forth ; but then be bethought u
him of human laws, and he feared to befriend t
him, and be hardened his heart, and set his face a
as a flint, and bade him pass on, and trouble him ii
not. p
And it was ho that after he passed on, he saw d
that the pursuers came up with him, and the h
man and the woman could not escipe, because g
they were weary and footsore, and there was no ti
more strength in them. And the man heard their t!
screams, and saw them bound and taken by them
that would not show mercy. tl
And after these things the man dreamed, and s
it seemed to him that the sky grew dark, and the
earth rocked to and fro, and the heavens flashed *
with strange light,and a distant rush^asof wings, e
was heard, and suddenly, in mid heavens, appear- A
ed the sign of the Son of Man, with his mighty e
angels Upward, with countless myriads, dizzied a
ami astounded, he seemed to be borne from the t
j earth towards the great white throne and Him ?
that sot thereon, before whose face the heavens t
and the earth fled away. *
Onward, a resistless impulse impelled him to- I
wards the bar of the mighty Judge, and before t
him, aa if written in fire rose in & moment all 1
the thoughts and words and deeds of his past life ; I
and as if be had been the only son of earth to <
he judged, he felt himself standing alone and 1
trembling before that all-searching Presence I
Then sn awful voice pierced his soul, saying? 1
" Depart from me ye accursed I for I was an hnn- 1
gerea, and ye gave me no meat; I was thirsty,
and ye gave me no drink ; I was a stranger, and <
ye took me not in." And. terrified and aubdued, 1
the man made answer, ' Lord, where?" And im- t
mediately rose before him these poor fugitive <
slaves, whom he had spurned from his door ; snd ?
the Judge made answer?"Inasmuch aa ye did 1
it not to one of the least of these my brethren, 1
ye did it not to me." And with that, terrified and
affrighted, the man awoke
Of late, there have seemed to be many in this <
nation, who seem to think that there is no standard <
ef right and wrong higher than an act of Con- <
gross, or an interpretation of the United States (
Constitution It is humiliating to think that |
there should be iu the churoh of Christ men and |
ministers who should need to be reminded that t
the laws of their Master ere above human laws <
which come in conflict with them; and that |
ka.ua and uriK mm awav. Ilia word I
shall not pass awsy i
Are not th?* hungry, the thirsty, the stranger, i
the naked, the prisoner, and every form of bleed- ]
ing, suffering humanity, as much under the pro- ]
teotion of Christ in the person of the black as ,
the white?of the bond as the free? Has he not
solemnly told ns, and onoe for ail, that every |
needy human being ie His brother, and that neg- {
loot of hie wants ie neglect of Himself? |
Shall anv doubt if he moy help the toil-worn, es- i
caping fugitive, siek in heart, weary in limb, hun- ,
gry and aearteore?let hiss rather ask, shall be
dare refuse him help 1 To him, too, shall cone a
dread hoar, when a lonely fugitive from life's
shore, in unknown lands, he must beg for shelter
sad help. The only Saviour in that hoar is Him (
who has said, " Inasmuch as ye did it not to the
least of these my brethren, ye did it not to aw
Qiowth or Wistisv Citiss. ? Chicago has <
Quadrupled her population slooe 1840, having at I
this time a population of 23,000 The increase of l
Milwaukee has been even more rapid, having ]
grows from 1,900 in 1840, to 98,000.
for th? N ational Kra
THE SLAVE MOTHER TO IIKR CHILD.
Thou vl deeping calmly, dearest,
'Neath the orange tree;
Now no driver's scourge thou feartst ?
I tenth hath set thee fWe
I have seen hie shadow atea'ing
Darkly o'er thine eye,
To thy mother's heart revealing
That bar boy moat die.
How 1 loved thee, perished blossom,
He alone oan tell,
Who hath called thee to His boeont,
Doing " all things well."
Thy sweet smile, and look appealing,
Was my all of bliss ;
Vet, before my Father kneeling.
I have prayed tor this
'? have borne my wrongs unap-Aeu,
I can bear them now,
Till " the golden bowl is broken,"
tin vita i??? ujw.
Nor, beneath Oppression* malice,
Shall n; npirit sink,
For the dreg* of Slarery'e chalice
Thov wilt nerer drink.
Never will thy heart be blighted,
In its op mug bloom;
Labor hopeless, unre lulled,
Kndetb with the tomb.
There no Christian eells bit brother?
There, In anguish wild,
Neeer Cometh Afric mother,
Mourning for her child
Thou art sleeping calmly, drarea!,
Tears are on thy brow,
For my toil no more thou cheerest?
We are parted cow.
1 lowers thou hast lored ere lying,
Fading near thy head;
Would that I, like tbeiu, were dying?
Would that I were dead
Patuna.
Chicago. Junuiiiji, 1850.
r hAn toe .AartfhJsy inning Poet
LETTERS FROM GRACE GREENWOOD.
>?* k ?wA , ? - - . . * -1-t
Wakhiwuton, July 11, 18T?0'
Grnti-amkn: I must write, this week, under a
;loud of stillness, nnd with indescribable emotions
)f awe, bewilderment, and grief The death of
>ur President, so utterly uulooked-for as it was,
>?er what spirit has it not cast shadows of gloom ?
IVho does not feel intense sympathy with the be eared
home-circle of the husband and the father?
vho does not reel that greatness and strength
iave gone from ua in the departing of the hero and
he patriot?who does not know a pang of genuine
lorrow and a shock of apprehension at the sudlen
going out of that one life on which seemed to
lepend, at this period, so much of the glory and
lestiny of the nation? What a momentuous
'vent!?what a mysterious and fearful manifesation
of the power and providence of God ! It
s in vain that we seek to pierce the thick cloud?
10 see the need and the purpose of this. We
iave but to fall back on a childlike and un- j
questioning faith in His wisdom and goodness
' who doetn all things well" 1
We were in the Senate Chamber on Tuesday I
morning, when Mr Webster, in a voice like a
deep-toned bell, and with the utmost solemnity of
manner, announced the alarming illness of the
President, and moved an immediate adjournment.
I never witnessed a scene of more impressive sadness.
All that day we suffered great anxiety?
accounts grew worse, and universal became the
sorrow and alarm. At 10 o'clock we heard that
he was dying, and between 11 and 12, by the slow
tolling of the bell, far more mournful than any
words, we knew that he was gone!
Yesterday we visited the Capitol to hear the
official announcement of the death of General
Taylor, and to wituese the inauguration of the
new President. The oeremony took took place
in the Hall of the House of Representatives, the
- -*ie ?'-? 1 t-"'0 ent.
I will not describe it, as you have already
seen full accounts. 1 will only say that 1 was
leeply impressed by its solemnity, brevity, and
simplicity. There was no form, no pomp, nor confusion,
nor contending of fhctlone?the most beautiful
practical manifestation of the spirit of our
Republican system possible to behold.
Mr. Fillmore bore himself nobly through all.
Fie was greatly changed in appearance by the
tvents of the last few hours His fine, manly face,
lsuaily so bright with the sunshine of a happy
md generous nature, was now deeply shadowed ,
>y a sincere grief and a solemn sense of the im- ,
neasurable responsibilities so suddenly devolving
ipon bira. But be was as far from unmanly weakicss
aw from srrogant confidence. His voice, in |
aking the oath, was clear and firm, and all must |
lave felt that he spoke as before God, witu a spirit ,
trong in a high, pore purpose to fulfil faithfully (
he solemn obligations imposed upon him, and to ,
notify the trust of the nation, that, in the seleo- ,
ion of him for his late honorable position, warn- j
d by a former error, provided for a mournful oon- t
ingency like this. )
As he stood oalmly and gravely forth, at the ,
ighest representative of the power and the glory j
f a Government so vast and stupendous as ours? j
s he took its mighty care upon him, henceforth fl
s an iron crown, to weigh upon hia brow?from j
isny a heart, 1 am sure, ns from mine, came the
irayerful ejaculation?"God be with him !" l
1 will not, of course, presume to pronounce ^
pon the political principles or Executive abili- j
ies of the new President, but if I may be allowed 0
purely womanly observation, I would say that j
a some respects he is peculiarly fitted to his new ,,
oeition. He will wear qracfvlly the honors and t
i :?i tv.t LI-k" Tk. u?.11? 1??
KUIWCB Ul >u? Illpu IW.WVU ? .it- ?
esuty of his person, the suavity and simple ele- f
anoeof hia manner, hia conversational tact and
ilent, will all be matters of grat illation for us in r
lie future. 0
Mr. Fillmore looks the President and the gen- j,
leraan?a great dtsidrrutum and a happy ciroum- r
lance, after all. tJ
The eulogiee pronounced upon General Taylor H
re re brief, hut quite eloquent, and generally glv- f
n with much appearance of feeling. That of Mr. |
Vinthrop was spoken with hia usual oratorical h
legance Col. Haker, of Illinois, dwelt chiefly, (
nd much in character with himaelf, on the tnili- r
ary career and glorious achievements of the he- j
010 dead, and spoke with all the enthusiasm of t,
he soldier and the friend. The opening of the c
ipeech of Mr Milliard, and the remarks of Mr.
layly, were fine. But you will see *11 these, as c
sell as the proceedings of the Seuate, where eu- ,
ogies were pronounced by Mr. Cass, Mr. Ber- ,
ien, Mr. Downs, Mr. King, and, to the surprise i
if some, by Mr. Webster. Mr. Clay positive- f
\j declined speaking; either from the state of his j
lealth, or from motives of delicacy, in considera- ,
ion of his rather antagonistic position toward the <
ate President and his Cabinet. ,
The family of Genera! Taylor are said to be ]
iverwhelmed by their great sorrow. Mrs. Tsy- (
or, who has been for some years in feeble health, is <
ilmoet borne down to the grave, with the husband <
if her yonth and the companion of her age. Mbe j
lays that ever since his nomination she has been ,
taunted by a terrible presentiment of this luis- ]
"ortuoe ,
Sati'boav, July 13.
I lave just returned from witnessing the passing i
if the funeral procession of President Taylor t
lown the Avenue, from the White House to the <
Capitol. It was truly a moot grand and melan- i
sholy pageant The hearse, drawn by eight white f
Sorses, was exceedingly beautiful, with a gloomy |
magnificence of form and decoration?thetriumph- I
11 car of death. One of the moet touching sights \
was the famous white war-horse of the dead i
bero 1*1 next the hearse, caparisoned as of old, i
treading along lightly to the familiar music, arch- t
ing his proud neck with the native vanity peculiar i
to his raee. and all unconscious that he now ful- c
loved to the till graTe-met the kind matter he
had onoe borne eo brarely through the loud ruah I
of battle.
At laet the long, >*d, and eplendid array paaaed
by, and we turned homeward, feeling that all wae
indeed orer. It ia now night, the muffled drum
i? no longer beating?the belli hare ceaeed tolling,
and the hot month of the oanaon ia silent. The
hadows of the grate encompass the dead hero,
but a heaeier. ootdsr darkness is gathered around
the llrss of those from whom hegrieeed to part?
" tha (Hands who lored him."
In the Senate there his, ef course, been little
done during the peat week. Mr Smith ef Canneeticut
finished bis speech on Monday, and Mr.
Butler of South Carolina oommenoed his on
Tuoodar. Of thsao two speakers, Mr. Bailor is
deeidediy the most interesting He always speaks
la n olear, ringing roios, nod with mnch earaeutatm
of saannar. Ha ia a Very lingular looking
peroon, and win arroat at ones tha attention of n
rial tor to the Senate. Though by no manias an j
old man, he hp# a thick ahock of perfectly white
hair, commonly concealing hie brow, beneath
which gleam oat, more mockingly than fiercely, a
pair of lively, sparkling, restless eyes Mr Butler's
style of speaking is natural and imprest re,
without being remarkably graceful or brilliant
He is a strong champion of t?e South, but happily
lacks the hot-headed violence of some of his
compeers.
Mr. Truman Smith is a heavy man in more
than one sense of the term. His enunciation and
emphasis are decidedly i/itiysr, and his style of
gesticulation inimitable and iadescritiable
The new President of the Senate Mr King of
Alabama, is a gentleman of the old school?grave,
precise, and perpendicular. He is unapproachably
great on all points of order?absolutely
without a rival in his knowledge of Senatorial
etiquette, form, and dignity, and is remarkable
-eww, hay vv wv - ? Sk. - a* l?, lUOSl W\i- 1
bending and undeviating.
By the way, I perceive, hy divers newspaper
paragraphs, that my Washington letters are failing
to please entirely some frw of my small parish
of readers, both North and South. As a true
lonui-rn woman. i nesuaie B? to avow mat my
sympathies are with those men who truly represent
and boldly advocate Northern principles?
but, at the same time, it ie my sincere desire to do
juBtioe, as far aa 1 may, to t>g^ulcnt and worth of
their opponents. In writing fbr a neutral paper,
I can fairly and properly do no less?1 wish to do
no more. Then, 1 suppose, I may aa well frankly
acknowledge that 1 irm influence! to n certain
degree by the observation of fine aocial qualities
and personal agreeableness, and even that 1 am
woman enough to feel oourtesies an4 kindnesses,
shown to myself, I would not accept, could I not
acknowledge them. My prejudices canoften thus
be overcome, or modified?my principles, thank
Heaven, stand on a firmer basis.
On the other hand, I have incurred the disapprobation
of my Southern readers by simply doing
justice to some of the most prominent exponents
of the priciples and policy of the North Ah,
my friends, could you know how often I have
refrained from speaking their praise, out of con- '
siJeration for your delicate sensibilities! if you j
.vsev.-'V-T^iy ^ia.lert unsaid, y?tfs - wr?
what is said. Now, let us reason together. It :
there not far too little of fairness and generosity
shown by both Northern and Southern joyrgtah
ikl? and ifctter-writers in their doing'up or the
statesmen and legislators at the Cspitol ? I met
lately with a letter in some Southern journal, the
writer of which, in describing the Senate, dwelt i
with rapturous admiration on such men as Soulf,
Butler, Foote, and Davis, ringing for them all
the changes of enthusiastic eulogy, hut merely
slurred over some of the ablest and most eminent <
Senators of the North, in a criticism as poor and
false in spirit as it was tlippantand bitter in ton"
I would avoid all these things, and yet be truthful?thut
is, always speak tkt truth, if Dot the whole
truth My impressions of men and things here <
may not be invariably oorrect, but they are honestly
Mill most. unnH.kiimnrwtlv Th.?
difficulty which one bo situated finds in pleasing
everybody, often remindH nie of the fable of the
unfortunate old man, who, whether he rode or
carried hia jackass, wa? pure to incur the disapproval
of his fellow-travellers. On the whole, I
have concluded that the wisest and most coinfortible
way is to please yourself by doing just as you
please. Adieu. Gkack Gkeenuuou.
Washington, July 20, lbf?0.
Gentlemen: The proceedings in the Senate
for the week past have been very interesting,
though no final result has been reached in respect
to the most, important measure under consideration?the
Compromise hill.
On Monday, we had a great though not a very
lengthy speech from Mr. Benton. It was a clear,
condensed, a pointed and powerful argument, as
you will perceive, though not so vividly, in the
reading. In the manner of Mr. Benton there is
often a fierce and terrible force. His sarcasm is
keen and scathing, and his tones, looks, and gestures,
barb and driva home his sharp and stinging
and honest contempt for wordy patriotism and
political blarney?all the honeying and humbugging
of constituents, the cant and rant of Buncombe
oratory.
He is no juggler, nor tumbler?no player with
halls and feathers?he favors you with no lightrope
dancing, and throws you no summersets, hut
strides into the ring as a fierce And hardy gladiator,
or a stout boxer, not to play, but to fight He
is always in earnest, always confident, and follows
up un opponent with the sure, unflagging, remorseless
eagerness of a blood-hound on the
icent.
It is surprising how mildly the speeches of Mr
Benton read, compared with their spoken effect.
His manner is at timea strikingly dramatic in its
hitter, unmitigated severity?and some of his
ones are enough to chill one's blood, he is so
:ohl and deliberate even in his passion. He does
lot hoard the enemy's ship with spike and brand,
lor tire it with grenades?but crashes down upon
t like some ponderous and pitiless iceberg in
hat portion of his late speech in which he made
lis exulting and merciless expose of what he prolounoed
the dishonest Compromise plot?graspng
the bill, and holding it. up as ,;a criminal,"
t was curious to mark the effect of his words
ind manner on the three great leaders opposed to
lira
A fire kindle<l in the wan cheek, and shot from 1
he keen eye of Clay. Webster's aterneat glances '
[learned out from beneath the black ledge of his
owering brow?while the weighty countenance
f Caaa wore a shocked and mildly indignant ei- '
iresaion, " for self and partners," seeming to say, 1
a the worthy Palstaff wonld hate said, "How '
he world is given to lying 1 There is but, three
onest politicians in America, and one of them is '
at and grows old " "
Colonel Benton seems full of calm, determined M
nergy and endurance There is about him no sign r
f yielding or decay The cold, steady look of F
lis eye, and his thin, compressed lips show an al- '
iiost superhuman strength of will?patient, even f
aore than vehement, unwearying, unconquer
ble?ever renewing itself, and putting out some "
resh manifestation of its vitality ana its vigor. '
n personal intercourse, Mr Benton is said to be,
t times, exceedingly proud, distant, and haughty.
)oe reason for this may be that he is not always |
ightly approached. A prond man reapects pride 1
n another, and his occasional affability certainly '
tas the more meaning and effect, that It Is neither '
ommon nor assumed *
On Wednesday, Mr Webster spoke in favor "
I the Compromise bill I turn admired him *
greatly, bat tu by no mean* carried away by 1
inthusiasm. The gmnlte-like grandeur of hin c
ie*d, the eolemnity of hi* tones and manner, the '
evere beauty of his language, the symmetry of
tia style, are certainly impreaaive, but not over- '
Bantering or electrifying Outward warmth and "
sentral foroe, intensity of feeling and earnest- r
less of purpose, are too obviously wanting. True, '
je seem* serious in most that he says, but rather *'
loggediy than deeply so. Kven hia wit is a sort r
if heavy and elephantine playfulness?his humorlua
sallies light up his own dark fare but for nn t
nstant, and seldom oall forth u genial and irrelistible
response. People laugh when Webster -s
ends the way, from patriotic and party consider- II
itions. t
In the course of hia speech, the distinguished a
itatesman oommented with almost annihilating ?l
iontempt on the Wilroot Proviso?stood there ti
:r)ing down the nolitioal u thunder," once claim- a
id as his peculiar property?like an old lion N
rrowilug at tt?e echo or ma own roar. ijui me
ralleriee applauded, and bia admirer# will probe- ?
ily receive thia speech aa they receive all the '
vords of the great leader m manna trorn the h
leventh political heaven. Ly-tbe-by, bis m-mm h
night aaj that hia principles reaeroble the oeUa- "
ial food of the Israelites in another respect?are a
lew every morning , and in yet another?will not "
lo to keep. *
Mr. Webster closed with a generous tribute to *
Massachusetts wherein Concord and Leaington I'
tnd Hunker Hill were alluded to with profound fi
respect, the Monument highly oomplimented.and
Plymouth Rook affectionately remembered. It t
aaa very fine and very eloquent, doubtle.se, but
igain those malicious enemiea come in, to spoil a
ilia's relish for the grand and beautiful, by coolly
ind irreverently pronouncing it a piece of exalted '
tnd aubll mated Hunoombe. I
Mr. llala followed Mr. Webster with a few re- I
narks, In reply lo a portion of bis speech, and \
nade, as oauai, a fine point and an admirable hit,
mmewhat to the annoyance of the venerable San- I
itor, who evidently did not wiah a quickstep '
(truck up after his slow end stately marsh, nor '
(are to have the solemn hush of aa impre?ad an- I
iitory rudely broken by the noise of laughter. I
I treshenlag infiaonoe and an arousing spirit la A
hat nltnospkocs ft doll policy and oppreasivs
lignity, U the ever-ready wit, and the fear lose,
rot good-huswrud freedom of Senator Hale.
Whenever he rises with the promise of something
bright and fresh dawning in his face, ever/
eye lights up with comical expectation?all are
on the lookout for fun and satire, and none seem
to enjoy it more than some of the victims, who
can but admit that the operation, though severe,
was performed with " neatness and despatch."
Mr. Hunter of Virginia spoke on Thursday.
A very interesting speaker, and. at times, eloquent.
He takes, on this question, the extreme
Southern ground His speech was followed by
a lively debate between Mr. Foote, who was. as
usual, worked up to the boiling point?Mr. Davis
of Mississippi, who spoke in s tone which was
a singular mingling of the military and the ministerial?and
Mr. Hutler of South Carolina, who
was even more than commonly animated, shaking
his snowy head, his quick, fiery eyes gleaming
out from behind his wild, overhanging locks, like
J )>/.f. o*> o
vrvtwv ?vQrmiig w.xa memty taken tip by brief
speeches from Mr. King. Judge Berried, and Mr.
ClHy. The first strikes one as a practical, methodical,
coromonsensical sort of a man. one
whose spina', uprightness may 1* but the outward
type of an unbending and honest character. Mr.
Ilerrien has evidently an opinion of bis own, but
he draws it rather mild. Mr Clay spoke with
earnest eloquence, and was listened to with eager
iuterest. I never was so struck by the clearness,
compass, melody and meaning of his wonderful
voice. On Monday next he Is to make his last
great speech on the Compromise bill. To-day.
the Senate are in Executive session, with closed
doors.
In looking down upon the Senate, one is immediately
struck by the prevailing baldness, not of
style, but of head. It puzzles me to account for
this. With Mississippi's excitable Senator it
may be the effect of the vigorous working of his
hot and restless brain; hut on the opposite side
of the Chamber sits a Senator who takes the
world more easily, says little, and that quietly,
but over the glassy and shining expanse of whose
cranium adventurous flies vainly attempt to cross
on foot. And many more there are of whom it
might be said, that were the growth of hair the
measure of intellectual snd political abilities, as
according to the Samsonian theory it is of physi"
, .*>7 ~.v x'fi V Vv .. .O AiT-lJ*
great strength at Ihe yoU*.
V isitera are also apt to notice tome peculiarities
of ,S,'nat4H*V n?>'yifi?ti whjok ere rsttcaT
odd. For instance, Mr. Clay, and Indeed many
of the Southern members, say " n harn and " thar"
Mr Webster says " uuli-vul-oo-aV and " wu/wr,"
and one of the Texas Senators says " hu.?/" for
hurst. All I can say is, 1 hope such pronunciations
msy continue to be exclusively and purely
parliamentary Another thing we notice is the
extreme humility of all thaf honorable body.
Kach modestly styles himself the " humblest member,"
and there seems quite an amiable strife for
the occupancy of the lowest seat in the synagogue,
llut again it is said by the irreverent, that the
distinguished gentlemen, like the Uriah Hepp of
Dickens, carry humility in their talk, to a suspicious
and fanatical extreme?in other words,
rather run that commendable an I pious virtue
into the ground.
And now 1 have a spicy little bit of scandal for
your ear alone. Mind, 1 don't endorse it?so it
must go no farther. Some of the honorable Senators,
while making speeches of unusual length,
are observed to drink frequently, quite frequently,
1 should say. Well, there are those
who declare that the draught provided for the
speakers, which looks so limpid and innocent to
the unsophisticated and uninitiated, is not, alas! of
that primitive tluid w hich was Adam's early drink
and Kve's first looking-glass?they say that the
(lights of such orators Bhould be poetic, even Uyronic,
inasmuch as they drink from what was too
often the fount of Hyron's inspiration?that, in
short, the pater in only swallowed by the audieuce,
the speaker wallowing an equally colorless
Huid, which ia?I really don't believe the story
myaelf?which ia?your ear n little closer?which
ia?gin! Shocking, ia it not? But, aa I said, 1
cannot credit it altogether, for a while since,
when an honorable Senator, who had been accused
of thus infusing spirit into his oratory, wns
served him narrowly, and smw brought to him a
reviving beverage which was somewhat colored?
say about the hue of Monongahela or champague.
It cert8iuly was not v?a, the slander falls to
the ground
J have been in the House hut little during the
past week. Mr. Hoot of Ohio spoke yesterday
very finely and effectively. Mr. Hoot is a person
of much character, manly, strong, and natural,
with wit and drollery enough to make him a great
favorite with all frequenters of the House
They promise us that, early next week, the
Omnibus bill shall be disposed of. However the
ictors may feel, we lookers-on are about in the
date of the atfeotionale husband whose wife lineered
long in a decline, aud who having often
been called from bis work on false alarms of her
approaching dissolution, finally expressed the i
aieek wish that " Betsey might get well, or? i
wmetkiuKP Adieu. Gkaik Grbknwood.
t
CONGRESS. i
THIRTY-FIRST CONGRESS - PIRNT SESSION. ?
NKVITK. <
Turk hay, Jiti.Y U3, IN.'iO. <
The President laid before the Senate a com- 1
nuuioation from M r. Cor win. resigning his place f
n the Senate on aocount of his appointment as
lecretary of t he Treasury.
The Senate resumed the consideration of the "
till reported by the Committee of Thirteen, the
I neat imi pending being on the amendment of- a
ered by Mr. Foote, and now modified as follows:
" Amend the third section by inserting therein, *j
n the sixteenth line, after the word 'therefor,'
m follows And that the said State of California
hall never hereafter claim as within her bounda- 0
ies, nor attempt to exercise jurisdiction over any *
lortion of the territory at present claimed by
ler, except that which ia embraced within the K
ollowlng boundaries, to wit: commencing in the 0
'acific ocean, three English miles from the shore,
d the forty-second degree of north latitude;
hence with the southern boundary line of the ['
ferritory of Oregon, to the summit of the Sierra
Vevada; thence along the crest of that mountain
o the point where it intersects the parallel of '
atitude of thirty-five degrees thirty minutes;
hence with said parallel of latitude to a point in 0
he Pacific ocean three English miles from the
hore; hnd (ht-noe to the beginning, including all
*lands, hays, and harbors, adjacent to or included
rithin the limit* hereby nsMgued to naid State '
Ind a new Territory ia hereby established, to he 1
ailed Colorado, to consist of the reaidue of the c
rrritory emtiraced within the liinita of the aaid
Itate of California, km specified in the Conatitu- "
ion heretofore adopted by the people of Califoria;
for the government of which Territory, eo
etabiiahed. nil the proviaiona of thia act relating
o the Territory of Utah, except the name and
oundarica therein apecified, are hereby deoiard
to be in force in aaid Territory of Colorado."
Mr. Turney offered the following amendment
o the amendment of Mr. Foote :
"After the worda 'hereby usaigued to aaid
Ifate,'insert: And that the people within aaid
imit* are hereby authorized, under the proclamaion
of the President of the United Htatea, to
aaemble in Convention and form a Constltulon
and State Government, to be aubtnitted
o the next eeaeion of Congreaa, for acceptance
nd adtnineion into the Union ae a sovereign
lute."
Mr Davis made an explanation in relation to
charge made yesterday by Mr. Clay, that in
be course of hie remarks, some days since, be
ad used the term, u slave-breeding ." Mr. Davis
ad denied using sny such word?Mr. C'lsy
ternly repeated the charge. To-day, Mr. Davis
sid that he had referred to the only copy of the
otes which he held in his hand when he spoke,
qd the word was not found there. [ And wemsy
dd, that a reporter who eat by ua, remarked that
a bad taken notes of the speech, and he wasconiilent
no such language was used |
Mr Clay persisted in saying that his convioion
was that Mr. Davis used the word.
The question was taken on Mr. Turney's
incndmeut, by yeas and nays, as follows ;
Vk?s?Messrs Atchison Barnwell, Berrien,
iutler, Chase, Clemens, Davis of Mississippi, I
Hwson, Houston, Hunter, King, Mason, Morton,
'aarce, Husk, Mebastian, Houlfi, Turney, and
f ulee? lit.
Navs?Messrs. Badger, Baldwin, Bell, Benton,
iradbury, Bright, Case, Clarke, Clay, Cooper,
)avts of Massachusetts, Dayton, Dickinson,
">odfe of Wisconsin, Dodge of Iowa, Pelob,
'oote, Greene, Hale, Jones, Mangum, Miller,
Morris, Pratt, He ward, Shields, Hmltb, Hnrusnoe,
llurgeon, Underwood, Upham, Wales, Walker,
ad Whitooash?33.
Mr. Davis of Mississippi moved to amend the
mend meat as follows.
" And thiit all laws and usages existing in said
Territory at the date of its acquisition by the
United States, which deny or obstruct the right
of any citizens of the United States to remote to
sad reside in said Territory, with any species of
property legally held in any of the States of this
Union, be and are hereby declared to be repealed.''
This gate rise to the usual discussion respecting
the relations of the Constitution to the laws
of a conquered territory?one class of Southern
members contending that, as the laws of Mexico
in the Territories were abrogated already by the
Constitution, no Congressional enactment was
necessary; the other, contending that, although
such was the effect of the Constitution, still it
was disputed by s large and respectable body of
Senators, and therefore, to prevent all doubt,
Congress ought to make a declaration.
nrougbt to sn end.
u.u if. n?l:j ? a ? / '
i*?i i Due. ivir. rrnuuroi, i CODJCS0 inai, iur
one, 1 have looked on these Southern quarrels
with very different feelings from some gentlemen
who say they hare looked on with regret i hare
been gratified at them. It tends to show where
the real place of disease is. I have felt relieved,
personally, myself, in being out of the way in this
fight. A nd I cau say now, as 1 did on a former occasion,
that I have looked on this contest with very
great indifference?to say nothing of satisfaction.
Rut I do not flfte now to make a speech, but to
eiprees the hope that if there has been enough of
this exhibition of Southern gallantly, and ifSouthern
chivalry is satisfied with these issues and
tournaments??
Mr. Foote and Mr. Atchison rose simultaneously,
and called the honorable Senator to
order.
Mr Foote. The Senator has no right to speak
of the " Southern chivalry." | Laughter ]
The Presiding Oflioer. For what remarks is
the Senator called to order ?
Mr. Atchison. 1 called the Senator to order
because he is discussing nothing before the Senate.
And, besides, he has no right to interfere
in quarrels between Southern gentlemen |<?seat
laughter J
Sir. Foote. 1 move that we proceed to the cunvbilswntbuj
f>( L'xfv-t?.r. ?\* > ? *
Mr. Hale. I want the point of order decided.
Tim PrMkltlinor Ofl'ioor Th#? P.Kom unv.^wpu
ib'to j* ? j/vnl?r poirb
Mr. Atchison Not at all. I called the Senator
from New Hampshire to order for discussing
a subject not before the Senate.
The Presiding Officer. It is not in order for
the Senator from New Hampshire to engage in
thedweusaion of a matter not connected with the
subject under consideration. Certainly, he ia at
liberty, If his chivalry prompt him, to interfere
with gentlemen, if they are from the South. But
the Senator is out of order in discussing a matter
not pertaining to the subject-matter under consideration.
Mr. Hale. 1 did not understand the point of
order. I thought the Senator front Missouri [Mr.
Atchison) made it a point of order that I should
not stty anything of the Southern chivalry, on the
ground that it was not respectful to speak of the
dead. {Laughter] But that was not the point.
The point, it seems, was another one. I will
waive that question.
But I desire, in a spirit of sober earnestness,
to ask that we may have a vote on these questions.
Mr. Foote, (in his seat.) We will agree to
that.
Mr. Hale. Then I will sit down
The question being taken on the amendment of
Mr Davis of Mississippi, to the amendment of
Mr. Foote, resulted as follows :
Ykak?Messrs. Atchison, Barnwell, Bell, Berrien,
Butler, Clemens, Davis of Mississippi,
Dawson, Downs, Houston, Hunter, King, Maugum,
Mason, Morton, Pratt, Rusk, Sebastian,
SouUS, Turaoy, Underwood, Yulee?U.i.
Nays ? Messrs. Badger, Baldwin, Benton,
Bradbury, Bright, Cass, Chase, Clarke, Clay,
Cooper, Davis of Massachusetts, Dayton, Dickinson,
Dodge of Wisconsin, Dodge of Iowa,
Felch, Foote, Greene, Hale, Hamlin, Jones, MilBprnahce,"
Bturgeon, Opham", Wales) Walker,'
Whitoomb?33.
|It will bo observed that ten Southern Senator*
voted iu;v on the amendment of Mr. Turney,
and von in the negative on the lant amendment
Mr. Foote of course voted nay, because he deemed
the amendment unnecessary, and calculated to emit
irrass the bill |
The bill was then postponed till to-morrow by
a vote of .16 to 16.
Amendments to the bill were then presented by
Messrs. Rradbury, ltuak, aud Foote, which were
luid on the table, and ordered to be printed.
Mr. Bradbury's amendment it* aa follow a
"Strike out all after the enacting clause in
lection .13 to line 4!t, and insert in lieu thereof aM <
follows: i
" That the President of the United States be i
and he hereby is authorised, by and with the adrice
and consent of the Senate, to appoint two (
Commissioners, who shall huve power to agree (
with such Commissioners aa may be appointed un- (
ler the legislative authority of the Nute of Tex- ,
is, upon a line of boundary between the territory |
>f the United Hiates and the said State of Texas, ,
commencing at the point where the Red river is H
ntersected by the hundredth degree of west lonritude,
being the southwest angle of the Indian
rerritory, ami running to n point on the Rio
jrande, to be agreed upon by the said Commis- "
ioners . Htid also to agree upon the terms, coalitions,
and considerations, upon which such line ^
hall b<* established , and the proceedings and f j
greemrnts of the said Commissioners shall he, as ^
ooii aa possible, transmitted to the President of
he United Nlates, to be by him submitted to ^
longresa, with such reoomtnendations us tbo cir- Nj
umstancea, in his opinion, may re<|uire, for the
pproval aud action of Congress thereupon ; and *
he said agreement, when approved by the Con- -j
resi of the United States, and the Legislature c|
f the State of Texas, shall be obligatory upon
he parties."
Mr Rusk proposes to amend Mr. Bradbury's t|
mendment by striking out all after the first word .
That," aud insert?
' The boundary of the State of Texas is here- ^
y admitted to extend to the Rio Grande, aa do- .
ned in the statute of limits of the late Republio
f Texas, pt^sed in the year 1836." *
Mr Koote's amendment is to add the following
ection:
11 A?I L. 1. r ...? TU.i ..lit.. L.?li.
yi/i// ur U fiirrri'r rWWrii} * unt u'Jtuiupi uciciti ^
unturned shall tio ho construed as to call in qnes- ^
ion the validity nnd binding force of the Texan .
ompact of annexation, in any respect whatever." j
'J'he Senate, after (tome time spent in Executive
r-srion, adjourned.
HOUKK or RKI'R KMKNTATIV KH.
TnuuAV, JULY 33,
Mr Featberston introduce<l a hill to regulate
be payment of claiine and internet by the Heads
f Departments. Referred to the Committee on
he Judiciary
The Secretary of War having aent additional
?timates for the Army bill Uj the chairman of
he Committee of Weya and Means, the bill waa
ecornmitted.
Mr. McLane, from the Committee on Coranerce,
reported a hill making appropriation* for
ertaiu rivers and harbors.
The House proceeded to dispose of the busitesa
on the Speaker's table.
The bill from the Senate, requiring the Comnittee
on Publio Buildings to cause a neat and appropriate
monument to be ereotcd to the memory
>f the lute President, in the Congressional buryng
ground, was taken up and referred to the
'ominittee of the Whole on the state of the Union
Mr. Savage of Tennessee moved a reooneider- j
ition of the vote by which the message o? the j
'resident transmitting the Niosragua Treaty
0 the House, had bean referred to the Committee
>n Foreign Affairs. After an hour's speech, in
vhich he denounced Great Britain and all projects
or scouring pacific relatious with her, he withIrew
bis motion.
The flouse adjourned
Wsuncsoat, Jri.v U4, 18.V).
The duloess of the House was relieved on tha i
Mth by en animated debate in Committee of the
Whole on the state of the Union on the Slavery
location. The enbjeet under consideration wee
1 bill making appropriation for the Military
Voademy; but the following proeeodinge caused
he debate to wander from this qweetlon.
Mr. Bayly moved that the meeeege ef the Preedent
of tho United States, communicating the
Jonetitutlon of the 8tate of California, (together
vith the bill pending for ita admission,) be laid
tside, and that tha bill making appropriation for
ha support of tho Military Academy at West
'oiat for the year ending June 30,1851, be tales
op. I
Mr. Went worth called for the regular order of
[ busiqes*.
Mr. Proton King inquired whether the Committee
should not now proceed to rote on the
Hmendments to the California bill, under an order
of the House.
The Chairman said that there was an order
I that the debate should cease; and, further, that
the California subject could be laid aside by a
rote of the Committee.
Mr. King remarked that he would not appeal
from the decision of the Chair, but asked for tellers
, which were ordered.
The question being taken, the < ommiltee?ayes
9.1, noes 60?laid aside the California message and
the propositions connected therewith, and took up
the Wwt Point Academy bill.
Mr Bayly remarked that, if there was no
amendment offered, he would more that the bill
*" '* ~'4 Houee.
Mr. w entworfn moved to strike out the first
section. As he understood that the whole stats
of the Union was now under discussion, he would
offer to the Committee a few remarks on the extraordinary
vote taken this morning. He had
by no act of his delayed the admission of California.
It was known that there is an open and
manly party oppose] to the admission of California,
and on all occasions they hare shown their
hands. There was an apparent majority of twothirds
for the admission of California He looked
on the rote of this morning as deciding the fate
of California. This was but the beginning of the
matter. He had no donbt that, after the West
Point shall hare been dispoeed of, the Chairman
of the Committee of Ways and Means would
more to take up the others in order. The discussion
would occupy four weeks, or more, and
when the bills are passed, he had no doubt Congress
would adjourn. This had been the former
history. He made these remarks, that the country
may know that by its own fWends California
is defeated, in his humble opinion. Whether
members so intended or not, he could not say. If
they, however, intend to admit California during
this session, they must turn aside from ths Appropriation
bills, and take up that for the admiseion
of California.
Mr. Johnson of Arkansas ask^J whether i{ wab
the t&OOtUuituimiivu 1/1 me i %0 St Up
the Appropriation bills.
Mr. Wentworth I was coming to that point.
Mr. Jcifcm We of the South har? " ~'
charged wirh it; and 1 make the inqtiiry to learn
the f ct.
Mr. Wentworth replied, that he was not in the
secrets of the Free-Soilers. [Laughter J If to
be a Wilmot Proviso man is to be a Free-Soiler,
then he could speak. His party was the Democratic
party.
Mr Johnson of Arkansas. Then I don't belong
to it.
Mr Wentworth said 1 do. 1 will never vote
to adjourn Congress until the Appropriation bills
urc jinsst'u, sou i no not oeneve mm any one on
the Democratic aide, who advocates the Wilmot
Proviso, has an apprehension that they will not
be passed I do not think that there is any party
in the House who means to adjourn Congress
without passing the hills; hut I think it most
likely that Congress will adjourn without admitting
California.
Mr. McClernand said he was surprised at the
course which the member from the Chicago district
had taken this morning in regard to tha Appropriation
hills and the admission of California.
If he mistook not, the zeal of the gentleman for
California is of recent date. It originated with
this session of Congress if he mistook not, the
gentleman was decidedly and violently opposed
to the admission of California, lost session, as a
State. Not only was he opposed to the admission
of California, hut it was within the knowledge of
all that this was the general position of all the
Abolitionists anil Free-Soilers of the House
And why were they opposed to the admission of
California I Because it would have defeated or
put au end to the agitation of the slavery question,
and would have taken from them the fuel
with which they fed the flame of public exoitsmeut;
because they wished the Territories to
stand open, that they might agitate the Wilmot
Ihey wish to make this a'|!n>(?u?i
this new-born zeal? It is because those in this
House and elsewhere, in favor of the admission
of California ns an independent measure, wish
to keep the question open for agitation.
There is probably another reaaon for this newborn
zeal. It may be that the Senate bill will
be passed, not only ndiuiltiug California, but providing
Governments for the Territories It is
not so much that these gentlemen are in favor of
the admission of California but beoauee they
wish to keep tho question open for sectional agitation
and political effect Thia was his understanding
of the subject. It is supposed the Senate
bill, making joint provision for the Territories,
is stronger in this House than any other,
hence their desire to take precipitate action, and
sominit the House in advance against the measure,
in the event of its coming here This la a
aiatter of policy with certain gentlemen
Mr. Wilmot wished to contradict the charge
hat the friends of California had resolved to rtdst
all other measures, at all hazards It was asonishing
to him where those rumors were picked
ip?charges so unfounded. The friends of Calfornla
did desire speedy action. They began to
tpprehend that the California bill would be lost,
ind they wished to give it precedence.
He believed that the true friends of California
lesired this now, because the history of Congress
hows that when the appropriation bills are passed,
he day of adjournment has arrived. And soma
ien. who want to put off the admission of Caliirnla,
will vote for the adjournment; and It is
i ioHtirc Motion on the nieaeure that California
houlJ bo jtHNtponni no longer. From the newaapera,
ho had euppoeed that there waa not a
forthcrn man who who not in favor of the admiaon
of California. Now. it aeema, we have the
eutleman from lllinoie, [Mr MeClernand,] who
i for hanging to the bill the .M>und?ry question,
Vrrltorial Government*, itc, making California
?rry additional burdena. He believed that digity
required that California ahould be admitted
y heraelf; he believed that it waa demanded by
tie voice of the people of the country. After
aving acquired and annexed Texan with a ruah,
free State, with a larger population thanTexaa,
irkanttae, or Louleiana, ia to be kept oat of the
Jnion, for the only renaonthat ehehaa prohibted
lavery. To complain of thia ia what the gentlelan
from Uiinota termed "miaarable exoita......
?
Th 11 excitement could have been avoided or
ottled without disturbance, without leaving any
rrioua he <rt-bnrnin(s with the Southern frienda,
t Hepreaentatives had stood up to pubiio opin
on Talk about freedom being " aeotlonal! "
llavery wu aeotional. And against this ho
truggled for the provision of tha ordinance
rbich excludes slavery. He believed that the
nteroela of the Houth oontrol the Republlo, and
eleld its destinies. It has been represented that
base interests involve sixteen hundred millions
)f dollars, lie was opposed to the moneyed interest,
as senseless, heartleee, and unfeeling; only
intent on its own feelings and advantages. As
ivith bank stock, so with manufacturing on the
itock of the South. It was heartless capital, regardless
of the rights of humanity. The South
lemmd that the free laborers shall be driven from
the Territories. They wish to monpololise the
soil, to increase their property, and give strength
to their power; and those who oppose this, and
advocate the rights of humanity and free labor,
are, in the opinion of the gentleman from Illinois,
sectional fanatics 1
If a man is not in favor of slavery, he is denounced
as on enemy to republloan principles
Democracy doea not oonaiat in wearing the collar
r>f slavery, and no man is a Democrat who Is in
favor of the inatitution of slavery and Its props
pufon. It may be that the gentleman keeps himieir
in ofKoe by being in the power of the Sooth
In hie | Mr. W.'sl district, the Abolitionists nsver
jx?lle?l over two hundred votes. It ia a part of
be faith of hie eeastituente, that slavery ought
tot to be extended ever sell whieh is free. They
tmbraoe it as a portion of their creed, and will
itand up to the principle. For this they are not
to be read oat of the Democratic party. The
principle of freedom cannot be broken down
Slavery la net a national institution. The principle
of restricting slavery is constitutional,
which no political organisation can overpowsr.
He nyoioed that he had an agency in da/bating
General Cass. If any man of the North who
aeeks to gain the Presidency shall bow down ia
slavish submission to the South, he would do
all he eould to defeat him The oaly remedy
was the peaosful one of the ballet-bos, whioh he
would continue to make use of.
Mr. Cobb of Alabama was understood to ask
whethsr the gentleman would vote for nay nan
wko owns slaves
Mr. Wilmot replied thet he wonld cheerfully
vote for any men whose principles were hi eossrd
ance with my own, whether he ewaaakveaor not
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