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The national era. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1847-1860, August 15, 1850, Image 4

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132
THE NATIONAL ERA. J
Far th? National Kra. bi
THE FALL flF HLH6AKT. J
ai
MY THE WORKSHOP HARD.
>torm cloud* hav* orercant thy ?ky, *
And fearfully the furlou* hlaat
Hath swept thee, amitten Hungary, ?
As o'er thy heritage it pinned? *
Thy free bold heart*, who firmly Hood, *
Hare atalutd the 1 belt* with their blood j*
One pealing about, one rallying call, t
Kan* from her wild Carpathian hille; 0
f lie atartlins summon* wikttifd all, ]
I ?ch patriot hoaom throbs and thrills, J
-? Kossuth's voice ring* to the sky, e
" Strike ?e for God, and Hungary." I
bp Irom eacb green and sunny plain,
Uowu from aaob rugged mountain slope,
thick as the ears of bearded grain,
Stern, serried ranks came sweeping on,
And mountain gorge and rocky glen
Echoed the tramp of marshalled men.
r ire leaped from every flashing eye, I
Wrath crouched on every knitted brow, I
tlrawn sabrea gleamed a quick reply, i
As Austria bade them basely bow,
Owning her hated tyrant s sway
Over the rights of Hungary. ?
t Dawn . Uba an avalanche ' f
They rushed upon their Cossack foes,
With flery charge and deadly blows ,
Kank upon rank was crushed and riven,
Ae by a lightning strake from Heaven
Proud Austria's Croats and Russia's hordes,
Armed to the teeth In triple steel,
Are mown like grass by Hungary's swords,
Ttuyraud Magyar is on their beel;
Deinf^^H'S shout ringe quick and loud,
As pea's the bolt from summer cloud
Thy hour, thy glorious hour, had oouie?
Thy triumph shout we bent to hear ,
O God! our hearts were stricken dumb?
A Gorgey'a treacheries career
Hath done what Croat* and Coeeaok horde* I
Could not acbiere with spears and i words
No More the conquering arm of Hem
Lead* on thy boat through gorge and glade,
With flaehing eabre pointing them
Where thunders the fierce cannonade,
Sterling his way, in deadly ire,
O'er a red track of blood and fire.
No more we'll bear, at dawn of day,
The cheering about, ''tb? clanging born,"
Wind from the turret*, cold and gray,
Of the old fortreae of Comorn;
I
f * patriot* dead are wy r.ey** ?
On their lorrd eoii, in Perth's cold keeping ^
w Aroand thy deeolated home*, 1
, .. '.-giier*' >>?/ ' - "tr-Arep* fall? 4
^ Fa her, Bor aon, nor lorar, c> mes ' 1
Bark to the old ancaatrai hall? I
Pead on the g ry battle field, I
i?aeh pillowed on hie batt?r*d ehleld
How muat thy noble epirlta feel,
To ere thi.ee pirate bannere float,
While Kuaela'a Bear ie on thy heel,
And Austria's grip la on thy throat'
Heareoa! there are chafed hearte that faiu
Would tear thoee standard* down again.
God help thee, hapleai 11 Father land
Thy glorious heritage and prida
Were trusted in a traitor'* hand,
A but and guilty parricide.
Gorgey, thy memory shall be
A curae, a taunt, a mockery.
Go hide within the Kremliin'e wall,
Thou traitor Tile to Huugary'a weaJ;
Go where her bleeding martyrs fall,
WrithiDg beneath the Russian's steelWhere
strangling cord, at Haynan's beck,
Goes round each noble patriot1* neck
Gear, if thou canst, her fiery curse,
Poured measureless upon thy head ;
Her gory coil lie Haines shall nurse,
The bunee of her unburied dead,
Through Kossuth, call on eons and sires,
"Curse ye the traitor, O Magyars 1 "
Let Russia forge her iron bands,
They'll burst with yet a wilder power;
Though on their neck* the tyrant stands,
Magyars will know their rising hour.
Youug nurseling of Vienna's halls,t
Thou'It see it yet from Huda's walla.
Hoi to the brave and noble band,
To Hungary's cause so tried and true, J
Columbia stretches forth her hand? j
fbere'e room for each, for all of you; I
??ur arms our hearts, we open fling, I
To grset you?a warm welenmlng I
Troy, N. Y., Dcettnbfr 13, 1549.
* " Curse him, people of the Magyars."
Kossuth's Aditr*ii.
t " And thon, O youthful monarch of the Hungarians!
Forget not that my nation is not destined for thee. Hearen
inspire* me with the confidence that the day will dawn whan
It shall be proved to thee, even on the ruined wall* of Buda.
Kossuth's Atldriss to his Country.
PRESIDENT S MESSAGE ON THE TEXAN
BOUNDARY.
To the Senate and House o) Rt present utiles :
I herewith transmit to the two Houses of Congress
a letter from his Excellency the Governor of
Texas, dated on the 14th day of June last, addressed
to the late President of the United States,
which, not having been answered by hiua, oame
to my hands on his death ; and I also transmit a
copy of the answer which I have felt it to be my
duty to cause to be made to that communication.
Congress will perceive that the Governor of
Texas officially states that by authority of the
Legislature of that State, he dispatched a special
Commissioner, with full power and instructions
to extend the civil jcmediction of the State over
the unorganired counties of El Paso, Worth,
Presidio, and Santa Fe, situated on its northwestern
limits.
He proceeds to say that the Commissioner had
reported to him, in an official form, that the military
officers employed in the service of the United
States, stationed at Santa Fe, interposed adversely,
with the inhabitants, to the fulfilment of his
objeot, in favor of the establishment of a separate
State Government cast of the Kio Grande, and
within the rightful limits of the State of Texas.
The four counties which Texas thus proposes to
establish and organise, as being within her own
jurisdiction, extend over the whole of the territory
east of the Rio Grande, which has heretofore
been regarded as an essential and integral part
of the Department of N? w Mexico, and actually
governeJ and posseased by her people, until conquered
and severed from the Republic of Mexioo
by the American arms.
The Legislature of Texas has been called together
by her Governor, for the purpose, as is
understood, of maintaining her claim to the territory
east of the Rio Grande, and of establishing
over it her own jurisdiction and her own laws
by force
These proceedings of Texas may well arrest
the attention of all branches of the Government
of the United States, and I rejoice that they occur
while the Congress is yet in Beasion It is, I
fear, far from being impossible that, in consequence
of these proceedings of Texan, a crisis may
be brought on which shall summon the two Houses
of Congress, and still more emphatically the Executive
Government, to an immediate readiness
for the performance of their respective duties.
By tne t "onmtutton or the United States, the
President Is constituted Commander-in-chief of
the Army and Navy, and of the militia of the
several States, when called into the actual service
of the United StAtea The Constitution declares
also that he shall take care that the laws he faithfully
executed, and that he shall, from time to
time, pive to the Congress information of the stnte
or the Union.
Congress has power, by the Constitution, to
provide for calling forth the militia to execute the
laws of the Union, and suitable and appropriate
acts of Congress have been passed, as well for
providing for calling forth the militia, as for placing
other suitable and efficient means in the
bands of the President to enable him to discharge
the constitutional functions of his offioe.
The second section of the set of the 28th of
February, 179.">. declares that whenever the laws
of the United States shall be opposed, or their
execution obstructed, in any State, by combinations
too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary
course of judicial proceedings, or the power
vested in the m&rehala, ths President may call
forth the militia, so far as may be necessary to
to suppress such combinations, and to cause the
Jaws to be duly executed.
By the act of March .'id, 1807, it ia provided
that, In all cases of obstruction to the laws, either
of the United States or any individual State or
Territory, where it is lawful for the President to
call forth the militia for the purpose of causing
the laws to be duly executed, it shall be lawful
for him to employ, for the same purpoee. such
part of the land or naval force of ths United States
as shall be judged necessary
These several enaotmente are now in full force,
o that if the laws of the United States are opposed
or obstructed, in any State or Territory, by
combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the
judicial or civil authorities, It becomes a case in
which it is the duty of the President either to cell
nut the militia or to employ the military and naval ]
TI
tree of the United States; or to do both, if in his i
idgment the exigency of tho occasion shall so i
quire, for tho purpooe of suppressing such corn- 1
inations. Tho ooootitational duty of the Presi- <
ent is plain and peremptory, and the authority
ssted la him by law for ita performance clear and
mple.
Texas is a State, authorised to maintain her
wn laws, oo far as they are not repugnant to the
lonstitution, laws, and treaties of the United
tates; to suppress insurrections against her I
lltL,r!lr ^.1 t-l. .1 W. i
,v puiou W UU IUHJ UU1UIUH
reason against the State, according to the forms
rovided by her own Constitution and her own
iws. But all this power is local, and confined
ntirely within the limits of Texas herself. She
an possibly confer no authority which can be
awfully exercised beyond her own boundaries.
U1 this is plain, and hardly needs argument or
'lucidation. If Texan militia, therefore, march
uto any one of the other States or intb any Territory
of the Uuited States, there to execute or
enforce any law of Texas, they become at that
uoment trespassers; they are no longer under
;he protection of any lawful authority, and are to
be regarded merely as intruders; and if within
juch State or Territory they obstruct any law of
ihe United States, either by power of arms or mere
power of numbers, constituting such a combination
as is too powerful to be suppressed by the
civil authority, the President of the United States
has no option left to him, but is bound to obey the
solemn injunction of the Constitution, ami exercyie
the higher powers Tested in him by that instrument
and by the acts of Congress
ur it any civil' posse, armed or unarmed, eh'iVr
into any Territory of the United States, with intent
iv aeixe jiiuiviuuais, to w wuncattwnucio i
for trial, for alleged offences, sod this posse be too I
powerful to be resisted by the local civil authorities,
such seizure or.attempt to seize is to be prevented
or resisted by the authority of the United
States.
The grave and important question now arises,
whether there be in the Territory of New Mexico
any existing law of the United Seates, opposition
to which, or the obstruction of which,
would constitute a case calling for the interposition
of the authority vested in the Presideut.
The Constitution of the United States declares
that " this Constitution, and the laws of the
United States which shall be made iu pursuance
thereof, and all treaties made or which shall be
made under the authority of the L'nited States,
shall be the supreme law of the land." If, therefore,
New Mexico be a territory of the United
States, and if any treaty stipulation be iu force
therein, such treaty stipulation is the supreme
law of the land, and is to be maintained and upheld
accordingly.
In the letter to the Governor of Texas my reasons
are given for believing that New Mexioo is
a Torritorv of the United States with the
same extent ami the same boundaries which
belonged to it while in the actuaj possession of
itii /lepublib of Mexico, auJ M</wvthe late
wtir. In the early part of that war, both California
and New Mexico were conquered by the
f"iv? of ike United s'*%' #fJ "?"* fa?, military
possession of the United "States at the date
af the treaty of peace. By that treaty the title
by conqueatwos confirmed, and these Territories,
Provinces, or Departments, separated from Mexico
forever ; and by the same treaty certain important
rights and securities were solemnly guartntied
to the inhabitants residing therein
By the fifth artiole of the treaty it is declared
that
" The boundary line between the two Republics
shall commence in the Gulf of Mexico three
leagues from land, opposite the mouth of the
Rio Grande, otherwise called the Rio Bravo del
Norte, or opposite the mouth of its deepest
branch, if it should have more than one branch,
emptying directly into the sea ; from thence, up
the middle of that river, following the deepest
channel, where it bag more than one, to the point
where it strikes the southern boundary of New
Mexico; thence westwardly, along the whole
southern boundary of New Mexico, (which runs
North of the town called Paso.) to its western
termination; thence northward, along the west- 1
< m line of New Mexioo, until it intersects the
first branch of the river Gila; or if it should not
iutersect any branch of that river, then to the
point on the said line nearest to such branch,
and thence in a direct line to the same;) thence
dowu the middle of the said branch aud of the
said river until it empties into the Rio Colorado;
thence across the Rio Colorado, following
the division line between Upper and Lower Calic
"
iurun, tu mtj l umun ut;?*uu.
The eighth article of the treaty is in the following
terms
' Mexicans now established in Territories previously
belonging to Mexico, and which remain
for the future within the limits of the United
States, as defined by the present treaty, shall be
Tree to continue where they now reside, or to remove
at any time to the Mexican Republic, retaining
the property which they possess in the
said Territories, or disposing thereof, and removing
the proceeds whenever they please, without
their being subjected on this account to any contribution,
tax, or charge whatever.
" Those who shall prefer to remain in the said
Territories may either retain the title and rights
of Mexican citizens, or acquire those of citizens
of the United States. Hut they shall he under
the obligation to make their election within one
year from the date of the exchange of ratifications
of this treaty ; and those who shall remain
in the said Territories after the expiration of that
year, without having declared their intention to
retain the character of Mexicaus, shall be considered
to have elected to become citizens of the
United States"
" In the said Territories, property of every kind
now belonging to Mexicans not established there,
shall be inviolably respected. The present owners,
the heirs of these, and all Mexicans who
may hereafter acquire said property hy coutraot,
shall enjoy with respect to it guaranties equally
ample as if the same belonged to citizens of the
United States."
The ninth article of the treaty is in these
words :
'The Mexicanswhoin theTerritories aforesaid,
Bhall not preserve thecharacterofthecitizensofthe
Mexican Republic, conformably with what is stipulated
in the preceding article, shall he Incorporated
into the Union of the United States, and he
admitted at the proper time (to he judged of hy
the Congress of the United States) to the enjoyment
of all the rights of citizens of the United
States, according to the principles of the Uonstiution
; and, in the mean time, shall he mainnni.iet
nil t r? fKfl fntn (in invmoiit A f
heir liberty ami property, ami secured in the
'ree exercise of their religion, without restrloion
"
It is plain, therefore, on the face of these treaty
imputations, that all Meiioans established in
Territories north of the line of demarkation al eady
mentioned, come within the protection of
he nth article, t?nd that the treaty, being a part
)f the supreme law of the land, does extend over
ill such Mexicans, and assures to them perfect eejurity
in the free enjoyment of their liberty and
property, as well its in the free exercise of their
religion , nnd this supreme law of the land being
thus in actual fores over this Territory, is to be
maintained and enforced until it shall he displaced
ar superseded by other legal provisions; and if it
he obstructed or restricted by combinations too
powerful to be suppressed by the olvil authority,
ihe case is one which corned within the provitions
of law, and which obliges the President to
jnforce those provisions Neither the Conntituion
nor the law, my duty or my oath of office,
oaves me Hny alternative or any choice in my
node of actiou.
The Executive Government of the United
States has no power or authority to deturuiine
what was the true line of boundary between
Mexioo and the United Status, before the treaty
if Guadalupe Hidalgo; nor has it any such power
now, since the question has become a question
between the State of Texas and the United
States. So far as this boundary is doubtful, that
1 kt 1_. W- nA? Af
iouiH giiu UUIJ KfV rruiu*ru itj rumc nvv vi vuutrend,
to which the atwent of the State of Texas
nay be necessary, or by some appropriate mode
>f legal adjudication ; but, in the mean time, if
lidturbancea or collisions arise, or should be
threatened, it is absolutely incumbent on the
Executive Government, however painful the
iuty, to tike care that the laws are faithfully
maintained. And he can regard only the actual
itate of things as it existed at the date of the
reaty, and is bound to rroteot all inhabitants
who were then established, and who now remaiu
iorth and east of the line of demarkation, in the
til! enjoyment of their liberty and property, aclording
to the provisions of the ninth article of
he treaty ; in other words, that all must now be
egarded as New Mexico, whioh was possessed
nd occupied as New Mexico by citixens of Mex30
at the date of the treaty, un'il a definite line
f boundary shall be established by competent i
uthority. This assertion of duty to protect the i 1
eople of New Mexico from threatened violence, i
r from aeixure to be oarried Into Texas for i
rial for alleged olienors against Texan laws, does i
ot at all include any claim of power on the part of <
he Executive, to establish any civil or military <
jovernment wlthiu that Territory. That p*n tr I
>elongM exclusively to the Legislative depart- i
nent, and Congress is the sole judge of the lime I
ttid manner of creating or authorising any such <
government The duty of the Executive extends I
itily to the execution of laws and the maintenance 1
>f treaties already in force, and the protection of t
ill the people of the United States in the enjoy- I
nent of the rights which these treaties and laws i
guaranty It is exceedingly desirable that no <
locaalon should arise for the exeroiae of the I
jowers thus vested in the Freaideut by the Con- <
jeIJATSALE^
ititution and the Law a. With whatever mildness
those powers might be executed, or however clear
the case of necessity, jet consequences might nev- 1
erthelese follow, o! which no human sagacitj
can foresee either the evils or the end.
Having thus laid before Congress the communication
of his Excellency the Governor of
Texas, and the answer thereto, and having made
such observations as I have thought the ocoasion
viutki iur, rwptiuuji; cousutuiionHi udii^huuub
which may arise in the farther progress of things,
and nuy devolve on me to be performed, I hope I
shall not be regarded as stepping aside from the
line of duty, notwithstanding that I am aware
that the subject is now before both Houses, if !
express my deep and earnest conviction of the
propriety of an immediate decision, or arrangement,
or settlement of the question of boundary
between Texas and the Territory of New Mexiico.
All oonsiderationa of justice, general expediency,
and domestic tranquillity, call for this. It
seems to be, in its character and by position, the
first, or one of the first of questions growing out
of the acquisition of California and New Mexico,
and how calling for decision.
No Government can be established for New
Mexico, either State or Territorial, until it shall
be first ascertained what New Mexico is, and
what are her limits and boundaries. These cannot
be fixed or known till the line of division between
her and Texas shall be ascertained and established
; and numerous and weighty reasons
conspire, in my judgment, to show that this divisional
line should be established by Congress, with
the asseut of the Government of Texas. In the
OlbJ 'ioia BVruJB Of las >u/ u.t>o? ,
mode of proceeding by which the end can be seed
to, soch proceedings would necessarily be I
slow, and years would pass by, in all probability,
before the controversy could be ended. So great
a delay in this case is to be avoided, if possible.
It would be every way inconvenient, and might
be the occasion of disturbances and collisions.
For the same reason. I would, with the utmost
deference to the wisdom of Congress, express a
doubt of the expediency of the appointment of
Commissioners, and of an examination, estimate,
and an award of an indemnity to be made by
them. This would be but a species of arbitration,
which might last as long as a suit at law.
So f ir as 1 am able to comprehend the case, the
general faots are now all known, and Congress is
as capable of deciding on it justly and properly
now, as it probably would be after the report of
Commissioners.
If the claim of title on the part of Texas appear
to Congress to be well founded, in whole or
in part, it is in the competency of Congress to offer
her an indemnity for the surrender of that
claim, lu a case like this, surrounded as it is by
nrnny cogent considerations, all calling for amicable
adjustment and immediate settlement, the
Government of the United States would be justi
lieu, in my opinion, in allowing an inuemniiy 10
Texas, not unreasonable and extravugant, bat
fair, liberal, and awarded in a just spirit of aocnmmodation.
1 tbiok.no event woyld be hailed with more
gratification by the people of.the United States
than the amicable arrangement of questions of
difficulty, which have now for a long time agitated
the country, and occupied, to the exclusion
of other subjects, the time aud attention of Congress.
Having thus freely communicated the resulte
of my own reflections on the most advisable mode
of adjusting the boundary question, I shall nevertheless
cheerfully acquiesce in any other mode
which the wisdom of CongresB may devise.
And, in conclusion, I repeat my conviction that
every consideration of the puhlic interest manifests
the necessity of a provision by Congress for
the settlement of this boundary question before
the present session be brought to a close. The
settlement of other questions connected with the
same subject, within the same period, is greatly
to be desired ; but the adjustment of this appears
to ineto be in the highest degree important. In
the train of such an adjustment, we may well
hope that there will follow a return of harmony
and good will, an increased attachment to the
Union, and the general satisfaction of the country.
Millard Fillmore.
Washington, August 6, 1*50. <
Dei'arimknt ok Staie,
Washington, August 5, 1850.
Sir A letter addressed by you to the late ,
President of the United States, and dated on the
14th of June last, has, since bis lamented de- ,
cease, been transferred to the hands of his suooes- ,
sor, by whom 1 sm directed to transmit to you ,
the following answer
In that letter you say that by the authority
of the Legislature of Texas, the Executive of ,
that State, in February last, despatched a special (
Commissioner, with full power and instructions ,
to extend the civil jurisdiction of that State over ,
the unorganii'd counties of F,1 Paso, Worth,
Presidio, and Santa Fe, situated upon its northwestern
limits; and that the Commissioner has
reported to yon, in an official form, that the
military officers employed in the service of the
United States, stationed at Santa Fe, interposed
adversely with the inhabitants to the fulfilment
of his otject, by employing their iufluence in favor
of the establishment of a separate State Government
east of the Rio Grande, and within the
rightful limits of the State of Texas. You also
transmit a copy of the proclamation of Colonel
John Munroe, acting under the orders of the
Government of the United States, under the
designation of Civil and Military Governor of
the Territory of New Mexico, and respectfully request
the President to cause you to be informed
whether or not this officer has acted in this matter
under the orders of his Government, land
whether his proclamation meets with the approval
of the President of the United States?
In the events which have occurred, I hardly
know whether your Excellency would naturally
expect au answer to this letter from him. 11 is
predecessor in office, to whom it was addressed,
and under whose authority and direction the
proclamation of Colonel Munroe was issued, is
no more; and. at this time, that proclamation,
whatever may he regarded as its true character,
has ceased to have inff nence or effect. The meeting
of the people of New Mexioo, by their representatives.
which it invited, is understood to
have taken place, although this Government has
as yet reoeived no official information of it.
Pirtaking, however, in the fullest degree, in
that high respect which the Executive Govern- i
ment of the United States always entertains towards
the Governorsand the Governments of the
States, the President thinks it his duty, never,
a.i #..-11 ? ?# i?
lurir-o, iu ii*-p?v iutb iociiu^ vii rcupcui, VJ
acknowledging and answering your letter. Ami
this duty, let me assure your Exoellency, has
heon so long delayed only by uncontrollable oircurostanoes,
nnd is now performed at the earliest
practicable moment, after the appointment of
those heads of Department!, and their acceptance
of office, with whom it is usual, on important
occasions, for the President of the United Htates
to advise.
In answer, therefere, to yoar first interrogatory,
vii whether Colonel Munroe, in issuing the
proclamation referred to, acted under the orders i
of this Government, I have the honor to state
that Colonel Munroe's proclamation appears to
have been issued in|pursuance or in consequence
of Hn order, or letter of instruction, given by the
late Secretary of War, under the authority of
the late President, to Lieutenant Colonel MoCall.
Of this order, whioh hears date on the 10th of
November, 1M9, your Excellency was undoubt- i
edly informed at the date of your letter. A full I
ami accurate oopy, however, is attached to this 1
communication Colonel MoCall is therein In- I
structed, that if the people of New Mexico, for i
whom Congress had provided no Government, |
should manifest a wish to take any steps to rstab- I
lish a Government for themselves, and apply for i
admission into (he Union, it would he bis duty, i
and the duty of others with whom he was asso- i
eiated, not to thwart, but to advance their wishes. |
This order does not sppear to anthoriie any ti- i
ertion of military authority, or of any official or
even personal interference, to control or affect in I
any way the primary notion of the people in the i
formation of a Government, nor to permit any
such interference by subordinate officers. Col. ]
McCall and his associates were not called upon <
to take a lead in any measures, or eren to recom- <
mend anything as fit to be adopted by the people. 1
Their whole duty whs confined to what they t
might be aide to perform, subordinate to the I
wiahee of the people, lu this matter it was evi t
dently contemplated that they were to act aa the <
agenta of the inhabitants, and not as ottioers of i
this Government. It must be recollected that <
the only Government then existing In the Terri- i
tory was a auasi military Government, and as i
Congress had made no provision for the establish- t
ment of any form of civil Government, and aa
the President dotihth ss believed that under theae i
circumstances the people had a right to frame a *
Government lor themselves, and submit it to <
Congress for its approval; the order was a direc- I
lion that tha then existing military Government |
should not stand in the way of the aceouiplishmeut i
if the wishes of the people, nor thwart thosawish- I
re, if the people entertained them, for the establishment
of n free, popular, republioam civil Govern- i
went, for their own protection nnd benefit. This I
la evidently the whole purpose and object of the ]
irder. The military otlioer in command, and his i
laeoelatea, were Aroerioan oitijeut, acquainted 1
eith the forma of oivil and popular proceedings, I
tnd it wee expected that they would aid the lnlablUnts
of the Territory, by their advioe and ae- <
dstance, in their proceedings for establishing a i
Government of their owu. There is no room to I
inppoea that Colonel Munroe, an officer aa much i
listisfuiebed for prudence end discretion ee for i
, WASHINGTON, D.
gallant oonduct in arms. meant to not, or did net,
otherwise thnn in entire subordination and subserviency
to tha will of the people among whom
he waa placed. He was not authorized to do, nor
do I understand him aa intending to do, anything
whatever in hia military character, nor to represent,
in any way, the wishes of the Executive
Government of the United States.
To judge intelligently and fairly of these transactions,
we must recall to onr re collection the circumatanoes
of the case, as they then exiated.
Previous to the war with Mexico, which commenced
in May, 1846, and received the sanction
of Congress on the 13th of th&t month, the Territory
of New Mexico formed a Department or
State of the Mexican Republic, and was governed
by her laws. General Kearny, acting under orders
from this Government, invaded this Department
with an armed force ; the Governor tied at
his approach, and the troops under his oommand
dispersed; and General Kearny entered Santa
Fe, the capital, on the 18th of August, 1846, and
took possessiou of the territory in the name of
the United States. On the 22d of that month
he issued a proclamation to the inhabitants^ stating
the foot that he had taken possession of Santa
Fe, at the head of his troops, and announcing his
" intention to hold the Department with its original
boundaries, (on both sides of the Del Norte.)
and under the name of New Mexico." By that
proclamation he promised to protect the inhabitants
of New Mexico in their persons and property,
againBt their Indian enemies and all otltert,
and assured them that the United States intended
to provide for them a free Government, where the
^Uk/l4 ? Vll/i Irtr MffJCU iipti tc - ? ?
of freemen in electing their own representatives
-- <1. J * ? O. .1. ?. J . _
h? ?tt*blishe<l a Territorial Constitution by an
organio law, wbich provided for executive, legislative,
and judicial departments of the Government,
defined the right of suffrage, and provided
for trial by jury, and at the same time established
a code of laws. The Constitution declared that
"the oountry heretofore known as New Mexico
shall be known hereafter and designated as the
Territory of New Mexico, in the United States
of America," and the members of the lower
house of the Legislature were apportioned among
the oounties established by the decree of the Department
of New Mexico of June" 17, 1844, which
counties it is understood included all the territory
over which Texas has lately attempted to
organize oounties and establish her own jurisdiction.
On the 22J of December, 1840, a copy of
this Constitution and code was transmitted by
President Polk to the House of Representatives,
in pursuance of a call on him by that body. In
the message transmitting the Constitution, he
says that " portions of it purport to establish and
organize a permanent Territorial Government over
the Territory, and to impart to its inhabitants political
rights which, under the Constitution of
the United States, can be enjoyed permanently
only by citizens of the United States. These
bar# not been approved and recognised by me.
Such organized regulations as have been established
in nny of the conquered Territories, for
the security of our conquest, for the preservation
of order, lor the protection of the rights of the
inhabitants, and for depriving the enemy of the
advantages of these Territories, while the military
possoasion of them by the forces of the United
States continues, mil )te recognised ami approved.'' I
Near four years have now elapsed since this '/nasi
military Government was established, by military
authority, and received, with the exceptions mentioned,
the approval of President Polk. In the
mean time a treaty of peace has been concluded
with Mexico, by which a boundary line was established
that left this Territory within the United
States, thereby confirming to the United j
8tates, by treaty, what we had before acquired by
conqueet. The treaty, in perfect accordance with .
the proclamation of General Kearny, declared
that the Mexicans remaining in this Territory
should be incorporated into the Union of the United
States, and be admitted at the proper time, ;
(tc be judged of by the Congress of the United
\ tk* Jtninumonf r\f all fko winrkfa nf nWi. !
1, ~"J'V "" vtnzens
of the United States, according to the principles
of the Constitution; and in the mean time
"should be maintained and protected in the free
enjoyment of their liberty and property, and secured
in tbe free exercise of their religion without
restriction." Thus it will be perceived that
the authority of the United States over New
Mexico was the result of conquest; and the possession
held of it, in the first place, was of course
a military possession. The treaty added the title j
l>y oession to the already existing title by success- |
ful achievements in arms. With the peace there (
Arose a natural expectation that, as early as possible,
there wonld come a civil Government to supersede
the military. But, until some such form
of government should come into existence, it was
matter of absolute necessity that the military
government should continue, as otherwise the
country must fall into absolute anarchy. And
this has been the course, generally, in the practice
of civilised nations, when colonies or territories
have been acquired by war, and their acquisition
confirmed by treaty.
The military government, therefore, existing
in New Mexico at the date of the order, existed
there of inevitable necessity. It existed as much
against the will of the Executive Government of
the United States as against the will of the people.
The late President had adopted the opinion
that it was justifiable in the people of the Territory,
under the circumstances, to form a constitution
of government, without any previous authority
conferred by Congress; and thereupon to apply
for admission into the Union. It was under
this state of things, and under the influence of
these opinions, that the order of the 19th of November
last was givtn, and executed in the manner
we have seen. The order indicates no boundary,
and defines no territory, except by the name
of New Mexico; and so far as thBt indicated
anything, it referred to a known Territory, which
had been organised under military authority, upproved
by the Executive, and left without remonstrance
or alteration by Congress for more than
three years, it appears to the President that
such an order could not have been intended to
invade the rights of Texas.
Secondly, you ask whether the proclamation of
Colonel Munroe meets with tho approval of the
President of the United States?
iu ucirruiiur mi? ijurni iuii, 11 19 UFcessnry 10
look at thp ohjrci of the proclamation and the
fffeet of the proceedings hat! under it.
If the object was to assume the authority to
settle the disputed boundary with Texas, then the
President has no hesitation in Baying that such objeot
does not meet with his approbation, because
he does not believe that the Executive branch of
this Government, or the inhabitants of New
Mexico, or both combined, hare any constitutional
authority to settle that question That belongs
either to the Judicial Department of the
Federal Gorernmsnt or to the concurrent action
by agreement of the Legislatire Departments of
the Governments of the United States and Texas
But it has been sufficiently shown that Col. Munroe
oould hare had no such object, and that his
intention was merely to aot in aid of the people
in forming a Htate Constitution to be submitted
to Congress. Assuming then t hat such a Constitution
had been formed, what is its -jff-.rt upon
the disputed boundary? If it compromits the
rights of either party to that question, then it
does not meet with the President's approbation ,
for he deems it his duty to learethe settlement of
that question to the tribunal to which it constitutionally
belongs. It ia sufficient for hint that this
boundary is in dispute , that the territory east of
the Rio del Norte seems to be claimed in good
faith both by Texas and New Mexico, or rather
by the United States. Whaterer might be his
lodgment iu regard po their respective rights, ha
baa no power to decide upon them, or even to negotiate
in regard to them , ami therefore it would
be improper for him to express any opinion The
subject matter of diapnte is between the United
States and Texaa. and not between the inhabitants
of New Mexioo and Texas If thoea
people should voluntarily consent to come under
the jurisdiction of Texas, such consent
would not bind the United States to takeaway
their title to the territory. So, on the other hand,
if they should voluntarily claim the title for the
United States, it would not deprive Texas of her
rights. Whatever thoee rights may he, they can
jnly be affected hy her own acts or a judioial decision.
The State Constitution formed hy New
Mexico can have no legal validity until it is recigniaed
and adopted by the law-making power of
the United States. Until that is done, it has no
tanotioo, and oan have no effect upon the rights
}f Texas or of the UoRod States to the territory
in dispute. And it is not to he presumed that
Congress will ever give its sanction to that Conititution
without first providing for the settlement
of this boundary. Indeed, no Government,
pither Territorial erState, oan be formed for New
Mexico withont providing for settling this boundtry
f fence he regards the formation of this State
Constitution as a mar* nullity, (t may be regard&.i
1 .. - ..iitu. t? n?>?
ni i U'lrni, no pvmiiwi vm vwii^i ?? i'v nunted
a* * Stat*, bat until Congress shall grant the
prayer of euoh petition, by legal enactment*, it
?fleet* the rigbte of neither party. But a* it ie
the right of all to petition Congreee for any law
which it may constitutionally pane, this people
were in the eieroiws of.n common right, when
they formed their Constitution with a View of applying
to Congress far admission as a Bute, and
w he thinks the set can prejudice no one, he feels
bound to approve of the oonduol of Col. Munroe,
in iaeuing his proclamation. ,
I am dirooted also Is sUUHRM, in the Preellent's
opinion, U venld net bejut to euppoeethat
the late Preeident desired to manifest any unfriendly
attitod* or aspect toward* Texas, or the
claims of Texas. The boundary between Texas
end New Mtxioo was know to bs disputed ; and
C., AUGUST 15, 185
it vu equally well known that the Executive
Government of the United State* had no power
to nettle that dispute. It ia believed that the Executive
power haa not wished?it oertainly does
not now wiah?to interfere with that question in
any manner whatever, as a question of title.
In one of his last communications to Congress,
that of the 17th of June last, the late President
repeated the declaration that he had no power to
decide the question of boundary, and no desire to
interfere with it, and that the authority to settle
that question resides elsewhere. The object of the
PiMilliia nnMpnmanl haa keen an I helipVe. Stl'i
as I am authorised to say it certainly now is,
to secure the peace of the country ; to maintain,
as far as practicable, the state of things as it existed
at the date of the treaty; and to uphold and
preserve the rights of the respective parties, ae
they were under the solemn guaranty of the
treaty, until the highly interesting question
of boundary should be finally settled by competent
authority. This treaty, which is now the supreme
law of the land, declares, as before stated,
that the inhabitants shall Is* maintained and pro
tected in the free enjoyment of their liberty and
property, and secured in the free exercise of their
religion. It will,- of course, be the President's
duty to see that this law is sustained, and the pro
tootion which it guarantiee made effectual; and
this is the plain and open path of Executive duty,
in which he proposes to tread.
Other transactions of a very grave character are
alluded to and recited in your Excellency's letter
To those transactions 1 am now directed not more
particularly to advert, because the ^>ly questions
* ? if*' - ?r "* *s the
which Colonel Munroe acted, and the approval
f?P ? ) *9 Vie jo- Vo"f K TW>).
| lency's communication and this answer will be
immedtofcty laid before Congress, and the President
will take that occasion to bring to its notice
the transactions alluded to above.
It is known to your Excellency that the questions
growing out of the acquisition of California
and New Mexioo, and among them the highly important
oneof the boundary of Texas, havesteadily
engaged the attention of both Houses of Congress
for many months, and still engage it. with
intense interest. It is understood that the Legisture
of Texas will be shortly in session, and will
have the boundary question also before it. It is
a delicate crisis in our public afiairo, not free, oertainly,
from possible dangers ; but lei us confidently
trust that justice, moderation, and patriotism,
and the love of the Union, may inspire such counsels,
both in the Government of the United States
and that of Texas, as shall carry the country
through these dangers, and bring it safely out of
them all, and with renewedjkssuranoes of the continuance
of mutual respect and harmony in the
great family of States.
I have the honor to be, with entire regard, your
Excellency's most obedient servant,
Daniii. Wksstkr.
To his Excellency P. H. Bell,
* > Governor of Texas.
LIBERTY ALMANAC FOR ISffl.
THE A"ieriean and Portion Anti-Star try Society hart
jest published another iter*ot};*J Al^/t/taa, Ar the
coming year, with (pedal reference to the great question o*
Mxvery at the present time, and in the expectation that the
friend* of the canee throughout the country will co operate
in diffusing extensively the valuable statistical and reading
matter It contain*, Considering the expense at which the
Almanac ha- been prepared, the k>w price at which it is
gold, and the Increased facilities for forwarding it, by express
or otherwise, front New York, over the whole of the North
em States, it is confidently expected that the circulation
this year will greatly exceed that of any previous year. So
much useful matter cannot well be circulated at less expense.
The Almanac is handsomely printed, on finer paper than
usual, with well-executed wood engravings, prepared expressly
fur it, illustrating the escape of Henry Pox Bro?n,
a scene at Washington, and the kneeling Slave Mother Be
si 'es the Calendar, which is equal in all respects to that of
the Anierioan Tract Society's Almanac for 1861, and the
Eclipses, Cycles, dte , Ac , ths Almanac contains a variety
of interesting and valuable reading and statistical articles
of an anti-slavery character, selected and original. The
prices will be as follows:
For one thousand copies .... ?20 00
For one hundred-copies ... 3 FiO
F'or one dosen copies 40
For a single copy 05
The friend* of the cause are earnestly Invited to oo-operate
in giving a wide circulation to the Almanac, and to send
their orders at an early day for a liberal supply. It is suggested
that tbey make arrangements with merchant* in
their neighborhood, before visiting New York, to have a few
hundred Almanacs packed with their goods. In this way
the coat of transportation will be very small. If no such
opportunity offer*, the owner* of expresses are now more
reasonable in their charges than heretofore. This mode of
conveyance it better than the post office, as every Almanur
sent by mail, whatever the distance, costs two and a half
oenta.
A Catalogue of most of the Publications for sale at the
Depository is anuexed, from which selection* oan be made;
and books and pamphlets can be seut witb the Almanacs,
wirhiut mucb, If any. additional expense
Orders, enc/oring the money, in bank notes or post office
stamps, should be addressed to
WILLIAM HAKNED, Agent,
Aug ft?(it No. 61 John street, New \ ork City.
PHYSO-MEDICAL COLLEO fe, CINCINNATI, O.
FACULTY. Tickets.
A Curtis, M. l>., Professor of institutes or Principle*
of Medicine ?13 00
J. Courtney, M. D., Professor of Practical Medicine
and llbate-rics - 12 00
E. H. Stockwell, M. 1)., Professor of Anatomy and
Pbysiology 12 00
E M Parritt, M D., Professor of Chemistry and
Medical Jurisprudence - - - -12 00
J. Brown, 1V1. I)., Professor of Botany, Materia
Medica, Pharmacy, and Therapeutics - -12 00
J. A. Powers, M. lb, Professor of Surgery - 12 00
K. H. Stockwell.M. P.. Demonstrator or Anatomy 5 (O
J. BROWN, Dean
Winter Session of 1850
Will commence on the first Monday of November, and continue
seventeen weeks, (the last week devoted to the cendl
dates for graduation.) The expense of tickets, ?72; matriculation,
?3 ; graduation, ?20. Board, from ?2 to ?.! per
week.
One hundred dollars in advance, will secure a certificate
that will entitle the purchaser (or bis assignee) to as many
conrses of lecture* a* he may require for graduation, or it
will entitle the eubeoriber to a share in the College ground
and building*. Aug I?lm
SARD'S NARSAPARIUuA,
Jn Quart Bottles.
{"ViK purifying the blood, and for the oure of Scrofula,
fthrurnatism,Slubboi n 11 errs, Dyspepsia, SaU Rheum,
Freer Sortt, Erysipelas. Pimples, Hies, Mercurial l)isran*,
Cutaneous Eruptions, Liver Complaint, bronchitis,
Consumption, Female Complaints, Loss qf Appetite, General
Debility, 4'c.
In this preparation we hart all the restorative properties
of the rout, oonibined and concentrated in their utmost
strength aud eflteaci. Experiments were made, in the manufacture
of this medicine, until it was found It could not be
improved. Accordingly, we find it resorted to almost universally
in cases of scrofula, liver diseases, salt rheum, gen
era! prostration of the vital powers, and all those tormenting
diseases of the skin, so trying to the patience and injurious
to the health. It is a tonic aperient, ami disinfectant It
acts simultaneously upon the stomach, ths circulation, and
the bowels; and thus three processes, which are ordinarily
the result of three different kinds of medicine, are carried ou
at the same time, throogh the instrumentality of this one
remedial agent. There are many ways of relieving pain for
the time being, hut there is only one way of removing disease.
No palliative, no anodyne, n-> topical application, will
remove U. It must be at'acked at Its source, in the fluids of
the body, which convey the poison to the localities where it
is developed in inflammation, sores, uloers, tumors, abscesses.
glandular swelling", Sic., as the case may tie.
These fluid* must be reached, acted upon purified, by
some powerful agent. Socb an agent is Sroiifi Sarsaparilta,
which gently stimulate* while It disinfects and eaiwis
from the stomach and b>wels all that is irritating, and at
the same time restores their vigor and tone Its great merit
I* that it meets and neutralizes the active principle of disease
itself, and when that is gone, the symptoms necessarily
disappear. The rapidity with which the patient recorers
health and strength under this triple influence is surprising
Each new case In which it is applied furnishes in the tesiilt
a new certificate of its excellence; ami we have only to point
to ths accumulated testimony of multitudes who fcave experienced
its effects, to eonviqre incredulity itself of its real
value.
Lieutenant Mi'ler, of the array, has kindly sent ua the
following letter from California:
monthrit, jani-abv 18, i860.
Messrs. A. R. 4 IS- Sands :
tiiNTLKMBii: I bag leave to add my testimony ia favor of
your invaluable medicine, hoping U may laad some other
unfortunate beings to try its sgecta, and that they may be
benefited aa I have been.
I arrived here from the United Stages by the overland
routs, about the 1st of October last. A few dare after, I was
attacked with a very disagreeable eruption of the skin,
which my physician could not cure I happened to find
your Sar apart! la In a store In this place, and remembering
the popularity of the ined loins at home, I purchased three
hottivs, which had the desired effect of removing lay difficulty
entirely. With high regards, yours, dee .
J. H. MILLfcK, U.S.A.
Here is another, nearer home i
Nsw Vork, January 8, 1850.
Messrs. Sasds:
Gbntlimin: I have great pitasnre in acknowledging to
you the great benefit I have received from the use of vuur
Sartiaparilla. A iiibjeet of pulmonary dl*ea*e, I made a tujto
Europe, but while there continued to be afflicted. A
fow week* aftar my re'urn. I wan *elied with a violent ham
orrhage of tha lunga, and from tba debility and groat proatratton
af Mreugth that followed, with tha protracted difficulty
of reeplretieq. I am antiraly rellaead by tha nee of
your Samparllla, which I couaider a moot Important and
truly raluabla dlacorrry in tha haaiinc art I feel that I
hare not for fourteen year* enjoyed *o good health aa at
prraeut. Vary gratefully, youra,
8. K. SAYMURK.
Read the following, from
Naw Obi.bam*, Novawnaa I'd,1819.
Mr t hi. Sam 11:
Ubntlbmbn: I take the liberty af eeadlag you a latter
which may be of importance to thoae who nan Buffering aa I
ha*? dona. I received great benefit from your Saraapartlla.
haeing lieeo cured of a malady after entering all year*. (
hereby cheerfully certify to tha goad effort of your medicine,
and I bopa (iod will reward you fur all the good you hare
dona. A chronic cough had tormented ma day and night,
ami repeated altaek* of fever induced ma to believe that I
hould die with conaumptb>n. Oneday , while iffrring a
violent attack of burning fryer, n friend naranaded me to
try your incomparable moJteine, bat, to tall tha truth, I hail
no confidence in It. I finally purchased a bottle and by lu
nee and tha heip of (iod I we* rvatored to batter health than
i bail enjoyed for alt yetre. I oaaaot bat blina tha author
of thl* ailmlrahia medicine.
With gteat re.peel, I am, gentlemen, your obedient ?ar
vant, FRRMIN (1KOUPAZ.
Prepared and aold, wholiaala ?ad retail, by A. h. f D
SA.VDl9, Druggtata and Cham late, KB Palton atraat.aomar
of William, New York. Sold alao by Dvuggteta generally
throughout tha Uaited Statea and Canada*. Price $1 per
bottle , all bottlM hr|fi Anf ??dffia
41 Sf PI BLIfiHrU,
U KPLY to Kamarka af Rev. Moaea Stuart on Hon. John
IV Jay, and aa Kaaaalnhtteo af hi* Sentptural Kivreiee*,
aontalaed la hi* raoatil pamphlet aailUad " Caamolano* and
the ConaUtutten " By WlUtani Jny. An oatevo pamphlet
in a neat cover. Price Mala For aela by
Aug I. Wdfi. HARNRH, 61 John etrrnt, N 1 ork
ifiAMMa.
MRS KMILY H STOCKTON, No. hi (he.tnut atraat
between Fourth and Fifth *troau, Philadelphia
Oct.M?tf
0.
BUCHANAUr* JOURNAL OF MAN,
ami pubinhat ky Or. J. U. Buchanan, Proft nor of
PhytoUgyand Institute* of Medicine in tk* Krtoctk Modical
Inilitute* of Cincinnati.
THIS Journal i* deroted to the mitre lann of man, no a
eepocially to recent end wooilertnl dteeererlM in Phr*
nology, Pbraiolugy, Peychnlogy, and other anthropological
leieuoee. Vol. 1, terminating in June, I860, eouprieee 630
page*, and right engrering*?priiw $2. Vol. II, enaeeeneiag
in July, will be publtahed in monthly number* of 32 page*
at$l per annum, in adrance ^Th* editor of thl* Journal l?
the original diaoorerer of the' impreeelbiltty of the brain,
and of many of it* function* undtacorered by Call or Spun
helm Hi* lecture* in the lnatitute elicited from bteelae*
the f dlowing expression:
" While therefore we gratefully accord distinguished
honor to the labor* of Gall and hie coadjutor*, we do at the
eanie time regard the contribution* which hare been mad*
to Anthropology by Dr. Buchanan a* far exceeding thoee of
hie predeeeaeora.''
Manr similar statement*, from claa?ea and committee* of
inreatigation, might be adduced The reader* of the Journal
apeak of it* content* in enthuaiaatic language, and the
W a( Law,Uolnmbus, Ohio. ORoe in Piatt's now buildin*,
Stale street, opposite tooth door of Stat* House.
Business eouneeted with the profession,olallkindR,pane
toally attended to Jen. 31.
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LARL WANTED.?Cash paid for eorn, matt^ndslep-fed
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THE FRIEND OF YOUTH.
THIS new and attracMre journal for Yonth, edited by
Mrs. Btiley,and published at Washington, can be had
at the Boston Agency for the National Era, 3 Corn hi II
Price, by mall,50 cents a year; delivered in Boston, free of
postage, 75 cents. GEORGE W. LIGHT,
Nov. 25. 3 Cornhlll. Boston.
G. W. BEATON,
ATTORNEY ami Counsellor at Lav, and Solicitor in
Chancery, will give prompt attention to all business
Intrusted to his care in this and the adjoining counties.
Youngstoum, Mahoning Co., O. May 9?ly
WI1EELAN At WOOD,
WHOLESALE ami Retail Boot ami Shoe Manufacturers,
sign of the Bill NED HOOT, No. 39 Lower
Market, south side, two doors went of Sycamore street,Cincinnati?Dealers
in Boots, Shoes, Palm Leaf Hats, Ac.
J. P. WHELAN.
May 23? ly A. WOOD.
THE ASSAM TEA COMPANY,
No. 1,16 Greenwich Street. New York
THK proprietor g beg to call the attention of connoisseurs
iu Tea. and the heads of families, to the choice and rare
selection of Teas imported by them, and hitherto unknown
in this country, which by their tragrence and delicacy, combined
with virgin purity and strength,produce an incision
of surpassing richness and flavor.
The, Teas offered are (he, following :
The Jeddo Bloom, a Black Tea, at - - ftlTlperlb.
TheNiphon, do. do. 75 do.
The lliari, do. do. 50 do.
The Osacca, a (ireen Tea, at UK) do.
The Too tsiaa, do. do. .... 75 do.
The Ticki-t-iaa, do. do. 50 do.
The Ud ti Mixture, a compound of the most
rare and choice Teas grown on the fertile
and genial soil of Assam * - 1 .(Hi do.
With a view to encourage the introduction of thes? matchless
Teas, it is the intention of the proprietors to dlstribu e
by lo' among the purchasers, a quantity of Teas equal to
the FIRST YEAR'S PROFITS on the sales effected
Kaeh purchaser will receive, enclosed in the package, a numbered
certificate, eutltiing him to one chance In the Distribution
!
F t every fifty cents laid out, and on the receipts amount
ins to $2(1,(100, the undermentioned parcels of Tea, to the
value of ten per cent, or $2 (K 0, will be given away as bonuses,
according to the followiug scale:
Lb?.
5 Prises of 5(1 lbs. of Tea each, at 11 per lb. 260 $350
2(1 do. 25 do. do. do. WXI 50(1
5(1 do in do. do. do. 800 Wdl
100 do. 5 do. do. ?o. 6**1 50f>
45(1 do. 1 do. do. do. 250 25c
425 Prises in all. 2,?*'
Those persons who prefer lower-priced Teas can receive
their prises in proportion, or they will be re purchased for
cash, at a reduction of 10 per cent.
03T"Country Agents required. Applications to be addressed.
post paid, to the Company's Depot, as above,
inns 8?3m
N EW SPA P ICR AO EM IKS.
VR. PAl'M FK, the American Newspaper Agent is agent
for the National Era, and authorised to lake Adver
tisements and subscriptions at the sane retes as required by
ue. Hisofllceeareat Hoe ton, 5 1 ongrrss street; New York.
Tribune Rnildiug; Philadelphia, northwest eoruer of Third
end Chestnut streets; Bel timore, south west corner of North
and Payette streets.
oar- (* M. PKTTKfMlll.LjNewspeper Advertising,Subscription,
and Collecting Agent, No. 10 State street, Boston
(Journal Building,) is also agent for tht Sat*mail Era.
WATSON K RENWIfK, WASHINGTON, IJ. I,\,
AOKNTS/or procuring Patent t in the United Staler
and foreign count rut
Tbsy prepare Specifications and Drawings of new inventions.
and transact all business connected with their profession
Tbsy will revise and at'end tothe reconsideration of those
applications which have been rejects I by the Commissioner 1
of Patents, either cu account of a defective specification aud
drawing, or the presentation of an improper claim
Persons residing at a distance may procure all necessary
information respecting the pa'eutability of their inventions
inky bate their applirati >na f-r pa'enta matein rroper form.
' ami inky obtain patenta. without Incurring thr expenae of a
poraonal attendance kt Washington, by writ inn to theaubaeHbers.
Motlelaoan he kkfkly tent to at by the Kxpreaaea
Hough ehetflhaeaii.l Jerrriptlona can be icut by mkil.
/> tm mult be )xi>l Jma/.
oar eon K etreel.oppoeite the Patent Office
P. H. WATSON
Jnly 18. _ _ K. S KKNWIf'K
(DMVIIMION STORK.
WM. Ol'N N ISON . timer al ( Vmniiii.m MrrrAanf ,10)
/Uwiv'i Wharf. R.ill,mar,. Md. Her 13 ?It
CINCINNATI NATIONAL Kit A A ASM V,
No. 239 Main street, a ft ir doors htlow firh, rreit title
THK Nktionkl Era la dalitere.l by a carrier In any part of
therity it $'11*1 k year, /re, of potfoge Thoet who J
prefer It ran be aupplied by the month, kt J"> rente per
month. Single ooptra ran klao lie hml Price by mail, ? ! 1
per tear
Knbaeriptiona klen recti ted f r the Prleml of Youth, edited
be Mra M. I. Halley,/fer of y>o<f(i#r, ilelleere.l In any part
or the oily, at 76 a-nte a year or 50 cekU by mail.
Subeeriptiona ami kilter laementa recaired, and any hual
naaa aoanarted with Iheae |*pera at'ended to, by
JOHN KIKMAN,
S. N. PKIKlE,
Aug. 1. A/tuti for Sat,anal Bra.
RONTON "NATIONAL ERA " AOK.NCY,
No 3 Cornkdl.
THE National Bra romra from Waaklngton to thla oAae 1
by bxpreaa, and la dalitared by camera la aay part ol
tba elty proper, at |'17o a tear,/??? e/peilaga; alwgle ,
ooplea, all aad a quarter oenta
Now la tba time to aeoure ibia national adraaaUoftbelJberOy
Motaaeent. during the Bret aaaeloa of Ceeigteaw
tba new Admiaiatratloa, when quaetkona of Abo matthrill
Ina Importance muat he decided.
Ru heart ptlooa ami reuawal. meperlfully eolWO* *7
I Nor M. UKO. W UAMT.aCwmbW.
America, u well a* it* most distinguished end learned
champion, says of the Journal:
' The knowledge your Journal contain* ia of an elevated,
rare, and rettoed order, and a valuable character. At prea
ant, however, you are in advance of the age."
Specimen numbers of the Journal will be sent gratuitously,
by addressing the editor, poet paid.
The Eclectic Medical Institute Is the principal Medical
College of Cincinnati, and Is one of the seven leading rneoical
schools of America. Its instruction is remarkable for
ite liberal and comprehensive scope July 18? 1m
DR. CHARLES MUNDE1 WATER CURE ESTABLISHMENT,
At Northampton^ Massachusetts.
THIS Estatftiehmriit is situated at Kensoovllle, on the
west bank of Mid river, two and a half mile* from the
Northampton Kallroad Depot, ?e?#n hours'ride from New
? ?V-*J?. f/e,e .Itev - O ~ 73V I
of the pleasantest vslleye of New England, sui-rom jed with
wood grown hills, with shady waits, and abundantly, supThe
air is pure and healthy, and ihecllmatemildaudagreeable.
The new and a- actons building* v>&ec wi tfceemuveo
lances for water-core purpoees, such a* large plunge baths,
douches, aud airy lodging rooms fur about fifty patients, sep
a^ite lor either sex, a gymnasium, piano, Ac. The Doctor
being the earliest disciple of Priessuitz now living,and having
an experience of more than fifteen years of his own, (bis
writings on Water Cure being in tb* hands of every Euro
pean bydropath.) hopes to respond to any reasouable expect
ations from the Water Care syrtein, made on the pert of
those sufferer* who may confide themselves to him Hs.ss
well as his wife end family, will exeit tbrinselvve to insure
to their patients every comfort cuiupatib.e with the chiet
purpose of their residence In the establishment
Terms?Kor board and treatment, fltl per week, l.adles
and tenMemen accompanying patients, $i> per week.
July 25?lui CHARLES JMCNDE, M. 1>,
LI CUT'S LITERARY AGENCY,
No. 3 Cor/thill, Boston.
ESTABLISHED toaid the circulation of all USEFUL
PITRLICA Tin\'S issued in the Units.I State* Or
Urs for Books or Periodic*!* executed promptly, *nd *t the
most reasonable rate*
THE NATIONAL ERA tomtit from Washington to
thi* Agency by Express, *nd i* delivered by earner* in
any part of the citv proper, at $2.70 a year, free of pottage;
single eopie* fi 1-4 cent* Price, by mail,
THE FRIEND OF YOUTH, a new and attractive
monthly journal for Youth, edited by Mr* Bailby, ami
publiahed at Washington, alao couee by fcxprtes to thi*
Ageucy. Priee, delivered in Boston, /r? of pottagt, 76
cent* a year; by mail, SO oenta.
June6. O. W. L1BHT A CO
*
BENNim OAOtERKKA* UALLERY,
Pennsylvtma Avemie, WinArngfon My, one door
rrtst of UutumCs Drug Store.
THE cltlaeni of Washington and strauger* visiting the
flity are respectfully informed that the subscriber ha*
Jn*r opened a gallery as above, whleh he ha* fitted up in elegant
style, with ail the latest improvements, including
AN EXTENSIVE 8KYL4CHT,
and is now prepared to take pictures of all dam, single or It
groups, whieb his long exp rience and great Success enibol
den him to say will be prouounced by competent judges full)
equal to auv specimen* of the phonographic art ever produ
ceil In the United States.
Cabinet piotures, measuring eleven by fourteen inches
taken at short notice; also, crayon and enamelled Oaguerreo
{'iotures taken equally well In cloudy as in fair weatbsr.
Perfect satisfaction warranted in a 1 canes.
The public are respectfully invited to otdl and examine
' specimens. N. S. BENNETT.
Jan. 31?ly
LAW urriCE, COLUMBUS, o.
TTTiiuiM u 11 wwin u. S" *
VOL. IV.
PiaKCVILLI HYDROPATHIC IKBTITVTK.
AT a mooting of ?bt !luard of Mui|trt of ih? PaotorilU
Hjdrooatbw luotltuto, bold Fifth moath i.sth, l?,o
JoMph A Wodor, M. 0.,?w unanlmoualjr tlceuu Rt,ul,nl
Phftirian la the plaoo of I>r Doxtor, rwtlguod
Ho Tiny nifit rarlo'u lmpr?T?mon??, thin icmitutc U i>.,?
pr, parol toroooWoan additional imabtr of pattcnu,
from Dr Woder'P wall knnmn okill and yractinU *xjht\.*, .
i? r.urope, (required uudrr vtncens rrvieenlte, the'founder
of (th Hydropathic eyetem,) and for several ytare ,*,t
f*?i country. Bud partlealarly in the eity of Philadelphia
(where ha ha* had many pallent*,) Ui Managers halite,'
tha afflicted will And bin an abla and an attentivs physielan.
Tha do was lie depart ment being under the charge of a
Steward and Matron, will enable tha Doctor to devote to
tha patianta whatever time nay be necessary
Application for ad mi scion to be made to
SAMUKL WKUH,
Oflloa No. 68 South fourth (tract, reaidenca No. 16 L<^an
equate, Philadelphia.
General D*.*crip(ion of the Parkevtflc Hydropathy
Insti/nte.
The main building la tbraa atoriee high, (tending back
from tha etreet about one hundred (oat, with a semicircular
gra-e plot in front, and ooutaina thirty to forty rooma. The
grounda around tna hooaa are taatafully laid out with walka
and planted with treea, abrube, dtp On the left of the en
trance to theee grounda la a cottage containing four rot n,a
used by male patients aa a bathing house, with every oonvenieuce
for " pecking,'1 bathing, Jui.; on tha right of the
entrance, about two hundred feet distant, stand* a similar
cottage, used by the ladiea for aimiler purpose#.
in tbe rear of the Institute, at the distance of one hundred
feet, are three other Pottages, some eighty feet epsrt
One of these is the laundry, with a hydrant at the door: the
other two are occupied by the servants.
Tbe hydrant water is introduced into three eottagee u
well aa into the main building, and all the waste water serried
off by drains under grout d.
tht watei works
Consist of aeiraularstone building, standing on tha brow
of a hill, surmounted by a large cedar reservoir sustaining
Ave honored barrels broavejit tr..m a u?var-tnt^in* ,? .
pure cold water in the side of the bill, by "a'bydreuiie
ram," a self-acting machine of east iron, that la kept e?aatentlv
ntinm. niwht and * ^
fiom tbe spring. Tha surplus water is carried from the
reservoir to a fountain in the water wuti e yard awrroundel
by weeping wtiiuws In the flrat e*ory of the water works
is a circular room, containing the douche bath, which Is a
stream fallitfl} from a height of shout thirty feet, and ceu
be varied In sisa from half an Inch to an inch and a halt in
diameter Adi >ininr the douche mom < - <<? ? ?t?
with warble tabic*. 4c.; the riling dourht (for the eure of
pile*, 4c ) i* one of the bm! complete contrivance* 01 the
kind, being eutlrely under the control of the patient ueiug
the *ame.
There are many other appliance*, whieheati he better underetoood
by a personal examination. May 30.
NEW ENOUKO TROW MANUFACTORV,
BOSTON.
JAMES F FOSTER continue* to manufacture all the
variou* approved TRUSSES at hi* uew ttand. No. 4*7
Washington utreet, oppoiite No. 416 Washington itreet,
and hi* raeidence and bueinei* being both In tb* same
building, can be seen at home moat of the whole ol the time,
day or evening. He has more room and better oouvenlenee*
for the Trua* Buitnea* than any other person engaged m
it In tbia city or any other.
Ai*o, ABDOMINAL SUPPORTERS for prolap?u*
uteri, truma* for prolapsus ani *u*pen*ory bag*, knee cap*,
back board*, steeled *hoe? for deformed leet. True*** repaired
at one hour'* notice, and made to answer oftentimes
a? well a* new. The subscriber having worn a trua* hiro
eelf for the laat twenty five year*, and fitted *o many for
th* laat twelve year*, 'eel* confident in being abl* to tail
all ea*e? that may come to him.
COyVEX SPIRAL TRUSSES; Dr. Chase's true**.,
former!v aold by Dr. Leach; triisse* of galvaniaed metal,
that will not ruat, havlr.g wooden and copper pad. , Kaad'a
spiral tru?s; Kandell'* do.; Salmon's ball and socket,
Sherman'* patent Trench'do.; Hateman'e do , double and
single; Stoue'e true***- Also, TRUSSES FOR CBlL
ORES uT all eiaea. Dr. Fletcher'* trass, Marsh*'* trues,
J?r. Null'* trass, Thompson'* crotchet trua*, and th* Shv
her** rocking tmaaaa, may be had at tkla establishment
Alan, Whinmimf Tubes and Ear Trumpets, that wiil
Mb p parson to oouvarse low with on* that Is hard A
htirtBf.
All ladies In want of abdominal supporters or trasses will
be waited upon by hie wife, Mrs Caroline D. Foster, who
ha* bad twenty yean' experience in the business
JAMES F. FOSTER.
Boston, I860. Jone 6?3?
JAMES BIRNKY AND CHARLES C. PEIRCE,
Cxncumati.
BIRNKY A PKIRCK, Attorneys at Law and Soturirs
Pstbkc
JAMES BIKNEY, commissioned to take deposition*, acknowledgment
of deeds, in I to administer oaths and affirm.
at ion*, by appointment of the Oovtraors of
Alabama Connecticut Delaware
Illinois Indiana Iowa
Kentucky Louls;ana Michigan
Missouri Mississippi Maine
New York New Hampshire North Carolina
Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina
Tennessee Vermout Wisconsin
Texas Maryland
Special attention given to collections ami to the taking of
depoeitiou*.
Office, No. 114 Main atreet. July 25.
WORTH1NBTON O. SNETHEN.
Formerly Solicitor of the General Land Office,
ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW,
CONTINUES to practice in the Supreme Conrt of the
United States, in th* Courts of th* District of Columbia,
Maryland, and Virginia, to prooecuteolaiin* of all kind*
against the United States, either before Con* reus or any of
the Kxeoutive Departments, end he procure letter* patent
for inventions. Business confided to Ma care will be promptly
attended to.
N. B. Particular attention paid (o the prosecution of
ciaiwn, wiore ms nrasuian tommisetoti now elding In
Wubiigton.
Washtrtflon City, D. C. July 2f>?Ira
OLD DOCTOR JACOB TOWN*END,
THR URIU1MAI. DISCOVERER OF
TUE UESVLSE TOWKMEXD HA HS A PA RII.l.A
OLD Dr. Townaead la now about menty roar*ofa*e, a?d
baa long boon known,** the Aotbor and Dtaaoveeet of
the genuine original " Totmiend t/err i?wn/l>i " Being
poor, he waa aoaipeilad to limit lta uianutacture, by which
neaua it hea been kept oot of market, and the aal a circumscribed
to tboee only who bad proved lta worth and kaowa
lta value. It had reaebed the tare of many, nevertheless, *a
thoee peraona who had been healed of aore disease, and
saved from death, proclaimed lta excellence and wonderful
healing power. Tbia
Grand and Unequalled Preparation
ia manufaotared oa the largaat aeale, and ia called for
throughout the length and bread h of the land.
Unlike young S. P. Towneend'a, it improve* with ape, and
never change*, but for the better ; beoauac It la prepared oa
scientific principle*, by a scientific man. The higheat knowledge
of Chamiatry, and the lateat diaooverie* of tbe Art.
have all beau brought into requisition in the manufacture of
the Old Doctor's Sarsopariua The Saraaparilla root, it ie
well knewn to medloal men, contain* many medicinal properties,
and aoroe propertle* which are inert or useless; and
othera, which, if retained in preparing it for oaa, prod nee fcrm-ntatiun
and acid, which I* injurioua to the ayatem. Some
of the propertiee of Saraaparilla are ao volatile, that they entirely
evaporate and are loaf in tbe preparation, ir the* are
not prtaerved by a scientific proce-a, known only to tier*
expeiiencad in it* mannfacture. Moreover, three volatile
priuolplfa, which fly off in vapor, or aa an exhalation uuetr
heat, are tbe very eeaeatial medical propertiee of the rvot,
which give to it all lta vain*. The
Genuine Old Dr. Jacob Towntend'a Saraaparilla
U ao prepared, that all the inert propertiee of tbe Saraaparilla
root are flrat removed, everything capable of becoming
acid or of fermentation ie extracted and rejected ( tbeo every
partio'e of medical virtue !? aecured in a pure and concen
trated form, and tbua It la rendered inc*|>able of luring aay
of it* valuable and healing propertiee. Prepared in this
way, it ia mad* the moat powerful agent in lb*
Cure of Innumerable Diarnae*.
Hence the reaaon why we bar eommendatiou* on every
aide, in lta favor, by men, women, and children We And it
doing wonder* in the cure of Con sum fitwn, Dysyttpnu. tod
/.tree Complaint, and in Khevmatism, .S'crutula, and Pile I,
C*<frrew*j?,all f'utanoous Eruptions, Pimples, Blotchei,
and all affections ariaing front
Impurity of the Blood.
It poaaeoaei a marvellona efllcacy in all complaiula ariaing
from indigeation, from acidity of tbe atomacb, fruia unequal
circulation, detenainatloo of blood to tbe head, palpitatlen of
the beart, cold fret and cold hand*, cold ebilla and not flashes
over tbe body. It feaa not had lta equal In cough* and eolda,
and promote* eaay expectoration and gentle perspiration, relaxing
Mrieture of the lunge, throat, and everv other part
But in nothing 1* lie excellence more manifestly aern and
acknowledged than In all kind* and atagra 01
Female Complaints.
It work* wonder* In caaea of flam alimi or ? bites, falling
of th* womb, obatructed, auppreaaod, or painful luenaea, IrXilarlty
of the uieratrual periods, and tbe like , and ia
tual ia curing all fhrtna of tbe kidney diaeaae.
By removing ohatructlona, and regulating the general ayatem,
it give* tone and strength to tbe whole body, and rur?*
all forma of
Nervnaa Dieeaee* and Debility,
and thus prevent* or reliavea a great variety ol other dissaaea,
aa spinal irritation, neuralgia, St. Vitus daare, swocr."
log, epileptic lit*, oouvuiaiooa, Ac.
Is not tkia, then,
The Medicine ynn Preeminently Need?
But can any of theae thing* be aaid ef S P. Townsead'g
inferior article! 1 hie young man's liquid is not to be
Compared with the Old Dr.V
?" v"'imi run, iiiri iuc una ia imujamv jrr
Itrioi uturn and
Nmr Spoil*,
while the other doe* ; it *our?, faiinenta, and blow* lt< hottie*
coitiainiug it Into fragment* j thr aour, acid liquid "
plotting a uil da niacin* other gooda' Muti not tble borrltie
compound be poieonou* to the *>it?m I What! |?*
into a ?y*tca already dlaeactd with acid! Wbat cau?e?dy?pepaia
bat no Id 1 It* we not ail know, that when find eour*
In our atomacha, wbat miacblaf it produce*datalei re,
heartburn, palpi tattoo of the heart, lirer complaint dinirbm*,
dyaen,ery, eolic, and corruption of the bloed I Wbat I* aemfnla
but an acid bamor la the tardy I Wbat produce* all the
bnmnr* which brine on eruptlininf ttaa *k!ft, *c*1db**d. ?tt
rheum, eryntpelaa, white * well inc. ferer-eot e?, and all alrer
atioon, internal and external T It I* nothing under heart*
but an acid euhatanoa, which aoure and thn* epnila ail tb*
Haida of the body, mare or leea. What ceww# rheum*ti??i
but a aoor, acid fluid, which lr?1nuatea itaelf between lb*
Joint? and elaewhere, irritating end inflaming the tender and
delicate tieeuea upon which It note I Se of aerroue dlaeae",
of impurity of the blood, of deranged circulation* and nearly
all the ailment* which afflict human nature.
Now, It it not horrible to make and Mil, and inflaitalf
worn* to oae, thi*
Kcarlug, fermenting. Arid "tampauwd* *f F
end yet he would fain hive It anderetood that OM Dr Jecob
r..wri??F).|'? lienuine Or if m ul SmiftvuriUa l? an hmiaticn
at bla Inferior preparation!!
Heaeea forbid that we tbnald deal la aa artlele dhlcb
would bear the a>o*t dlitaat reaauiblaaaeto N. f TownorDd'e
article1 and which ehoiiM I-riot down upon the Old Dr. euch
a mountain load of complalute and erhatoettor e from Agri.te
wnu tare aold, and parahaaeia who hare ueod 8. P. Tenaend'e
A Vr mending Comaownd
We wiah It uaderetoed, hanaaee It la the obio'a/e truth,
lhat 8. P. Tuwneend a artlele and Old Dr. Jacob Towna.ad'1
SareaparilU are heaeea wide apart, ami Infinitely dlt, Imil.r ;
that the; era aallke la erery pantonine, hnetng ? ? eaia .Ingle
tblag la eommoeAa
8 P Towaaead ie aa doctor, and nerer wae. la an
r hem let, ae pharmnoealtot?haowe ao more of medtelar or
"?ieir thaa nay ether eetaatoa, aaeetontlflr. iiaprofeeeiorel
ma a?what laeaeatat caa the public here that they are re
aelrlof a reaalae aeleatlfte medicine, containing all the rir
taaa of the artialaaaaad la prepariig it, and which are h.ea
aabda at ahaetet which might render them the ogeulJ at
dueare, lea teed of health I
It ie to arraot haadi apoa tht onf .rtuaete, to poor balm
Into wneeded hnmanlty, to kindle hope la the deepeirtif
heaoat. te teetiri health aad bloom end rigor Into the emth
ed and broken, aad to haalab Infirmity-that OLD DK
JACOB TOWII8KHD haa ingki aud /band the eppertuairy
aad meaaa to bring hie
flttoi OalrtHal, (wmrra traded Rraaedy,
with I a the reaah, aad to tha knowledge, ef all who nerd It,
lhat they may leara aad know, by jey ful ei porlence lu
Traaeceadeat Power te Heal!
tor For eeiete Waaktngtoa City by?
J. P. ( elUa Z. D. A W. H Bllttaa
8 Butt M Delaay
M*y*. Kldgely ft Co.

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