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The national era. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1847-1860, October 24, 1850, Image 4

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Every day's mail from the North brings startling
accounts of (he deep rxcitrment produced by
the Fugitive Slave bill The religious feeling of
the community is aroused, and things are rapidly
assuming a threatening aspect.
The following report, furnished us by a careful
reporter, of the action of the General Conference
of the Free Will Baptists, will be read with profound
interest. For the first time, we confess to
some apprehension for the Federal Union. How
can it be maintained atnid such a conflict of feel- i
i ntru nriil rmrnotteB Art imttnii.-tna rtf vital intere st
V. W.v^,
unless the slaveholders can be induced to relax
something iu their demands, is not exactly clear
to us.
It is bat fair that our Southern fellow-citizens
should know on what grounds the bill, which they
seem to think of so much importance, is opposed |
in the North. The action of the Conference referred
to is a fair indication, we presume, of the
views of the religious community generally in
the free States.
Had not the bill utterly disregarded every
safeguard of personal rights, every attribute of
State Sovereignty the non-higf which j^ow threatens
tne peace ot tne country vtoum
? s
At the late session of the General Conference
of the Free Will Baptist denomination, held at
Providence. R. i, the colored citizens of that city
requested tho action of the Conference in relation
to the lately enacted Fugitive Slave bill. The
subject was referred to the Committee on Slavery,
which subsequently (October 7, 1850) reported
the following preamble uud resolutions
Whereas the Congress of the United States
has lately passed a bill which subjects ?ny person
who shall knowingly and willingly prevent an
alleged fugitive slave from being arrested by the
person or his agent, who may cliim such fugitive
as his or her property , or who shall attempt to
rescue a fugitive from the custody of his claimant
or the agent of such claimant; or who shall
directly or indirectly assist such fugitive to esCHDe
from his alleged owner; or shall prevent the
discovery or arrest ofu person after knowing him
or her to be claimed as a fugitive slave, shall for j
any one of these acts be liable to a tine of not
more than $1,000, and to imprisonment for a term
not exceeding six months:
And whereas the said bill allows each claimant
of fTves the sum of * 1,000 for every person |
so claimed that shall be lost to the claimant:
And whereas the said bill authorizes certain
r.: if .1' ** - it r.*ar-:.;ry,
any freeman they please, to aid them iu the"forcible
return of the fugitive to his claimnnt:
And whereas no compact for the return of fugitive
slaves is known to exist or ev?r to have existed
between any States or nations, except that
between the Autocracy of Russia and the Despotism
of Turkey, and also that existing between
these United States:
And whereas the enactments of the aforesaid
fugitive Slave bill are directly, explicitly, and
positively opposed to the following euac'ment of
Jehovah, "Th?u shalt not deliver unto his master
the servant which is escaped from his master (
un'o thee"?Dtut. xxiii, 16 j
And whereas said bill is oppressive, tyrannical, ,
and odious in its nature, barbarous and incendi- 1
ury iu its inception and tendencies, dishonorable ,
to its authors aud abettors, a stain upon the stut- (
ute book of the nation, a reproach to humanity,
and insulting to the religion, conscience, and iu- )
telligence of the Christian and freemen of the j
free States. Therefore, ,
R-xolvnl, That we do deliberately and calmly,
yet eirnestly and decidedly, deny any and all ob- ,
ligation on our part to submit to the unrighteous ,
enactments of the aforesaid Fugitive Slave bill.
Also, that regardless of unjust humau enactments, ,
tines, and imprisonment, we will do all we can
consistently with the claims of the Bible, to prevent
the recapture of the fugitive, and to aid hitn
in bis efforts to escape from bis rupacious claimants.
R'.iolveif, That as ' we ought to obey Cod rather
than meu, (Actv v, Q'J ) in disobeying a cruel and
wicked human law, and patiently submitting to
its unrighteous penalties for such disobedience,
we are "subject unto the higher powers, the powers
that be," (Rom xiii, 1,) in the highest and holiest
sense of that Divine command; that is in
the same sense in which the Apostles, primitive
Christians, aud the subsequent Christian martyrs,
obeyed it when they disobeyed the Jewish,
heathen, and Popish laws.
Rnolwtl, That we do most deeply sympathize
with those who, after having escaped from human
bondage, are now in great fear, anxiety, and distress,
on account of the passage of the Fugitive
Slave bill We also recommend them to use all
the means to preserve their liberty that religion,
conscience, aud reason will justify under their
harassing and distressing oiroiimstnnres
Resolved, That the conduct of slaveholders and
their abettors in procuring the annexation of
Texas in order to afford security to slavery, their
efforts to establish the unmerciful institution in
the free Territory acquired by the war caused by
that annexation; also, their violent opposition to
the admission of California into the Union as a
free State, and their threats to dissolve the Union
if they caunot be permitted to carry slavery
where they please, are developments that afford
increasing proof of the deep inherent depravity
of American Slavery, and likewise call loudly for
continued nnd increasing Christian and constitutional
efforts for its abolition.
Pending the question for their adoption, several
addresses were made, of which the following
is an imperfect, und, in some respects, an inadequate
E. Scott, a fugitive slave ami a Free Will Biptist
minister, said that in behalf of three millions
of men in bondage, he thanked the Conference
that its members had Christian principle enough
to dare to present such resolution* as those. As
for himself, he thought th it he would be justified
in resisting any man, even the Chief Magistrate
of the Nation, who should attempt to take him
back into slavery
E. II Fairfield made some pointed remarks in
relation to that clause of the Fugitive Slave bill
which deducts half of the fees of the commissioners
in case of non-conviction, which he denounced
as bribery.
II Whilcher wished that the consequences of
taking such a position should be fully and distinctly
understood. To adopt it is to excite a
vpry great amount of unpopularity aud odium.
The political nnd even the religious press, will
send this odium to all parts of the laud. And,
said he, are we prepared to assume the responsibility
? (Several voices, Yes ! yes!) It is taking
high grouud, and we ought to consider well what
may be demanded of us if we take it, For himself,
he said, he was prepared to take it, whatever
it might cost, even if it were liberty or life.
The Rev. I>r Sutton said that, as an Englishman,
he was not entitled to speak on this subject;
but when he was in America before, ho was pretty
well black-balled by the Southern people for his
.._?j -pi? ?- .
IIUII-BIHTCI J'. i iirv IIHU salt! I mil lie oogtit to no
tarred and feathered, and carried buck to India.
| Or H. ia a returned missionary | But he would
wear it ns nn honor When he hud said anything
about slavery heretofore, he hud been met by the
objection that it was a matter confined entirely
to the slave States; and that each State hid a
right to legislate for itself in this matter, ilut if
this were true, the present law must certainly be
unconstitutional, lie concluded by saying that
he had heard nothing that pleased him so much
as the noble stand taken by this Conference; and
that, however it may be regarded this week, or
this year, the stand taken by the Free Will
llaptiat denomination will be honored by all future
successive generations of Americun citizens
till the end of time.
V.J Stcere said he thought it was fortunate
that An lover Seiniuury bad not been open to the
reception of colored students, or else u he of Andover
might perhaps be compelled to put the
irons on some of his own students, and compel
some to be slaves whom he had instructed to he
ministers of Christ As it is, he must go down
to the grave, not hoary with age, but gory with
the blood of enslaved humanity. And wh it a stain
is this! The Russian Autocrat and the I ley of Algiers
stand second in tyranny beside these United
States ! Before, he had seen nothing like disunion.
But this really looked like it And this
law must be repealed, or stand a dead letter upon
the statute-book, or this Union wtU l?
lie himself would not fight, but if this law is enforced,
iu spite of all our efforts, jighumil
E. B. Fairfield was called for, and said that this
was not the time for speaking, but for acting
The question was simply whether we should obey
man's law or God's law. When human legislators
presumed to trespass upon God s law, it was
time for Christians to speak out When they
trample also upon the first and fundamental principles
of republicanism, it was time for us to
speak out as citizens. And as for himself, if the
case of the recaptured slave were his, he would
fight! If his wife were demanded as a slave,
he oould not stand by inactive, and smother the
demands of humanity ilis father, mother, and
sisters, were not in slavery, but the fathers,
wires and sisters of others, who were in the I
house, were in l*>nl*g?, and religion and hu- 1
inanity demand ue not to stand and look on un- (
mured, when they are demanded as a sacritioe to t
slavery. t
E. Knowlton said, we are here for grave and i
delihera e consideration. And in the course of I
our deliberation* we are called upon to act in re- I
lation to this subject. But he hardly knew how <
to act in relation to a subject calling for so much I
of indignant feeling It had been said that if <
this law were carried out. it would cause a dissolution
of the Union?and he believed it. But he 1
also believed that there was yet a God who rules j
the destinies of this nation The Slave Power
has overstepped itself It would defeat its own !
object, lie was aware that our action would ex- |
cite scorn and contempt; but he was aware also
that truth was not always upon the side of the
majority. Our principles are based ou right, and
hence they will eventually prevail. The South
must not presume too much upon our forbearance
We can and will bear long; but when it
asks the relinquishment of liberty, it is a demand
too much for even our forbearance. We are the
sons of those who fought for our country's liberty.
aud we cannot submit to such a claim. When
it a^ks us to give up those who are "bone of our
bone" to slavery, wc cannot do it. [Vlr K was
a member of the recent Maine Legislature ]
Mr W irren, a Congregationalist, said he was
sorry to hear it said that the Conference was
likely to exci'e odium toward itself by passing
these resolutions He did not think it would be
so. He lived in Massachusetts, and he was confident
that the great mass of Christians in that
net'"" <w^thc Conference
I laiXNX WUVlIU t> * aS ? I
iwis*' be ininnilnua Ruoitiee SI??o hill A I
person in vne cuWgiegwY\yA? weemevy To <|<e?\
this statement, when Mr. Warren reaffirmed his
statements; aud said that, so far as he knew
there was but one voice in Massachusetts, and
that was in execration of the infamous law As
for Drs Stuart aud Wood's endorsement of Web??pr
II won * ni?H?r which w? in \1 aH-Pichllselt*
j " laughed at " Wf hardly think Pr Stuart responsible
for what he says; he is in his dotage
And to some extent the same may he said of both
Neither are now profes?ors in the Seminary, and
hence it is not responsible for their ''foolish letters."
He continued still further to vindicate
! th? Congregationalists from the charge of proi
J. L Sinclair We ought to act deliberately
I and calmly. But what do we hear? It is, that
we must not feed the hungry, clothe the naked, or
extend the offices of humanity to our suffering
brother. More than this We are even called
upon to send the brother back again to slavery
and sorrow Will we do it? (Several voices?
No! no) We will not do it!) But there is a
great work to be done; yet we trust that success
will eventually be achieved.
Geo. T. Pay said that there was little danger |
but our sympathies would be enlisted sufficiently (
This ww* \^ot now the danger.. lie woul'1 uttsr
here no sentiment which he would not honor , j
everywhere by action It has been said that the ,
pulpit has infringed upon the doinaiu of politics ,
?>uv'pOlfih'Wuuw curtffmi1.! violates #..? doomiu of
the pulpit This law asks us to forswear our ,
allegiance to God in favor of human enactments
It demands us to relinquish adherence to those
principles which Revelation tells us will form the
basis of the decisions of the judgment. Nor does
it restrict itself to the African race. If b any ,
means the Commissioner c an be bribed, or otherwise
influenced to give his certificate, any win,
black or white, may be take n, and there is not
strength enough in all our l/onslnl laws ami liberty ,
to save that man from bondage. But they say the i
question is settled. Settled? As well smother ,
the fires of A)tua by overtopping a mountain in i
its crater. And yet this resistance, though it |
might delay,it would yet only make the explosion, j
when it conies, as cotne it must, but so much the i
iiore powerful. JNo! 1 he question is not setled!
C. Phinney, a very aged minister, made some
lumoroua remarks, comparing the slaveholder to
I'haroah, and the slaves to Moses aud the children
)f Israel.
lie was followed by W H. Littletield, who
nade some stirring rem irks?saying that he had
;>nce been a slave-driver in South Carolina.
The resolutions were now unanimously adopted:
and were also voted unanimously in the affirmative
by the audience
It was then voted by the Confirmee that the
officers of the Conference be instructed to petition
Congress for the repeal of the Fugitive Slave
bill. Rei'ortkr.
The late Rev. Dr. Gkkkn left an autobiography.
commenced in his 82d year, and finished in
his sith, which h is been prepared fur the press.
Dr. O. was born in New Jersey, in 1702?was a
mrmher of the first Presbyterian OenfTnl Asuem
hly?served in the militia of the Revolution in
177S-'7i??was Chaplain to Congress, from 1792 to
180(1?President of Princeton College, from IS 12
to 1S22; after which he resided in Philadelphia,
until his death in May, is is. lie was three
times married. In this work we learn, for the first
time that "General Washington's face bore marks
of the small po?," The Pennsylvania!! furnishes
us some extracts from the hook
Washington's wit.
"it was the usage, while Washington was
President of the United Stites, for the clergy of
the city to go in a body to congratulate him on his
birth-day; and on these occasions he always np
penred unuBuaity cneeriui. i ne last timewemane
such a cull, which was about ten diys before his
retirement from office, he said, with singular vivacity,
1 Gentlemen, 1 feel the weight of years;
1 take a pair of sixes on my shoulders this day.'
This great man was not in his proper element
when he attempted a pleasant conceit. I never
witnessed his making the attempt hut on this occasion
; and if his allusion, as I suppose must
have been the case, was to the fifty sixes used in 1
weighing heavy articles, it w is surely far-fetched,
and not very obvious. He entered his sixty-sixth
year nt this time" '
"At the period we contemplate, I made a part
ol a company, in which a conversation took place, ]
the report of which I think you will receive with ,
some interest. Dr. William Shippen, the first <
professor, and for a long time an eminent one, in <
the medical school of the University of Pennsyl- i
vania, had for his wife a lady of Virginia. It was, |
I suppose, in consequence of this, that when the t
Virginia delegation to the first Congress arrived i
in Philadelphia, on their way to New York, he ,
invited some of the members of that delegttion, or 1
pet haps the whole of them, to a dinner nt his own <
house. I remember the names of Madison, Page, y
and Lee; and 1 think there were one or two more, i
Chief Justice McKcan, afterwards Governor of 1
Pennsylvania, ant Mr William Itingham, subse- ]
quently a member of the United States Senate, <
were likewise invited guests; and as the doctor 1
was a member of my congregation, he also lion
ored uie with an invitation. Soon after we had |
taken our seats in the drawing-room, before dinner,
the Chief Justice said to Mr. Madison? i
'Have you thought, sir, of a title for our newPresident
? ' Madison's answer was in the negative.
aud he added,that in his judgment no title,
except that of President, would be necessary or
proper. 'Vis, sir,'repliod M-Kean, ' he must
have a title; audi have been examining the titles
of certain princes in Kurope, to discover one that
has uot been appropriated. Mas' //i.gAa.rv,
1 find is appropriated, but S>rmr Hu; hints. without
the word MOt', is not appropriated; and I think
it will ho proper that our President should be
known by the style and title of 1 His S>>mie Highifss,th>
Pr> sultut o/ the United Statu.1 This elicit
ed itn amicable controversy, which continued tor
Home time, Madison and bin colleagues opposing,
and McKean maintaining the propriety of conferring
the title he hod proposed on President
Washington "
" Moll's paper w is headed wifli the picture of
a snake, cut into thirteen distinct sections, and
each section hearing upon it the name of one of
the thirteen colonies, which then professed allegiance
to the lviug of Great Britain As soou as
our independence was declared, all the sect ions of
the snake disappeared, and his whole attitude Was
changed. I lis tail was brought round and inserted
in his mouth, or pi iced by its side, and his whole
body was formed into a regular circle, the head
and the tail being at the top of the paper This
snake-picture made so deep an impression upon
my youthful memory, that 1 retain it very distinctly
to the present hour. This paper of Holt's
had great intluenoe throughout the whole wide
regiou of its circulation, and its editor was considered
as a public benefactor. He and Hiring- j
ton, of course, pelted each other incessantly and |
severely, each endeavoring to sust ain his cause by
all the facts and arguments he could muster, and
by some falsehoods too. Itivington remained in
the city of New York after it was shan lonqd by ,
the American troops, and became Kind's printer
during the whole of the ensuing war: and nothing *
could exceed the violence of his absue of the :
"/"/>, as lie delighted to call the Americans, and j
the contempt with which he affected to treat their
army, aud M,. WashmftiM, tls Iniiler. It was, [
therefore, a matter of universal surprise, on the
return ol peace, that this most obnoxious man remained
alter the departure of the British troops, i
But the surprise soou ceased, by its becoming pub- i
licly known, that he had beeu a spy for General |
Washington, while employed in abusing him, and I
had imparted useful information which could uot I
otherwise have been obtained 1 le had, in fbre- I
sight of the evacuation of New York by the Brit- ?
ish aruty, supplied himself troiu 1-ondou with a j
urge assortment of what are called the British
lassies, and other works of" merit; ao that, for ,
tome time after the conclusion of the war he had the 1
tale of these publications almost wholly to himself
Amongst others. I dealt with him pretty largely,
tnd with nothing else to make me a favorite, the
Fulsome letters which he addressed me were a real
curiosity. lie was the greatest syoophant imtgi
oahle; very little under the influenceof any principle
but self-interest, yet most courteous to all
with whom he had intercourse. You, I believe,
have read the two pieces of satire in which Dr.
Witherspoon has gibbeted him and Benjamin
Towns, another printer, who served the British
while their army held Philadelphia,and remained
there when they left the city."
: While Dr. G. was serving as an infantry sol- j
dier, he for the first time, saw the Baron de Steuben.
the great and efficient disciplinarian of the
American army 'lie rode to our encampment,
ami requested tosee our commanding officer. And
never before or sines have 1 had such an impression
of the ancient fabled god of war. as when 1
then looked on the Baron ; he seemed to be a perfect
personification of Mars The trappings of his
Kas.o tVio onormnua Knlatowo nf Kiu ratufAliI i
large sire, and his striking martial aspect, all
seemed to favor the idea' "
The planet Herschell, was discovered by Dr.
Heifcbeli, in the time of our Revolutionary war,
when we could have no direct communication with
Great Britain The first information in detail of
tlus discovery came to the United States by way |
4 l.'-.. O? r? iOai.Viniiufl to. mp. tftnr
he had obtained the French statement, be was |
? ??<* ?V?" N
into Us field without another movement; that at l
the first look his eye was on the planet. His familiar
knowledge of the starry heavens was wonderful
Nor was this his only attainment. He
was among the first astronomers, natural philosophers,
mathematicians, and mechanicians of his
age Nothing in machanics has. I believe, exceeded
his theory. Yet he was, perhaps, the most
modest man I have ever known. He was one of
my parishioners, and a regular attendant on public
worship, as often as his feeble health would
permit. I attended his funeral, and spoke at his
grave. The remains wire deposited under the
pavement of his oltservuto y, in his garden. At
the request of his widow, I furnished her with a
oopy of my address at his interment, a part of
which I afterwards found was published in Reese's
Cyclopaedia ; but not, 1 think, exactly as 1 wrote
" Major Willys had been an officer of the regular
revolu ionary army of our country ; but had,
if I remember right, left the army at an early
part of the w.r He was remarkable for the size
of his b"dy, as well as for the peculiarities of his
mi mi. Ha Was Wvighof Hi iac'S?iV>Gj'rifig.?BBrl
I was careful to enter in my lost miscellany the
result. 1 le was certainly the largest and heaviest
man I have ever seen, tall and well proportioned,
but exceedingly fieahy Tie"ha>i acquired" h considerable
degree of liberal knowledge, and was a
wit and a mimic. He was at the head of all the
gamblers of Virginia. Whan ! heard of his coming
to the Warm Spring, where I had got the
company to treat religion respectfully, I said to a
serious man who was well acquainted with Major
Willys, that I was fearful he would give me
trouble 'That,'said the pious man,'is an unc.,.,-.
?u? Ki...uaif
uctrnottl jr ICI1I , .lie L.nju. vu ^.ug,
? friend to the clergy; and although he is dreadfully
profane, he never swears in the presence of
i minister of the gospel of whatever denomination.'
This testimony I found to he strictly true.
He not only attended public worship, but wis an
idvocatc for asking a blessing and returning
hanks at our common meals. He left the Sweet
and returned to the Wnrm Spring before I left
be former; and the report was, that at the latter
place be asked a blessing and gave th inks himself
1'hii I could easily believe, when I was credibly
informed that at the Sweet Spring he said to a
sircle of his gambling friends, 'Gentlemen, you
nay think of it as you please, and laugh at it as
know you will, and yet it is strictly true, that
never olose my eyes till 1 have committed mylelf
to the protection of my God.' lie was drend"ully
afraid of death.
' On one occasion, while at the Sweet Spring,
le was taken with a fit of fever and ague in the :
light, and was greutely alarmed lest it should
irovc mortal. Hearing of i', I visited him in his '
nit the next morning Hut I found him surround- ;
>d by his gambling friends, so that i had no good !
'pportunity to address him seriously He launch- 1
d out himself into a bitter denunciation of the I
diameter of a gambler ' Doctor,' said he. ' I have ,
wo daughters, whom 1 love dearly, and if any
nan should ask me for the hand of one of them in j
narriuge, be his character in other respects what I
it might, tr he gambled. 1 would most assuredly j
refuse him my consent.' 1 immediately said, j
' Mhjor. if such are your real sentiments, why do i
you not quit gambling yourself?' He made me !
no other reply than this 'Alas, Doctor, I have
dipped, and I must go through.' After some time
he got up, and went to the spring, ami took a turn- ;
bier of water, and then cune up and addressed :
a company that gathered aronnd htm r 'Gentle- 1
men,' said he, 'these sick turns that a man his,
do him a good deal of good. They make him a ;
sincere penitent for ail his sins.' I stepped up to
the circle that was listening to his harangue, and
said to him, 'Major. I think 1 must take an exception
to the doctrine that you are inculcating'
llow so. Doctor?' he replied, I thought you
would second me.' I answered : ' It seems to mc a
palpable absurdity for a man to say that he is a
sincere penitent for his sins, while at the very
time he says so. he determines to go on and commit
the very same sins for which he avows peni
i . v, n,.... >v...
- that r.jt the tint* beiug it makes him a penitent.' 1
4 That reminds me.' said I,' of the following anecdote
A clergyman in New Kngland had a negro
by the uame of Jack, who had a deadly quarrel
with a neighboring negro by the name of Cutty, j
Jack fell dangerously ill. and his master urged j
him to forgive Cutty. Jack said that Cutty was a j
very had inan, and he could not forgive him. 'I tell j
you Jack,' said his master,'that you must forgive
him, or (Jod will not forgive you.' ' Well, massa,'
laid Jack. 1 If I die, I forgive him, hut if I live,
I'utty take ore.' I never saw the Major so much
;onfounded as by this anecdote. lie arrived at
he Sweet Spring before our company. The number
of this Spring was much more multitudinous
han at the Warm Spring, and I was fearful thr.t
f I diil not break the ice at first, I should fail to
lo it afterwards, i got into the wake of Major
Willys, as we were struggling through the crowd,
m our call to dinner, and said to him, ' Major,
will you do me the f ivor to call this Urge comp iny
o order, that 1 may ask a blessing before we dine V
To be sure I shall,'replied Willys. Accordingly
he made Iiih w ?y to the head of the table, and
with a large carving-knife, he struck it repeatedly,
and stamping with his foot at the same time,
vociferated silence! ' which, when he had completely
obtained, lie turned to me, and said,4 Now
Doctor, you will please to ask a blessing.' This
man if a report I have heard be true, died a real
A well finished portrait is prefixed to the volume
(an unusually well printed octavo in large
type) sustaining the following
44 When in his prime, he was as conspicuous a
person as walked the streets of Philadelphia. Mis
features were strong, his nose aquiline and
prominent ; but the great feature was his eye; it
was very dark, piercing, ami imperative. iu my
youth. 1 thought it the most formidable I ever
saw The prevalent expression of Dr (Jreeu's
face, as of bis general mauuer, was that of honest,
fearless determination and assurance. It took but
little to make this a forbidding frowu, hut it could
also relax into a pleasing smile, in which the twin
ki?> ut iii?>??ye was very engaging In Ut?r years,
the Utter gre itly predominated ; but in my childhood,
in common with other young persons, I
looked upon him with fear Dr. Green and Dr.
Livingston, wore the hint of the clerical wigi
which I remember Dr. Green's was large and
spreading down to his shoulders, with heavy curls ;
it was always powdered in the day when powder
was woru. Conforming, however, to the change
of mode, Dr Green gradually reduced the dimensions
of the wig, till at leug'h it had little that
was distinctive In the pulpit, his form and face
naturally acquired more dignity and energy ; indeed,
these were very great, so that his more
finished sermons were delivered with a bodily
vehemence, or w hat Cicero calls the s>rmo cotjtons
much beyond anything we now observe in our
pulpits. On these occasions his eye was peuetratitig
and alarming. I have often se? u hiin, however,
subdued into the gentlest modes of human
A young muu receutly made his escape from
the galleys at Toulouse He was strong and
vigorous, and soon made his way across the country,
and escaped pursuit. He arrived the ueit
morning before a cottage in an open field, and
stopped to beg something to eat, and concealment
while he reposed a little. Hut he fouud the inmates
of the cottage in the greatest distress
Four little children sat trembling in a comer,
their mother was weeping and tearing her hair,
and tho father walking ihe floor in agony. The
galley slave asked what was the nutter, and the
rather replied that they were that morning to he
turned out of doors, because they could not pay
heir rent. "You see me driven to despair,'
aid tha. father, "my wife and ehildreu without
rood und shelter, and I without the means to pro
vide any for them The convict listened to this !
Ule with tear* of sympathy, and then said
" I will give you the means. I have but juet
escaped from the galleys; whoever secures and
takes back an escaped prisouer. is entitled to a
reward of fifty francs. How much does your
rent amount to V
" Forty francs," answered the father.
"Well," said the other, ' put a cord around
my body, I will follow you to the city; they will
recognise me, and you will get fifty francs for
bringing me back."
"No, never!" exclaimed the astonished listener
; my children should starve a dozen times
before I could do so b;?se a thing.
,The generous young man insisted, and declared
at last that he would go and give himself up, if!
the father would not consent to take him. After
a long struggle, the latter yielded, nnd taking '
his preserver by the arm led him to the city and
to the mayor's office. Everybody was surprised
that a little man like the father bad been Able to
capture such a strone young fellow, but the proof
was before them; the lift J francs wore paid, and
the prisoner sent bacx to the galleys. Hut after
he was gone, the poor fu'hir felt so badly, that he
asked a private interview with the mayor, to
whom he told the whole story. The mayor was
so much affected, that he not only added fifty
francs more to the father's purse, but wrote immediately
to the minister of justice, begging the
young prisoner's release. The miuister examined
into the affair, and finding that it was comparatively
a small offence which had condemned the
young man to the galleys, and that he had already
served out half hie time, he ordered his
? 3k S.M
* ktf vlt w s fife s ? sj >hn - vx.iw.s ?? |
Attornkv General's Office,
September 18, 1S50.
Sir ; i have had the honor to receive your note
of this date, informing me that the bill, commonly |
called the fugitive Slave bill, having passed both
houses of Congress, had been submitted to you for
your consideration, approval, and signature, and
requesting my opinion whether the sixth section
of that act, and especially the last clause of that
section, conflicts with the provision of the Constitution
which declares that ' the privilege of the
writ of habms corpus shall not be suspended, unless
when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the
public safety may require it."
It is my dear conviction that there is nothing in
the last clause, uor in any part of the sixth section,
nor, indeed, in any pirt of the provisions of
the act, which suspends, or was intended to suspend,
the privilege of the writ of habeas corjms, or
is in any manner in conflict with the Constitution
The Constitution, in the second section of the
fourth article, declares that "no person held to
service or labor in one State, under the laws threof,
escaping it^o another, shall, in consequence
of any law or regulation therein, be discharge/"
iruui Bucu BrrTiceor iaoor, oui miai.l uc uciifcm
up on claim of the party to whom such service or
]*hur >?j?y be </ue." ^
It is well known anu a imitted, historically and 1
judicially, that this clause of the Constitution w.is
made for the purpose of securing to the citizens of
slnrehokiing States the complete ownership in
their slaves, as property, in any and every Stateor
Territory of the Union into which they might es- I
cape. (Prti(i( vs. Cummonn-.uhh of Pennsylvuniu, ,
10 P't. f>.'19 J It devolved on the General Gov- j
eminent, as a solemn duty, to make that security
effectual. Their power was not only clear and
full, but, according to the opinion of the court iu
the above-cited case, it was exclusive; the States
severally being under no obligation, and having
no power, to make laws or regulations in respect
to the delivery of fugitives. Thus the whole
power, and with it the whole i/?/y,of carryingiuto
effect this important provision of the (Constitution,
was with Congress: and accordingly, soon after
the adoption of the Constitution, the act of the
12th February, 1793, was p tssed, and that proving
unsatisfactory and inefficient, by reason (atnoDg
other causes) of some minor errors in its details.
Congress are now attempting hy this hill to discharge
a constitutional obligition, by securing
more effectually the delivery of fugitive slaves to
their owners. The sis')< and most material sec- I
tiou in substance declares that the claimant of the
fugitive slave may arrest and carry him before any
of the officers named and described in the bill, and
provides that these officers, and each of them,
shall have jutltcuil power and jurisdiction to hear,
examine, and decide the case iu a summary manner
, that if, upon such hearing, the claimant, by
the requisite proof,shall establish his claim to the I
satisfaction of the tribunal thus constituted, the
said tribunal shall give him a certificate, stating
therein fhe substantial facts of the case, and authorizing
him, with such reasonable force as may
lie necessary, to take and carry said fugitive back
the Htaie or Territory woeno? he or she tuny j
have escaped, und then, in oonclusion, proceeds as
follows: ''The certificates in this and the first j
section mentioued shall be conclusive of the right
of the person or persons in whose favor granted
to remove such fugitive to the State or Territory
from which he escaped, and shall prevent all molestation
of such person or persons by any process
issued by any court, judge, magistrate, or other i
person whomsoever."
There is nothing in all this that does not seem
to me to be consistent with the Constitution, and '
necessary, indeed, to redeem the pledge which it i
contains?that such fugitives "shall be delivered
up on cUim ot their owners.
The Supreme Court of the United States has
decided that the owner, independent of any aid
from State or National legislation, may, in vir- ;
tue of the Constitution and his own right of property,
seize and recapture his fugitive slave, in
whatsoever State he may find him, and carry him
hack to the State or Territory from which he escaped.
(Pni'if vs Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,
(10 P't. .1'!!)) This bill, therefore, confers no
right on the owner of the fugitive slave ; it only
gives him an appointed and peaceable remedy, in |
place of the more exposed aud insecure, but not
less lawful mode of self-redress. And as to the
fugitive slave, he has no causa to complain of this
bill; it adds no coercion to that which his owner i
himself might, at his own will, rightfully exercise ;
and all the proceedings which it institutes are but ,
so much of orderly judicial authority, interposed |
between him and his owner, and consequently of
protection to him, and mitigation of the exercise j
directly by the owner himself of his personal authority.
This is the constitutional and legal view j
of the subject, assanctione 1 by the decisions of the
Supreme Court; and to that 1 limit myself
The act of l Jth February, 17!?;t, before alluded
to, so far as it respects any constitutional question
that can arise out of this bill, is identical with it.
It authorises the like arrest of the fugitive slave,
the lilie trial, the like judgment, the like certificate,
with the like authority to the owner, by virtue
of that certificate as his warruut, to remove
him to the State or Territory from which he escaped
; and the constitutionality of that act, in all
those particulars, has b.en atlirmed by the ad judications
of State tribunals and by the ciurtsof
the United States without a single dissent, so
far as I know.?(Bdldrntn't C C K. til, f>7!t)
I conclude, therefore, that so fir as the act of
the l'-'th February, 17tt.'(, has been held to beconstitutional,
this bill must also be so regarded : and
that the custody, restraint, and removal to which
the fugitive slave may tie subjected, under the
provisions of this bill, are all lawful, and that the
certificate to be granted to the owner is to be regarded
as the act and judgment of a judicial tribunal
having competent jurisdiction.
With these remarks as to the constitutionality
of the general provisions < f the bill, and the consequent
legality of the custody and confinement to
which the fugitive slave may lie subjected under
it, I proceed to a brief consideration of the more
particular question you have propounded in reference
to the writ of kob its corpus, and of the last
clause of the suth section. uhove quoted, which
gives rise to that question
My opinion, as before expressed, is, that there
is nothing in that clause or section which conflicts
with, or suspends, or was intended to suspend
the privilege of the writ of hn^im corpus. I think
so becuuse the bill eays uot one word about that
writ heciuse, bv the Constitution, Congress is
expressly forbidden to suspend the privilege of
this writ, " uuless when in cases of rebellion or invasion,
the public safety may require it," and
therefore the suspension by this act (there being
neither rebellion nor invasion) would be a plain
aDd palpable violation of the Constitution; anil
no intention to commit auch s viol ktion of the Constitution,
of their duty and their oaths, ought to
be imputed to them upon mere constructions and
implications ; and thirdly, because there is no incainp
ititulity between these provisions of the bill
aud the privilege of the writ of huh-.,is corpus, in
its utmost constitutional latitude
Congress, in the oase of fugitive slaves, as in all
other cases within the aoo|>e of its constitutional
authority, haa the unquestionable right to ordain
aud prescribe for what causes, to what extent, and '
io what manner, persons may b> taken into custody,
detained, or imprisoned. Without this power
they could not fulfil their constitutional trust, nor
perform the ordinary and necessary duties of Gov- j
eminent. It was never heard that the exercise of
that legislative power was any encroachment upon
or suspension of the privilege of the Hub?ut corpus
It is only by some oonfusion of ideas that such a
conflict can be supposed to exist. It is not within
the province or privilege of this great writ to loose
those whom the low has bound. That would be to j
put a writ grauted by the law in opposition to the
law?to make one part of thn law destructive of
another Thia writ follows the law an 1 obeys the
law It is issued upon proper complaint, to make
inquiry into the causes of commitment or imprisonment.
and its sole remedial power and purpose
C., OCTOBER 24, 181
is to deliver the party from '* all manner of Ulegnl
confinement.'' (3 Black. Cowl, 131) If, upon application
to the court or judge for this writ, or if
upon its return, it shall appear that the confinement
complained of was Ian Jul, the writ in the
first inetanoe would be refused, and in the last the
party would be demanded to his former lawful
The condition of one in custody as a fugitive j
slate, under this law, so far as respects the writ
of habeas corpus, is precisely the same as that of
all other prisoners under the laws of the United
States. The privilege of that writ remains alike
to all of them, but to be judged of?granted or
refused, discharged or enforced?by the proper
tribunal, according to the circumstances of each ;
case, ami as the commitment and detention may
appear to be legal or illegal.
The whole effect of the law may be thus briefly
stated: Congress has constituted i tribunal, with
exclusive jurisdiction, to determine summarily,
and without appeal, who are fugitives from service
or labor under the second section of the fourth article
of the Constitution, and to whom such service
or labor is due. The judgm nt of every tribunal
of exclusive jurisdiction, where no appeal
lies, is of necessity conclusive upon every other
tribunal, and therefore the judgment of the tribunal
created by this act is conclusive upon all tribunals.
Whenever this judgment is made to appear,
it is conclusive of the right of the owner to
retain in his custody the fugitive from his service,
and to remove him back to the place or State
from which he escaped. If it is shown upon the
application of the fugitive for a writ of habeas corpis,
it prevents the issuing of the writ?if upon
the retllfs if y.. wVit o.nrf rw\orr* nV i
maintains the custody.
\ *
tained by the decision of the Supreme Court of
the United States in the case of Tobias Wat kins,
where the court refused to discharge, upon the
ground that he was in custody under the sentence
of a court of competent jurisdiction, and that
judgment was conclusively upon them. (3 Pet.,
120 'i)
The expressions used in the last clause of the
oiaiu ?. ?< ? iuv vcnincaii iiiereiu hiiuucu
to " shall prevent all molestation " of the persons
to whom granted, "by any process issued," Lc,
probably mean only what the act of 1793 meant,
by declaring a certificate under that act a sufficient
warrant for the removal of a fugitive, and
certainly do not mean a suspension of the habeas
I conclude by repeating my conviction that there
is nothing in the bill in question which conflicts
with the Constitution, or suspends, or was inteud
ed to suspend, the privilege of the writ of ha/reas
corpus. |
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir,
your obedient servant, J. J. Crittenden.
To the President.
William B. Ogden, the Free Soil candidate for
Congress in Wentworth's district, Illinois, has
withdrawn La favor of Dr. Molony, tbe Democratic
candidate, who has adopted the cardinal
doctrines of the Free Soil party. In a letter addressed
to the President of the Convention, Mr.
Ogden says:
" My consent to a nomination for Congress by
the Free Democracy of this district, male at the
Convention over which you presided, was. at the
urgent solicitation of many friends, reluctantly
yielded, on the ground, and under the impression
and belief, that the Joliet Convention would be
certain to nominate an anti-Wilmot Proviso candidate,
in disregard of our prinoiples, and that
the interests of the Free Soil party demanded a
personal sacrifice of inclination and interest on
my part in its aid. To these appeals solely I
yielded, iu opposition to the strong desire which 1
have, not to be a candidate for any political office
" At the Joliet Convention, however, more liberal
opinions prevailed, and the nominee, Dr.
Molony, in the midst of a spirited contest, ut that
Conventiop, ardently announced himself a Wil
mot rroviso man, ana expressea a reeling ot perfect
respect and approval of the ' Free Soil or
Van Buren Democracyand on my return from
the East, a few days since, 1 understood that he
was canvassing the district as the advocate of
principles in the main, if not entirely, in accordance
with our own. Should this information
prove true, it certainly became a serious question
as to the course to be pursued by us most calculated
to advance the truths for which we do battle.
At the urgent solicitation of many of our
friends?tried and intelligent friends?I consented
to an investigation, and to an interrogation of
Dr Molony, as to the views entertained and advocated
by him."
Mr. Ogdrn then gives the answers of Mr.
Molony to the questions propounded to him, and
" These answers are broad and explicit, covering
manfully, it seems to me, the main ground of
the principles for which we contend ; and as our
objects have no regard for persons, or distinct organixations
from those who adopt our principles,
the progress and spread of which are the sole
purposes in view, as is so clearly indicated in the
recent action of your recent Union Convention at
Princeton, I have yielded to the advice of many
of my friends, and which is so entirely in accordance
with my own opinion as to the wis-r
course to be pursued by us under existing circumstances,
(although i am aware that all
may not approve it,) and do hereby respectfully
withdraw my name as a candidate for
Representative in Congre?s from this district,
so honorably proffered me by the recent Convention
at Elgin, over which you presided 1 do this
the more readily, because of my belief that Dr.
Molony, if elected, will serve these principles
ably and truly, and that tiuie will show that the
step which 1 have taken will strengthen and advance
materially the interests which we have at
AT a meeting of the Board of Msnageis of the Parkevillt
Hydropathic Institute, held Kifth month loth, 185'!,
Joseph A. VVeder, M. I)., was unanimously elected Htsnlent
Physirian In the place of Pr Dexter, resigned
Having made various improvements, this Instituteis uow
rr pare I to receive an additional number of patients; slid
from Pr Weder's well known skill and print u at txptriem e
in Europe, (acquired under Vincens Preissniti, the founder
of the Hydropathic system,) and for several years past in
this ruuilry, and particularly in the city of Philadelphia,
(where he has had many patients,) the Managers believe
the afflicted will find him an able and an attentive physi
The domestic department being under the charge of a
Steward and IVIatron, will enable the Doctor toi^vote tc
the patients whatever time may be necessary.
Application for admissiou to be made to
SAMUEL WEBB, Strrelary.
Office No. 58 South fourth street, residence No. 16 Logan
square, Philadelphia
General Description of the Parke* illc Hydroputhu
The maiu building ie three stories high, standing back
from the street about one hundred feet, with a semicircular
gra-s plot In front, and contains thirty to forty rooms. The
grounds around the house are tastefully laid out with walks
and plauted with trees, shrubs, A.o On the left ot the en
trance to these grounds is a cottage containing four rooms,
used by male pa'ients as a bathing house, with every convenience
for" packing," bathing, Ac.; on the right of the
entrance, about two hundred fret distant, stands a similar
cottage, used by the ladies for similar purpose*.
In the rear of the Institute, at the distance of onehun
dred feet, are three other cottages, some e'ghty feet apart
One of these I* the laundry, with a hydrant at the door; the
other two are occupied by the servants.
The hydrant water is introduced into these cottages as
well as into the main building, and all the waste watercarrled
off by dralus under ground.
thk watkk works
Consist of a circular stone building, standing on the brow
of a hill, surmounted bv a large cedar reservoir containing
fire hundred barrels, brought from a never-tailing spring ot
pure oold water in the side of the hill, by " a hydraulie
ram," a self-acting machine of cast iron, that is kept con
st?utly going, night and day. by the descent ot the wa'et
fiom the spring The surplus water ia carried from the
reserv dr to a fountain in the water worts yard suTTonnded
by weeping willows In the first e'ory ot the water works
Is a circular room, containing the douche bath, which iss
stream failing from a height of abont thirty feet, and can
bo varied in else from half an inch to an inch and a halt In
diameter Ai^Mning the douche room Is s dressing rougn,
with marbls tablss. Ac.; the rising tlinrke (for the cure of
piles, Ac ) is one of the most complete contrivances of the
kind, being entirely under the control of the patient using
the same
There are many othcrapplianc?e,whichoau be better tin
derstoood by a pergonal examination. May 3H.
GKAHAM ban completed the mmt extrusive arrange
ments to gire drill high-r character an 1 sslun to hi*
M igu<ine fvr (he coming eolunie
P. II Jamri, the celebrated Norelist, baa been en
gige.l to give a tardea of splendid roiuanes
Heo'irt I) /Verifies, the Poet of the Weat, will write exrlu'ire
y a poem for every number.
Ilrwt tireenu-ooil la engaged to fire a aeriea of ber beautiful
J M Ltgart, of South Carolina, will contribute a brilliant
net of pa per a for 1831.
Will PciHunor' Cooper, the author of Knral Houra, is
alao engaged with JPAiimi# and l*>txgf*liow, Hryunl and
T U. Htiui, the Artist and Poet, la now at UasaeMorfT,
on hie way to Italy to furniah from the Ualleri?e a superb
set of drawings. Artiste from America hare been sent to
l.ondon and Paris, and a splendid set of highly Unlabel
drawings by the renowned Da vid of Paris are to be furnish
ed for Urnham'a Inoomparable Indies' Department, which
will exnel anything that has ever been produced in Parts,
Knglaad. or the t'ntted State*. Tbo Brst appears in tho
December number.
All this foretells a rear uf splendor in this Magasine f r
K">l?and, as erer Graham's readers will he ast.ul-hed
tirsham also abollshts the system of r-iMrnlJinf agents,
au I constitutes every Postmaster snd Kdltor Agents. .Vine
i> the / "ie to form VtuAs, a< the Utcembtr nambtr tloiet
the volume.
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terms will not bo departed from by any of tbe three dollar
inagasiiie*. All order* addressed to
dot 17?tit 1311 hsstaat st , Philadelphia.
HUtlHV A- PBlHtMi, Attorneys at Lace ami Xotanes
JAMES BIKNEY, eoBBiwrioned to take depoeitioua,an
knowledgruent of deed., an t to adminlater oath* and affirm
at ions, by appointment of the Oorernor* of
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Special attention given to eolleotions and to the taking ul
Office, No. Ill Main streit. July 25.
AOKNTS farr procuring I'utenh in the United Mulct
utui foreign COUHl'iet.
They prepare Specifications and Drawings of new inventions,
and transact all business connected with their profession
They will reviseand attend totbe reconsideration of those
applications which have been rejectel by the Commissioner
of Patents, either on aecouut of a defective specification and
drawing, or the presentation of an improper claim.
Persons residing ?t a distance may procure all necessary
information respecting the patentability of their inventions,
may have their applicati his for j>atents madeiu proper form,
and may obtain patents, without incurring the expense ofa
personal attendance at Washington, by writing tothesubscribers.
Models can be safely sent to us by the expresses
Kough sketches and descriptions can be sent by mail.
Lc tcrs mutt he po't paid.
Office on K street .opposite the Patent Office.
July 18 K. 8. KEN WICK.
tj/a' es k v/t/v s? tguv.va: kd s A USA PA HI I. LA
> m't f\ %%T ' I tflifcw a* . VMMS* f>t lUfC. U?/^
hM lornr been known iu? the Author and Pieeovtfer of
?> ? ?ml ml - t U "? -i ' V ?
"? ?k vt \V*?n -*??/> ^ ? , 't *\ ?\
mean* it has been kept out of market, and the sales etrcum
scribed to those only who had proved its worth and known
its value. It had reached the ears of many, nevertheless, is
those persons who hail been healed of sore disea es, and
saved fr on death proclaimed its excellence and wonderful
healing power. This
Grand and Unequalled I'rrparaliosi
is manufactured ou the largest scale, and is called for
throughout the length and bread'h of the land.
Ualikeyoung S P. Townsend's, it improves with age. and
never obangea, but for the bett-r ; because it is prepared or.
scientilic principles, by a scientific man The high-st know
iedge of Chemistry, and the latest discoveries of the Art
h ive all been brought into requisition in the manufacture ol
the Old Doctor* s HarsuparUla. The barsapari la root, it is
well known to medical men, contains many medicinal prop
erties, and some properties wLicb are inert or useless and
others, whieb, if retained in preparingit for use,produce fei
mMitation and uciil, which is Injurious to the syssetn Some
of the properties of Sarsaparilla are so volatile, that they entirely
evaporate and are lost in the preparation, if they art
not preserved by a scientific process, known only to those
expe ienced in its manufacture Moreover, these vJUtilr
principles, which fly off in vapor, or as an exhalation undo
heat, are the very essential medical properties of the root
whioh give to it all its value. The
Genuine Old Dr. Jacob Tuwiiaend's Sursiiparilla
is so prepared, that all the inert properties of the Sarsapa
rilla root are first removed, everything capable of becoming
acid or of teruientallou is extracted and rejected; then every
partic'-e of medical virtue is secured in a pure and concentrated
form , and thus it is rendered incapable of losing any
of its valnahle and healing properties. Prepared in this
ggy, it is ma.fe the most powerful agent Sw h>q- i.
Cure of Innumerable Diseases,
Hence the reason why ws hear commendatiuus on every
side, in its favor; by men, woruen, and children We find it
doing wonders in the pure of C'ot<tumjf\on, Djist>ff"uf anJ.,
Licer f.'cr".[iUiiiU<xai ir. A Acs uuxUtttf, /t/T'i/uhi, ami Piles
Costireness. all Cutaneous Druyttons, Ptmplts, Blotches
and all affections arising from
Impurity of the Blood,
it possesses a marvellous efficacy in all complaints arising
from indigestion, from acidity of the stomach, from unequal
circulation, determination of blood to the head, palpitation of
the heart, cold feet ami cold hands, cold chills and not Hashes
over the body. It has not hail its equal in coughs and Colds
and promotes easy expectoration and gentle perspiration, relaxing
stricture of the lungs, throat, and every other part
Hut in nothing is its excellence more manifestly seen and
acknowledged than in all kinds and stages ot
remain loiupmmis.
It wor^s wonder* in outt of /Ivor albu < or whites, falling
of the womb, obstructed, suppressed, or painful menses, irregularity
of the menstrual periods, and the like; and i?
effectual in curing all forme of the kidney dieeaee.
My removing obHtructioue, and regulating the general aystein,
it gives tone and etrength to the whole body, and curt*
all forme of
Nrrvkii Dlara*ri and Debilllr,
aud thue preveuts or relievee a great variety of other diseaeee,
a* epinal irritation, neuralgia, St. Vitus dance, swot"*
iug, epileptic fife, convuteione, Ac. ~
Is not this, than,
The .Medicine yon Pre-eminently Need?
But oau any of three things be eaid of S P. Townsend'a
inferior article! Thia young man's liquid is not to be
(.' mpurrd with the Old I)r,'a,
because of one Grand fact, that the one ia Incapable 0/ litterioration
Never Spoils,
while the other does ; it soars, ferments, and blows the bottles
containing it into fragments ; the sour, acid liquid ex
ploding and damaging other goods ! Must not thia horrible
compound be poisonous to the system? What! put arid
into a system already diseased with arid! W hat raumyt dye
pepsia but acid? Bo we not all know, that when ftou sours
in our stomachs, what mischief it produces!?Hatuleice.
heartburn, palpitation of the heart, livercoinplaint,diarrhoea
dyseutery, colic, and corruption of the blood t What la scrof
ula but an acid huinur iu the body f What produces all the
humors which bring on eruptions of the skin, wald head, salt
rheum, erysipelas, white swelling, fever sores, and all ulcerations,
Internal and external ? It ie nothing under heaven
but an acid substance, which sonrs and thus spoils all the
fluids of the body, more or less What causes rheumatism,
but a sour, acid fluid, wbieh Insluuat** itself lietweeu the
joints and elsewhere, irritating and inflaming the tender and
delicate tisanes upon which it acts? So of nervous diseases,
of impurity of the blood.of derangedcirculations,and nearly
all the allmeuts which afflict human nature.
Now, is it not horrible to make aud sell, and infinitely
worse to use, this
Kflariug, Fermenting, Acid " tdnipouiid " of S P.
and yet be would fain have it understood that Old I>r. Jacob
Townsend'a Genuine Original SariupurtUu is an /nidation
of his inferior preparation!1
Hm,?i forbid that we shnllhl .leal in an artlnle which
would bear the most distant resnnblance to S. P. Townsend's
j article' and which should bring down upon the Old Dr. such
j a mountain load of complaint* and criminations from Agents
woo I ave sold, and purchasers who hare used S. i\ Town1
send's Fermenting Compound.
We wish it understood,because it is the absolute truth
that S. P. Townsend's article ami Old Dr. Jacob TowriBcnu't
Sareaparlll* are heaven wide apart, and infinitely dissimilar:
that they are unlike iu every particular, having not one sin
gle thing in common.
As S P. Townsend i? no doctor, and never was, is no
chemist, no pharmaceutist?knows no more of medicine ot
disease than any other common, unscientific unprofessional
man?what guarantee can the public have that they are re
ceiving a genuine scientific medicine containing all the vir
tues of the articles used in preparir g it, and which are incapable
of changes which might render them the agents ot
disease,Instead of health 1
It is to arrest frauds upon the unfortunate, to pour balm
into wounded humanity, to kindle hope in the despairing
bosom, to restore health and bloom and vigor into thecrushed
and broken, and to banish infirmity?that OLD DK
JACOB TOWNSKNI) has sought and fouiul the opportunity
ami means to bring his
Grand, Universal. Concentrated Remedy,
within the reach, and to the knowledge, of all who need it,
that they may learn and know, by joyful experience, its
Transcendent Power tollenl!
KT Kor sale in Washington City by?
J. K. Lallan /. D. A. W. H. Oilman
S. Butt M. Delany
Mav 9 Kidgelv i Co.
LAItl WANTED.?Lash paid fur corn, mast,?ndslop-fe<)
Larl. Apply to
THOMAS KMEK Y,l.ard Oil Manufacturer
J an. 20 33 Water afreet, near Walnut.Linelunati <>
Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington City, one door
west of Oilman's Dm<( Store.
fl^HE citizens of Washington and straugers visiting the
JL city are resfiectfully Informed that the subscriber has
just opened a gallery as above, which he has fitted up in elegant
style, with all the latest improvements, includlug
and is now prepared to take pictures of ail aiies, single or In
groups, which his lung exp rience and great succee* embolden
him to say will tie pronouuced by competent judges fully
equal to any specimens of the phon graphic art ever prudu
ce<l in the United States.
Cabinet pictures, measuring eleven by fourteer m-hes
taken at short notice; also,crayon ami enamelled Daguerreo'Pictures
taken equally well in cloudy as In fair weather
The public are respectfully invited to call anil examine
specimens. N. S. BKNNKTT.
Jan. 31?ly
*T. UWRF.M K l-Xt HA Nti E,
POTSDAM, New York. SILAS IIICOCK, Proprietor.
An*. 29?tf
LAW orrii'i, roi.i MBi s,o.
WILLIAM R. J AKVIS Jan.. Atlorm* and ConnnUot
I Lmr,< oiumbus I >bio ''Nee in I'lett'e new building,
State street, op|M>?ite south door of State House
Hue! nest connected with the profksetrn. otall kind* puna
tnallvattendee to Ian. 2k
No 3 Cornhill.
THKMilieaalfraNntt from Washington to this nfllre
by h xpress, anil is delivered by carriers in any part ol
the olty proper, at $t 75 a year./ree o/ ftoUuge; siugit
eoples, six anil a quarter eenta.
Nowia the time to eecure thle national adtoeaie ofthe Liberty
Movement, during the flrst session of 1 .men-as un.let
the new administration, when questions of the most thrill
lug importance must be decided.
Subscriptions and renewals respectfully solicited by
Not.B. liKO W. l.lliHT. 3 < ornhill
VH. PALM KK,the Atnericmn Newspaper Agent Is agent
for the National Km, an I authorise.! to take A lter
tieemrnte and subscript lonsat the same rates as required I t
us. His offices are at H.wton, 3 I ongr<-e* street, N> w York
Tribune HutIdinjr; Philadelphis, northwest corner of Third
and < 'heat not streets; Halt linore, south west corner of North
and Fayette streets.
(tV S M. HKTTK NHII.L, Newspaper Advertising Subscription.
and Collecting Agent, No. 10 State alrci. Boston
(Journal Building,)It alio agent forth* Nationul Era
Washington, D C.,
DEALS in check*, draft*, acceptances, promissory note*
hunk note*, and coin.
Note* on *11 solvent h*nk? in the United State* bought
and (old at the b*?t price*
In Washington and (Jworgetown, collected an I remittance*
promptly nivle, in Baltimore, Phil* lelphia, New York, or
Boston fund*, at a charge of one-uuarter per cent.
Mad* In all the principal cities of tb? Unlon,on th* most
favorable term*.
Hill* of eichange and bauk check* on most of th* prlnci
pal eitie* of th* Union bought and (old at the l>**t r?tc?.
(XT" lithe* hours,from eight o'clock A. M. to flv* T M.
Nov i.V-tf
WBOLESAl-K ami Retail Pool ami Shoe Manufacturer,,
sign of the BIG RED BOOT, No. 3# !*??"
Market, south side, tw* door* west of Sycamor* street, 1.1neiunatl?Dealers
in Ruoi?, .N'Aooj, Palm foaf Hat,. Re
' j y WHKLAN.
May id?ly A.WOOD.
VOL. IV. !
REPLY U- Kemarka of Kor. Mwu Stuart w. j ,,h,
Jay, anil an Examination of bl* Scriptural Kiereiw.
contained In hi* recent pamnklet entitled "Consrieroe
the Constitution " By William Jay An octavo paint,i, Vr
la aneateovar. Price 6 cento For sale by
Aug. 1. WM. HAKNK1), CI John atree*, N Y.,rk
ATTORNEYS and Counaelior* at Law, Hartfurl ?
n sellout. JOHN HWkVh un
i?-'y K*Jj I'M I{ IUVLI\
THIS new and attrae it* journal for Youth ediu.t u.
Mr*. Bailey, and publish d at Washington can be h.*
at the Hvtm Agency /or the AWirnol Kui 3< ?ri,hnf
Price,by inail.Wl cent** year, delir red in B.>?t,?, fr?uf
pontage,75 cent*. UEOKUt W LIGHT
Sfornhlll Boston
1.1 OUT** LITERARY AUfcm \.
No. 3 Cornhill, Boston.
ESTABLISHED toaidthe circulation of all USE Ft /
JLj PL'HLt'.'A TIOSS is?ued tu the United Sutra t?rder*
for Book* or Periodical* executed promptly, aud at th*
moot reasonable rat**
THE NATIONAL ERA come* from Waahlngn ? ia
tbi* Agency by Expre**, and ir delivered by carrier, m
at y part of the city proper, at 12.75 a year, fret f.
iigt; *ingle eopie* 6 1-4 cants Pries, by mail. $2.
THE FRIEND OF YOUTH, a new and attract!,,
monthly journal f"r Youth edited by Mr* H*u ai
published at Washington, also conies by Expreis to tbi*
Agency. Price, delivered in Boston, pet of p?itui>r 75
centsayear; by wail, 50 cents.
June6. G. W. LIJHT A Co
CONDUCTED by the Female Medical Education Society,
incorporated by the Massachusetts legislature The
fifth term will cotnmen-e November B 1850, and continue
three months. Those who desire can attend exclusively to
Midwifery, with it* collateral branches Tuition, f .'
, BoarLii-'-he jiity lo be had a' a week
SiStCEL ''."EG91.Y, K?.-tev*r\
| Sept. 26? 3t 17 Cornhill. J
tL Am i"SMA fsy.vilMtHi A MIL*. ( 01 - 1
Apollo or Museum Building, northwest corner o/Sirth
end Wuluut streets, Cvtcvnuiti, Ohio.
rPHE attention of the Public ia reeueetfi.ll, e?n-i >.o
A course of studies prescribed at this institute n for the
purpose of qualifying Young Mm in a thorough practical
manner for the duties of the counting house and for busiiie??
pursuit* generally.
The design of the institution ia to impart such informs
tion an will make practical men and icientiftc wcountsnt*
for any and erery department of busiues*.
The prominent subject of atndy Doutfle-Entry Hook
Keeping ; or, in other words, the science of accounts, in ita
adaptation to every variety of transaction* that can possibly
arise in the operation* of Trade, whether wholesale, retail,
commission. banking, manutacttiring, jobbing, or any other
form ot business
In order to qualify those who enter this iuctituth n in a
superior manner for the responsible ditties of commercial
life, lectures on commercial law are given in connection with
the science of book keeping. Lectures on tiy? general lass
of trade, as contained in the beet treatises on hanking and
political economy, have also been lately introduced with
great advantage and success.
Stndents are (In addition) made familiar with general
mercantile forms and phraseology, or w>at may be termed
the literature of commerce, including commercial letters of
all descriptions.
It will be the assiduous endeavor of the Principal to make
those who attend this institution good practical petimer?a
sine yuu non to those wishing to enter the arena of trade
A complete couree of calculations is included in the eierr
. .
Terms for the full couree .... $40 00
07* Instruction ie given individually; thus gentlemen
oau enter at any time.
, try The insiituti n being ( he"'-"-'! stud**'- *w rr*/a.
e>n? receive * dlpluma, signed by a board of mercantile and
legal gentlemen.
BT The time requisite to complete the course averages
from six to twelve jveeks.
The undersigned has at much labor and ei|>eiise collected
a library of standard works, both American and foreign, on
the above suhjects, as well at obtained such practical information
from real business as is deemed important or useful,
and has also been enabled, from long experience as a teach
er, to greatly improTe and simplify the mode of imparting
this kind o{ instruction, lie thus flatters himself that thou*
who patronise this institution from the inducement* held
'out, will have their expectations mere than realised.
Sept. 19-3m JOHN GUN UK V, Principal
THE Ameru an and Foreign Avti-Sliireri/ Society hare
juet published another sttreoty|>ed Almanac, lor the
coining year, with special reference to the great qiwsfion of
Slavery at the present tiiur, and in the expectation that the
friends of the cause throughout the country will eo-o(era'e
in diffusing extensirely the valuable statistieaJI and reading
matter it contains. Considering the expense at which the
Almanac ha" been prepared, the low price at which it is
sold, and the increased facilities for forwarding It, by express
or otherwise, from New York, over the whole of the Northern
States, it is ooufl lently expected that the circulation
this year will greatly exceed that of any previous year. So >
much useful matter cannot well be circulated at lass ex- *
The Almanac is handsomely printed, on finer paper than
usual, with well-executed wood engravings, prepared expressly
for It, illuetrating'ibe escape of llenry Pur Bro?n,
a scene at Washington, and the kneeling Slave Mother Besides
the Calendar, which is equal in all respects to that of
the American Triet Society's Almanac for t8.">l, and the
Eclipses, Cycles. &.o , ftc , the Almanac contains a variety
of interesting and valuable reading and statistical articles
of an anti-slavery character, selected and or^fhiar. 'Ttf*
prices will be as follows: J
For one thousand copies - - -?20(1(1 j
For one hundred copies - 2 .Mi
For one dosen copies ..... +1
For a single copy ...... (16
The friends of the cause are earnestly invited to oo^qiersU
in giving a wide circulation to the Altnansc, >nd to send
fheir orders at an early day for a liberal enpp'y. It is suggested
that they make arrangements wi'h merchants In
their neighborhood, before visiting New York, to haves few
hundred Almanacs jweked with their goods. Id this way
the cost of transportation will be very small If no such
opportunity offers, the owners of expresses are uuw more
reasonable in their charges than heretofore. This mcde of
conveyance is better than the poet office, as every Almanur
-cut by mail, whatever the distance, costs two and a half
A Catalogue of most of the Publications for sale at the
Depository is annexed, from which selections can be made,
and books and pamphlets can be sent with the Almanacs,
without much, it any, additional expense
Orders, eruloting paymetd, in bank notes or p< st office
stamps, may be addressed to
Aug.8? 6t No. 61 John street, New Y'ork City.
N. B. Editors friendly to the cause of freedom are respectfully
requested to give the above an insertion, as the
onjeci id pUDll*DlDg me aini&nac ib nut 10 iijhhc ihwucj, uuv
to diffuse useful information.
Xtnia, Ohio,
Uf II.I. take ark nowletlgiurnts, deposits ns, affidavits, and
protestations, in town or country ; is agent for the
National Era, the Union Vulval Life Insurance Cempuiii/,
the American Lire Stock Imuran/e Company; ?nd
will attend to the cillection of claims generally; also. to er 11ing,
leasing, ami renting real eatate.
fty Office? Galloway's Rutldinge, tip stairs?corner twin.
Sept. 19?ly
ATTORNEY and Counsellor at I.aw, and General l and
Agent, E'alls of St. Anthony, Minnesota Territory
< ?ct II ?v
In Quart Bottles.
F^OK purifying the blots), and for the cure of Scrofula,
Hheumahs m, Stuhhor a U cere, Dyspejisiu, S'aU lilicum,
Never Sores, Erysipelas Pimples, H les, Merrunal Discu
es, Cutaneous Eruptions, Liter Complaint. ftronch'tis,
Consumption Eernale Complaints, Loss of Appetite, Genet
al Debility, tela
this preparation we have all the restorative properties
of the root, combined and concentrated in tbelr iifnuwt
strength and eflimc . Experiments were uia<'e in the man
ufactnre of this medicine, until I' was found If could not he
improved. Accordingly, we find it resorted to almcet universally
in rases of scrofula, liver diseases, salt rheum, general
prostration of the vital powers and all tho*e tormenting
diseases of the skin, so trying to the patience and Injurious
to the health. It is a tonic aperient, ami disinfectant It
acts simultaneously upon the stomach, the rircwlalicm, and
the bosrels ; and thus three processes, which are ordinarily
the result of three different kinds of medicine, are carried on
at the same time thro gh the instrumentality of this one
remedial agent. Th< re are many ways of relieving pain for
the time being, but there ia only one w?y of removing dis
ease. No palliative, no anodyne, n topical application will
remove it It must he at'acked at its source, in the fluids if
the body, wh'ch convey the prison to the Realities where it
is develo|ied in Inflammation, sores, ulcers tumors, abscesses.
glandular swellings. Ac., as the case may h?.
These fluids must be reached acted upon purifl d by
some powerful agent. Such an agent i? Sand's ttarmpardla,
which gently stimulates while it disinfects and ei|*ls
from the stomach and bowe's all that la irritating, art) at
the same time restores their vigor snd tone Its gresf merit
is that It mee's and neutralises the active principle of disease
itself, and when that is gone, the symptoms necessarily
diaappear The rapidity with which the jaticnt recover,
health and atrength under thi* triple Influence la aurpriaing
haoh new raae in whicb it ia applied fuiniebc* in tbe re??"
a new eerti Urate of If a excellence ; and we bare only to point
to tbe accumulated teatlmony of multitude# who I arr experienced
ita effect*, to convince incredulity itaelf of it* real
Lieutenant Mi'ler, of the array, baa kind'yaent u? the
following letter from California:
MonrmaaT, Jakpaet Id, Iro*i.
Mr**r i. A H. i />. SuMiti:
Hkntlemih : I bee leare to add my teotimnny in faTor of
your inraluable medicine, hoping it may lead aome other
unfortunate being* to try if* effect*, and that they a.ay be
benefited aa I bare been
i arrived here front tbe United iitafea by the overland
route, aliotit the l*t of October laat. A few day* after, I wee
attacked with a very dieagreeabie eruption of tbe ?ktn,
which my phyaieian could not cure I happened to fnd
your Sar aparilla in a atore in tbt* place and remrmherit <
the popularity of the medicine at home, I purchaard tbte*
bottl-a, which bad tbedeaired effect of removing my difficulty
entirely. With high regards your* Ac,
H?rc la another, nearer home .
Naw Yonn, Janpaav 8, 186?Meats.
Sa-di :
tiiNTLBMan: I hare great pleanure in acknowledging to
you tbe great l-eneht I hare received from tbe U'c of ) "t>r
Karaaparilla. A aubject of pulmonary diaeaae, I madr a voyage
to fclurope, hut while there continued to b* aflllcteJ
few weeka after my rt'urn I wa* aeiaed with a vkdvnt hem rrbage
of the lunge, and from tbe debility and *** '
tration of atrength that followed, with the ' f
culty of recplration I am entirely relieved "J .
your S.raaparilla, which I c*?Wcr a m"'
truly val.i.bl. diacvv.ry ln tb. hv.^ ^ u
bare not for fourteen year* eujoyau " a
j preaent. Very gratefully,jonra, s K. SAVMOKK.
Head tbe fallowing, tmm
Him Otittaa, Novnitria 12, IM?.
| Met tri Satuls:
finwei a wan I tab* the liberty cf vending yon a letter
wh ch -.v" of Importance to thorn -ho are .offering a* I
have^loho I ?** h*n'm frum 'o0?
' !?--T.-.?r?lef a malady after auff-n-g all year. I
niTiHH *?*?
btroby choooMI/ orrllfy to Iho ir<? <1 etli-ri .r jn.nr nruEm
and I hop* Uod will reward 7011 f..r til tbo *,-?( you ha??
don*. A cbroal* eoufh bad tnrnionfod m* day and ntfhl,
tod ropoaiod aitaeka of froer li dueod mo to Mio?t iktt I
j thoiUd die with oouniiiuyHi n Our day wbilr iiiftorin# B
vioirot attack of bu'ninf ftrer, a frtrnd ferauadod n ? to
try your Ine.tmparaMo mod in no bat, to toil tho truib. I brd
Doooafldonoo la it. I flntlii |>ur.'baaed t hottlo tod by It*
iim and (ho h?Jp of (iod I ?> rootorod to btltrr botltb tboa
I bad tnjoyrd for tlx yrtrt. I cannot but bl?M tbc autb.r
of tbi* admirable mtdielno.
With ftotl roapoat, I tat, gtntltmon, your obodionl Mf???,
Proptrtd tnj told, wholtitlt and rrttll, by A R # "
SAX/>S, |lru?(iit* andl hernial*, IUI Pulton ?iroel, corn**
of William, Now York. bold tlru by l>ruffi*C* (omralLy
throughout (bo Halted butt* tod Canada* Prte# fl
bvlll* ; ait bottle* for f6 Auj B !

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