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LKTTKR FMX LMMM. Loni?on, Notivt>*r 10, 1800. fj /*/ F.ih'or of the National Era : The building Tor the great Industrial Kxhibi,ion foca steadily up, nnd not very many weeks will transpire before the shell at least will be completed. Prince Albert osmc up from Windsor to riew it, a week ago to-day, and w is much pleaseJ. it is with the progress which the workmen hare nude. Oh i/ti, that the Queen has designed a C!<rp?*t. and Prince Albert executed sereral pieces of sculpture, for the exhibition. Her celebrated K h-i-noor diamond is to be exhibited in the gem department. This is setting the example for the | P-ople in a most worthy manner, by Royalty ' These comparatively trifling occurrences add very much to the popularity of Her Majesty and the Prince. I doubt if ever there sat upon a .k.v.,.> * woman who was more enthusiastically loved than Victoria Guelph. I intended to hare noticed in my last letter the f.nrte of the British Anti-State and Church Association, held in the London Tavern, yesterday week night. Samuel Morlcy, Esq, one of the reformers in England, was called to the chair, and the Secretary read the Annual Report on behalf of the Executive Committee. The Rev. John Burnet made one of his speeches, which arc always overflowing with wit and good humor. lie was followed by Charles Gilpin, who made an ardent speech against Church opinion, and exposed the present "cuckoo cry of 1 no l'opcry.' " But Edward Miall made tAt speech of the evening. It was a masterly effort in favor of individii .linm against ecclesioaticisra, and appeared to be appreciated by bis large audience. The Society is now in the third year of its existence, and has already grown to be one of the roost powerful reformatory associations in the Kingdom. It expects the coming winter to act with iuareaned vigor, through lectures and the i.nJUL The Churchmen are doing their beat to so direct the present excitement against Catholicism (hat it shall add to the strength of State-Chnrchistn. . There can be no doubt thaf, under the peculiar circumstances, the Pope's conduct was an insult to England; all parties agree to this; but the State Church is a living insult to all dissenters, an 1 something beside a mcro insult, too, for it robs them of their goods to support a system which they abhor; therethre the dissenters will not join heartily in the "no Popery ! n ciy of the t,l.urehmen. for it is a shan^-crv. get up to give the hunting-parsons a longef lease of the fat things which they enjoy at present! Last Saturday was " Lord Mayor's Day" here, and was celebrated with more than usual life, and ' pomp, and circumstance." From an early hour in the morning, until late at night, the streets were choked up with masses of people and carriages. The railway companies ran excursion trains, so that hundreds and thousands of the inhabitants of the country and provincial towns were here to partake in the gnyeties of the occasion. The display this year was entirely different frotn that which has heretofore taken place. Everything shadowed forth peace, and prosperity, and happiness, while be/ore, there have be< n nonseusical displays, something after the style of Gog and Magog in the Guildhall. The character of Peace was represented in the procession by a I.A?ntiftil vnunw lml i? dressed in white iiml re. clining upon a while palfrey. In her (rain, were representatives of America, Kurope, and Asia. Commerce was magnificently represented, and, upon the whole, the show was gorgeous, though it seemed as if the occasion did not justify the extraordinary display. I never before saw such crowds of people, save when, two or three yrars ago. the great Chartist riot demonstration took place, which so frightened the inhabitants of London. The procession, nfter passing through several in the city, took State bargee at It lack, friars bridge, ami rowed up to the Whitehall. At night, it returned to the Bridge, where it was joined by the foreign Ambassadors, the nobility, and gentry, when the whole company proceeded to the Guildhall, where they were entertained by the Lord Mayor to a Grand Banquet.. Lord .lohn Kn-etell was received with marked ppliuse in reference to his recent letter to the bishop of Durham, and in his speech made allusions to it, and the manner in which F.ogland had conducted herself in this crisis. The Foreign Minister, Lord Palnierston. made a speech, as well :is the Marquis of Lmsdowne. both of which were well received. Mr Lawrence of Boston, our Ambassador, answered the toast of the a Foreign Ambassadors," and was well received He ventured again to pledge "the twenty-two million of countrymen," and spoke well of the liberties of the city of London. 1 Ic was loudly cheered, especially when he uttered sentiments of peaceful import and of national friendship. Mr Hnd Mrs Lawrence are this week on a visit to the Archbishop of Canterbury. A large meeting was held in Wrexham on Tuesday cvcxiing, in behalf of the cause of Peace. The mi mission was hy ticket only, and the price of tickets was quite high, and yet there were two thousand persona present. The Hev. Mr. Richard, secretary of the Peace Society, made a speech, in which lie detailed flf.rr.o of the r>ronpoiImiT? nf tlie friends of Peace on the Continent. Joseph tftjrge also spoke, but Mr. Cobden made the great speech of the occasion. It is clear from his H|>eech that he sympathizes with the Schleswig I h.Kti'iners. and blames the English Government lor the course it took in reference to the dispute. Mr I'axton, the inventor of the "Crystal Palace" for the Grand Exhibition, nn evening or two cinee delivered an address before the ^o4pty of Arts. I.ord Overstone in the chair, upon the invention, the progress of the building, kc. It is reported in the papers, and is of great interest. I am informed by pretty go?,d authority that the admission fee to the Glass Palace during the first month of the exhibition will be /tiv dollars i?r ti<it. If so, this will be a serious tax upon foreigners who, perhaps, will not stay in England more than one month, and if here almost purposti in i f the Exhibition, would like tosee it every lay. The second month the price will be much less. and tht third entirely free. This will make it lair for Englishmen, b it not for foreigners who may chance to be bore the first month of the exlnl iiii.u but not the fourth, and who would not i i d like giving five dollars a day for the sight. II wevcr. the matter is not settled, as yet, though j '1. tl ve arrangement has been seriously thought ' i give the wealthy a chance to see the great !'"? without being inconvenienced by the prcseuee nf , crowd. i 'e hi excitement was raised in Paris for ' b w 1 . \?. because of u supposed plot of Jj 1Society cf J), I DrcnfJirr. to nssa*?iuate. (iene ' tmngarnier and M. I lupin. the President of Pi" \ssenibly. The President of the Club de i i s ti e plot, but many circumstances look bad I 1 ' it At last the President's message has I ""nip io Imnd. After the election of President I ?*d been gone through Wiith by the Assembly, in Dopln received W votes out of a total 9 M. lUroche read the message. I It ' mmences aa coolly aa a railway company's ] i ' ' C I fri'lll top to holtotn hs* a biisineiis-'.iLe ,1 ' I w hich in not what one expects from France i b< tare the President alludes to the rcvoluW " <n t Irtnnnncr of one who censures, bat he is [1 etdingly careful. He confesses that he has |l ii (ij to remote front ofliee 4VI mayors, I 1( dbbtv4il| the National (luards in 183 I *iiml doing many other unpleaannt things, J 11 which wore unplc-isant, but which he was I tod*, lie talks largely stiout Algeria, *!ihes agriculture enccursged, and exhorts to B 1 industry. The hoi iMi hare been I if in |5|,i.mi men and ? horse, to men, and s7,(Xm) horse, and a furth?r reS ''ti<>n is to take place. B -ing. hi- merely hints toward* a rewision I Constitution, but it is easy from a few sen to see what he wants, as he tells atmut "the I 1 I annmnt of stability guarantied hy the preoB ''' "nuttuition" 1 he f?ct is, that the President dare not boldly * *hat he wants. (Mrcumstanres hare been him of l ite, and he now plays the part of hypocrite* Ciire him th# power, and his din ' -'nig selfishness will Imp forth , but as mat r" M*nd now, it is wiser to conceal it. 'uriug the past week, no one has known exact /.*' *? to believe in reference to Prussia, AusI "i and the I lessian and liolstein affair*. The I . . 0 4,1,1 unlooked-for death of Count P.ran >> Fiirg. ?ho was at the head of the peace party I ti,.. c**t * gloom orer Europe. At once I ten ,r1w""'*ri army was put oa a war footing, oa n J ' ,"rin<* Prussia had been ordered, in the ** of the Confederation, to withdraw her TF troops from If mm By a royal order, all Prar aian subjects belonging to the army were recalled from any foreign fcltitte This order will strike a fatal blow at the poor llolstein army, as it will deprive it of its most valuable officers. War has seemed to !?e a certainty , but at this moment there is a brighter prospect of peace. Prussia, with nil her bluster, is gradually withdrawing her troops to the frontiers of llesee. sod it is ' expected that she will soon evacuate Cassel. This is the prospect at present, and the Hessians and | I Jolsteiners, I am afraid, will not fare so well as they deserve. When the Prussian troops entered the Electorate, they received no shouts of welcome, for the Hessians knew they were not the real friends of liberty. Perhaps the projJ' of Prussia are sincere friends of freedom , but the rulers and the army are not. No one can tell yet what will be the result of the disputes . the next news may be of battle and its horrors, but I think not. A great ball was held last evening, in the Guildhall, for the benefit of Polish exiles. The Lord Mayor of London was there, and Lord Dudley Stuart, and hundreds of others. The Times tried its best to cry it down, but could not do it, for it was largely attended. Jtman. The Free Presbyterian is published at Mercer, Mercer county, Pennsylvania, at ti a year, by Mr. Clark. PRESIDENT'S HESSASE. Ftllotr>-cili?ens of the Senate, ami House of Representatives: Being suddenly called, in the midst of the last session of Congress, by a painful dispensation of Divine Providence, to the responsible station which 1 now hold, I contented myself with such I ] connnunicauons 10 me i.,egisiHiur?-;43iii?-t-ii?t.Ti1..jr ; of the moment seemed to require. The country was shrouded in mourning for the loss of its tenerated Chief Magistrate, and all hearts were penetrated with grief. Neither the time nor the occasion appeared to require or to justify, on my part, any general expression of }>olitionl opinions, or any announcement of the principles which would govern me in the discharge of the duties to the performance of which 1 had been eo unexpectedly called I trust, therefore, that it may not be I deemed inappropriate, if I avail myself of this opportunity of the re-assembling of Congress to make known my sentiment', in a general manner, in regard to the policy which ought to be pursued by the Government, both in its intercourse with foreign nations, and in its management and administration of internal affairs. Nations, like individuals in a state of nature, are equal and independent, possessing certain rights, and owing certain duties to each other, uri'ing from their necessary and unavoidable relations ; which rights and duties there is no common human authority to protect and enforce. Still, there are rights and duties, binding in morals, in conscience, and -in honor, although there is no tribunal to which sit-injured party can appeal but the disinterested judgement of many?n/l ( /af /? ! sword. Among tho acknowledged rights of nations is that which each possesses of establishing that fortn of Government which it may deem most con ducive to the happiness and prosperity of its own citizens: of changing that form, as circumstances may require ; and of managing its internal affairs recording to its own will. The people of the United States claim this right for themselves, and they readily concede it to others. Hence it becomes an imperative duty not to interfere in the Government or internal policy of other nations; and although we may sympathize with the unfortunate or the oppressed, everywhere, in their struggles for freodom, our principles forbid us from taking any part in such foreign contests. We make no wars to promote or to prevent successions to thrones ; to maintain any theory of a balance of power ; or to suppress the actual Government which aDy country chooses to establish for itself. We instigate no revolutions, nor suffer any hostile military expeditions to be fitted out in the United States to invade the territory or provinces of a friendly nation. The great law of morality ought to have a national, as well as a personal and individual, application. Wc should act towards other nations as we wish them to set towards us ; and justice and conscicuce should form the rule of conduct between Governments, instead of mere power, self-interest, or the desire of aggrandizement. To maintain a strict neutrality in foreign wars, to cultivate friendly relations, to reciprocate every noble and generous act, and to perform punctually and scrupulously every treaty obligation?these are the duties which we owe to other States, aud hy the performance of which we best entitle ourselves to like treatment from them ; or if that, in any case, he refused, we clear conscience. In our domestic policy, the Constitution will he my guide ; and in questions of doubt, I shall look for its interpretation to the judicial decisions of that tribunal which was established to expound it, and to the usage of the Government, sanctioned by the acquiescence of the country. I regard all its provisions ns equally binding In all its parts it is the will of the people, expressed in the most solemn form, and the constituted authorities are hut agents to carry that will into cfleet. livery power which it has granted is to be exercised for the public good ; but no pretence of utility, no honest conviction, even, of what might be expedient, can justify the assumption of any power not granted. The powers conferrel upon the Government, and their distribution to the several departments, are as clearly expressed in that sacred instrument as the imperfection of human language will allow; and I deem it my first duty, not to question its wisdom, add to its provisions, evade its requirements, or nullify its commands. Upon you, fellow citizens, ns the representatives of the States and the people, is wisely devolved the legislative power. I shall comply with my duty in laying before you, from time to time, any information calculated to enable you to discharge your high and responsible trust, for the benefit of our common constituents. My opinions will be frankly expressed upon the leading subjects of legislation , and if, which I-do not anticipate, any act should pass the two Houses of Congress which should appear to me unconsti tutional, or an encroachment on the just powers of I other department#, or with provisions hastily > adopted, nnd likely to produce consequences injurious and unforeseen, 1 should not shrink from the duty of returning it to you, with my reasons, for your further consideration Beyond the due performance of these constitutional obligations, hoth my respect for the Legislature ami my sense of propriety will restrain me from any attempt to control or influence your proceedings. With you is the power, the honor, and the responsibility of the legislation of the country. The Government of the United States is a limited Government It is confined to the exercise of powers expressly granted, and such others as may be necessary for carrying those powers into effect; and it is at all times au especial duty to guard against any infringement on the just rights of the States. Over the objects and subjects intrusted to Congress, its legislat ive authority is supreme. Hut here that aut hority ceases, and evory citizen who truly loves the Constitution, and desires the continuance of its existence and its blcssiDgs, will resolutely and firmly resist any interference in those domestic affairs which the Constitution has clearly and unequivocally left to the exclusive authority of the States. And every such citizen will also deprecate useless irrttition among the several members of the Union, nnd all reproach and crimination tending to alienate one portion of the oountry from another. The beauty of our system of Government consists, and its safety and durability roust oonsiyt, in avoiding mutual collisions and encroachments and in the regular separate action of all, while each is revolving in its own distinct orbit. The Constitution has made it the duty of the President to take care that the laws be faithfully executed. In a Government like ours, in which all laws are passed by a majority of the representatives of the people, and these representatives are chosen for such abort periods that any injurious or obnoxious law can very soon be repealed, it would appear unlikely that any great numbers should be found ready to resist the execution of the laws. Rut it must lie borne in mind that the country is extensive, that there may be local interests or prejudices rendering a law odious in one part which is not so in another, and that the k U?1 ?j : i.i? .? hi tl.cir < >iu<i?ui ir??o nixi luomBnirr ni-, MH?IV? ?/ passions or their imaginations, may be induoed inadly to resist such laws an they disapprove Koch persona Bhould recollect that, without law, there can be no real practical liberty , that, when law is trampled under foot, tyranny rules, whether it appears in the form of a military despotism or or popular violenoe The law iB the only aure protection of the weak, and the only ifficient restraint upon the strong When impartially and faithfully administered, none is beneath its pretention, and none above its oontrol. You, gentlemen, and the country, may he aweured, that to the utmost of my ability, and to the extent of the power vested in me, I shall at all times and in all places take sare that the laws be faithfully executed. In the discharge of this duty, solemnly imposed upon ms by the Constitution and by my oath of ofboe, I shall ahrink from po responsibility, and shall endeavor to meet events, I as they may arise, with firmness, as well aa with prmlence and discretion. The appointing power is one of the most delicate with which the Kxecntive is invested, i regird it aa a sacred trust, to he exercised with the sole view of advancing the prosperity and happiness of the people. It shall be my effort to ete IE NATIONAL ERA, tale the standard of official employment, by se- j t Ircting for places of importance individuals fitted ? for the posts t-o which they ore assigned, by their a known integrity, talents, and virtues In so ex- j i tensive a country, with so great a population, and j where few persons appointed to office can be 1 known to the appointing power, mistakes will 1 1 sometimes unavoidably happen, and unfortunate appointments be made, notwithstanding the great- ! n est care. In such cases, the power of removal f may bo properly exercised ; and neglect of duty f or malfeasance in oflioe will be no more tolerated i in individuals appointed by mytelf than in those i appointed by others. I t 1 am happy in being able to say that no unfa- c vorable change in our foreign relations has taken i place since the message at the opening of the last session of Congress We are at peace with all I ] nations, and we enjoy in an eminent degree the ; t blessings of that peace, in a prosperous and grow- j 1 ing commerce, and in all the forms of amicable t national intercourse. The unexampled growth t of the country, the present amount of its popula- t tion, ami its ample means of self protection, as- j i sure for it the respect of all nations; while it is 1 trusted that its character for justice, and a regard 1 to the rights of other StAtes, will cause that re- i < aivAot to Kn i?aa/4Uv wnrl rhnrrfullr n|FTT\/t. W UV 4VW...J ? ? ? ~ J A convention was negotiated between the Uni- ' ted States and Great Britain, in April Inst, for i facilitating and protecting the construction of a < ship canal between the Atlantic and Pacific 1 Oceana, and for other purposes This instrument 1 has since been ratified by the contracting parties. I the exchange of ratifications has been effected, and proclamation thereof has been duly made. In addition to the stipulations contained in this convention, two other subjects remain to be accomplished between the contracting powers. First, the designation and establishment of a free port at eaoh end of the canal. Second, an agreement fixing the distance from the shore within which belligerent maritime operations shall not be carried on. On these points there pi little doubt that the two Governments will come to an understanding. The company of citizens of the United States who have acquired from the Suite of Nicaragua the privilege of constructing a ship canal between the two oceans, through the territory of that State, have made progress in their preliminary arrangements. The treaty between the United Strtes and Great Britain, of the 19th of April last, above referred to, being now in operation, it is to be hoped that the guaranties which it offers will be sufficient to secure the completion of the work with all practicable expedition. It is obvious that this result would be indefinitely postponed, if any other than peaceful measures, for the purpose of harmonizing conflicting claims to territory in that quarter, should be adopted. It will consequently be my endeavor to cause any further negotiations on the part of this Government, which may be requisite for this purpose, to be so conducted as to bring them to a speedy and successful close. Some unavoidable delay has occurred^arjsipg,!, from distance and the difficulty nf i|?t ercourse between this Government ami that of Nicaragua; but rh intelligence has just been received of the ?j?|wiu\u>\uv\>k i .uwy ?i am iv * i vi i nn r y nuu i?i iuister Plenipotentiary of that Government, to reside at Washington, whose arrival may soon he expected, it is hoped that no further impediments will be experienced in the prompt transaction of business between the two Governments. Citizens of the United States have undertaken the connection of the two ooeans by means of a railroad across the Isthmus of Tehuuntcpec, under grants of the Mexican Government to a citizen of that Republic. It is understood that a thorough survey of the course of the communication is in preparation, and there is every reason to expect that it will he prosecuted with characteristic energy, especially when that Government shall have consented to such stipulations with the Government of the United States as may be necessary to impart a feeling of security to those who may emhark their property in the enterprise. Negotiations are pending for the accomplishment of that object; and a hope is confidently entertained that, when the Government of Mexico shall become duly sensible of the advantages which that country cannot fail to derive from the work, and learns that the Government of the United States desires that the right of sovereignty of Mexico in the Isthmus shall remain unimpaired, the stipulations referred to will he agreed to with alacrity. lty the last advices from Mexico, it would sp- | I'cui, ?uni-?n, iiiiu in 11 uu*ciiiuiciii nun i.unn strong objections to aome of the stipulations which the parties concerned in the project of the railroad deem necessary for their protection and security Further consideration, it is to he hoped, or some modification of terms, may yet reconcile the differences existing between the two Governments in this respect. Fresh instructions have receutly been given to / 4V? v rtfrtHo !u M '*1 u/, n1t?i is prosecuting the subject with promptitude and ability. Although the negotiations with Portugal, for the payment of claims of citizens of the United State* against that Government, have not yet resulted in a formal treaty, yet a proposition made hy the Government of Portugal, for the final adjustment and payment of those claims, has recently been accepted on the pnrt of the Untied States. It gives me pleasure to say that Mr. Clay, to whom the negotiation on the part of the United States hal been intrusted, discharged the duties of his appointment with ability and discretion, acting always within the instructions of his Government. It is expected that a regular convention will be immediately negotiated for carrying the agreement between the two Governments into effect. The commissioner appointed under the act of Congress for carrying into effect the convention w ith Hraxil, of the 'J 7 th of January, 1849, has entered upon the performance of the duties impost d upon him hy that act. It is hoped that those duties may be completed within the time which it prescribes The documents, however, whioh the Imperial Government, hy the third nrtioleofthe convention, stipulates to furnish to the Governnieut of the United States, have not yet been received. As it is presumed that those documents will he essential for the correct disposition of the clnims, it inay become necessary for Congress to extend thp period limited for the duration of the commission. The sum stipulated hy the fourth article of the convention to be paid to this Government has been received. The collection in the ports of the United States of discriminating duties upon the vessels of Chili and their cargoes has been suspended, pursuant to the provisions of the act of Congress of the V I h of May, 1 it is to be hoped that this measure win impart a rreeh impulse to trie commerce no- i tween the two countriis, which, of late, and espe- I cialljr sinoe our acquisition of California, has, to the mutual advantage of the parties, been much augmented. Peruvian guano hiiR become so desirable an article to the agricultural interest of the United States, that it ia the duty of the Government to employ nil the means properly in its power for the purjaise of causing that article to be imported into the country at a reasonable price. Nothing will be omitted on my part towards accomplishing this desirable end. I am persuaded that, in removing any restraints on thistrattic, the Peruvian Government will promote its own best interests, while it will afford a proof of a friendly disposition towards this country, which will he duly appreciated. The treaty between the United States and 11 is Msjosty the King of the Hawaiian Islands, which has recently been made public, will, it is believed, have s beneficial effect upon the relations between the two countries The relations between those parts of the Island of St. Domingo, which were formerly colonies of Spain and France, respectively, are still in an asrr"Jed cosdiiicc. The proximity of that islacd to the United States, and the delicate queations involved in the existing controversy there, render it desirable that it should >? permanently and speedily adjusted. The interests of humanity and of general commerce also demand this , and, as intimations of the same sentiment have been received from other Governments, it is hoped that ? some plan may soon he devised to effect the object ^ in a manner likely to give general satisfaction. . The Government of the United Slates will not fail, by the exercise of all proper friendly offices, _ to do all Id its power to pat an end to the desiruc- " tire war which has raged between the different 0 rarta of the Inland, and to necure to thein both the f benefits of peace and commerce. I refer jou to the report of the Secretary of the c Treasury for a detailed statement of the finances. ? The total receipts into the Treasury, for the _ year ending 30th of June last, were forty-seven j, million fbar hundred and twenty-one thousand , seven hundred and forty-eight dollars and ninety j cento, ($17,421,748 90) ? The total expenditures daring the same period g were forty-three million two thousand one hnn- t< dred and sixty-eight dollars and ninety cents, ti (f 43,002, I#* 90) The public debt has been reduced, since the v last annual report from the Treasury Depart- a ment, four hundred and ninety-five thousand two b hundred and seventy-six dollars and seventy-nine g cents, u I i . . > . i i B liy the 1 Oth section of the act of 2-*th Junu- o ary, 1847, the proceeds of the sales of the public r lands were pledged for the interest and principal li of the public debt. The great amount of those ti land* siibee.jucntly granted by Congress for mill- n tary bounties, will, it is believed, very nearly f< supply the public demand for several years to n come, and but little reliance can therefore be a placed on that hitherto fruitful sou roe of reve- ft nue. Aside from the permanent annual expenditures, p Which have necreearily largely increased, a por- o WASHINGTON, D. C ion of the public debt, amounting to eight million I eventy-five thousand nine hundred end eighty- ' iix dollars end fifty-nine oenf?, (f ,07.1,DSC,19,) i nust be provided for within the next two fiscal i rears It is most desirable thst these accruing i lemtndg should be met without resorting to new oans. All experience has demonstrated the wisdom ind policy of raising a large portion of revenue | 'or the support of Government, from duties on pods imported. The power to lay these duties 8 unquestionable, and its chief object, of course, s to replenish the Treasury. Hut if. in doing his, an incidental advantage may be gained by meouraging the industry of our own citizens, it s our duty to avail ourselves of that advantage A duty laid upon an article which cannot be induced in this country?such as tea or coffee? t'lds to the cost of the article, and is chiefly or sholly paid by the consumer. Hut a duty laid ipon an article which may be produced here, itimnlates the skill and industry of our own counry to produce the same article, which is brought nto the market in competition with the foreign xrticle, and the importer is thus compelled to reluce his price to that at which the domestic article can bo sold, thereby throwing a part of the iuty upon the producer of the foreign article. I'be continuance of this process creates the ekill ind invites the capital which finally enable us to produce the article much cheaper than it could have been procured from abroad, thereby bene filing both the producer and the consumer at home The consequence of this is, that the artisan ind the agriculturist are brought together, each iffords a ready market for the produce of the jther, the whole country becomes prosperous; j and the ability to produce every necessary of life renders us independent in war as well as in peace A high tariff can never be permanent It will j [;auae dissatisfaction, and will be changed It excludes competition, and thereby iuvites the investment of capital in manufactures to such ex- j cess, that when changed it brings distress, bankruptcy, and ruin, upon all who have l>een misled by its faithless protection. What the manufacturer wants is uniformity and permanency, thai he may feel a confidence that ho is not to be ruin , ed by sadden changes Rut to make a tariff uniform and permanent, it is not only necessary that the law should not be altered, but that the duty i should not fluctuate. To effect this, all duties i should be specific, wherever the nature of the ar- i tide is such as to admit of it. Ad valorem duties fluctuate with the price, and offer strong temptations to fraud and perjury. Specific duties, on j the contrary, are equal and uniform in all ports, and at all times, and offer a strong inducement to the importer to bring the best article, as he pays no more duty upon that than upon one of ir.ferior quality. I therefore strongly recommend a modification of the present tariff, which has prostrated some of our most important and necessary manufactures, and that epocific duties be imposed sufficient to raise the requisite revenue, making such discrimination in favor of the industrial pursuits of our own country as to encourage hope production, without excluding foreieu.competition. ft' is also important that an unfortunate prevision in the present tariff, which imposes a much higblf onxy upon fh*> V?* inavenai that enters into our manufactures than upon the manufactured article, should be remedied. The papers accompanying the report ?f the Secretary of the Treasury will disclose frauds attempted upon the revenue, in variety and amouut so great rs to justify the conclusion that it is impossible, under any system of ad valorem duties levied upon the foreign cost or value of the article, to secure an honest observance and an effect ual administration of the laws. The fraudulent devices to evade the law, which have been detected by the vigilance of the appraisers, leave no room to doubt that similar impositions not discovered, to a large amount, have been successfully practiced since the enactment of the law now in force This state of things has already had a prejudicial influence upon those engaged in foreign commerce. It has a tendency to drive the honest trader from the business of importing, and to throw that important branch of employment into the hands of unscrupulous and dishonest men, who are aliko regardless of law and the obligations of un oath, lly these means the plain intentions of Congress, as expressed in the law, are daily defeated. Every motive of policy and duty, therefore, impel me to ask the earnest atte ntion of Congress to this subject. If Congress should deem it unwise to attempt nny important changes in the system of levying duties at this session, it will become indispensable to the protection of the revenue that such remedies as in the judgment of Congress may mitigate the evils complained of, should be at once applied. As before stated, specific duties wnnld, in my opinion, ntl'ord the most perfect remedy for this evil; but, if you should not concur in this view, then, as a partial remedy, I bog leave respectfully ? , i. tmo.tui ur Luwiug the invoice of the article abroad as a means of determining its value here, the correctness of which invoice it is in many cases impossible to verify, the law be so changed as to require a home valuation or appraisal, to be regulated in Hiich manner as to give, as far as practicable, uniformity in the several ports. There being no mint in California, I am informed that the laborers in the minesnre compelled to dispose of their gold dust at. a large discount. This appears to me to be a heavy and unjust tax upon the labor of those employed in extracting this precious metal ; and I doubt not you will bo disposed, at the earliest period possible, to relieve them from it by the establishment of n mint. In the mean time, ns an assayer's oflice is established there, I would respectfully submit for your consideration the propriety of authorising gold bullion, which has been assayed and stamped, to be received in payment of Government dues. I cannot conceive that the Treasury would sutler any loss by such n provision, which will at once raise bullion to its p ir value, and thereby save (if I am rightly informed) many millions of dollars to the laborers, which are now paid in uiuRrifi^r, iu liuuTrri* inin jmcchhib muuil llUO available funds. This discount upon their hard earning is it henry tax, and every effort should he niiuie by the Government to relieve them from so great n burdeD. More than three-fourths of our population are engaged in the cultivation of the soil. The commercial, manufacturing, and navigating interests trc all, to a great extent, dependent on the agricultural It is therefore the most important in- j (creHt of the nation, and has a just claim to the | lostering care and protection of the Government, to far as they can he extended consistently with he provisions of the Constitution. As this oarilot he done hy the ordinary modes of legislation, respectfully recommend the establishment of an tgriculturnl Ilureau, to be charged with the duty >f giving to the leading branch of American inlustry the enoourngenient which it so well deicrves. In view of the immense mineral resources if our country, provision should also tie made for he employment of a competent mineralogist and shemist, who should he required, under the direcion of the head ot the bureau, to collect epecinens of the various minerals of our country, and o ascertlon, by careful analysis, their respective dements nnd properties, nnd their adaptation to lseful purposes He should also be required to xaminc and report upon the onalitiea of different , oils, and the manures best calculated to improve heir productiveness. Hy publishing the results if such experiments, with suitable explanations, i ind by the collection and distribution of rare , cods and plants, with Instructions aa to the best i ystern of cultivation roooh may t?e done to pro- i note this great national interest. I In compliance with the act of Congress, |?osse i i in the 2'td of May, 1 v?o, providing, among other hing?, for tnking the Seventh Census, a superin- I endent was appointed, and all other measures j uiopteu' Which were (teemed necessary to insure 1 he prompt and faithful performance or that duty. < rho appropriation alreoaymada will, It ia believ- I d, be sufficient to defray the wholeexpense of the vork; bat further legislation may lie necessary in 1 ....I lit. nt U/...IA i,f flip m ir- I hula of the Territories. It will eUo be proper to < nake provision by law, at an early <lay, for the | ublicatiou of such abstracts of the returns as the >uhiic intereats may require I The unprecedented growth of our Territories ' n the Pacific in wealth and population, and the ' onaequent increase of their social and commercial J elation* with the Atlantic States, ecein to render t the duty of the Government to use all ita oon- 1 itut tonal power to improvo the means of inter- I oursc with them. The importance of opening ft line of communication, the best and most exeditions of which the nature of the country will * dmit," between the valley of the Mississippi and he Pacific, was brought to your notice by my pre- ? eoeaeor, in his annual message , and as the rcoons which he presented in favor of that measure 1 till exist in full force, I beg leave to call your ateation to them, and to repeat the reoommenda- t ions then made by him " The uncertainty which exists in regard to the c alidlfy of land titles in California is a subject * rhich demands your early consideration Large r odies of land in that Htate are claimed under F rants said to have been made by authority of 1 he Hpanish and Mexican Governments. Many ' f these have not been perfected, others have been evoked, and some are believed to be fraudulent I lut, until they shall have been judicially lavan- 0 igated, they will continue to retard the settle- J ?ent and improvement of the oountry. I there- J ?re respectfully recommend that provision he ' isde hy law for the appointment of commissionra to examine all auch claims, with a view to thair t nal adjustment. < I also beg leave to call your attention to the pro- I riety of extending, at an early day, our system f Uod laws, with such moditioatione m may be < DECEMBER 5, 18! necessary, over the State of California and the Territoriee of Utah and New Mexico. The mineral lands of California will, of oourse, form an exception to any general system which may be I adopted Various methods of disposing of them hare been suggested. I was at firBt inclined to favor the system of leasing, as it seemed to promise the largest revenue to the Government, and to 1 afford the best security against monopolies; but j further retloction, and our experience in leasing the lead mines and selling lands upon credit, have brought my mind to the conclusion that there j would be great difficulty in collecting the rents, and that the relation of debtor and creditor, between the citizens and the Government, would be I attended with many mischievous consequences. I therefore recommend that, instead of retaining the mineral lands under the permanent oontrol of the Government, they be divided into small parcels and sold, under such restrictions, as to quantity and time, as will insure the best price, and ; guard most effectually against combinations of : capitalists to obtaiu monopolies The annexation of Texas and the acquisition of California and New Mexico have given increased importance to our Indian relations. The various tribes brought under our jurisdiction by these enlargements of our l>oundaries are estimated to embrace a population of one hundred and twentyfour thousand. Texas and New Mexico arc surrounded by powerful trilies of Indians, who are a source of coustant terror and annoyance to the inhabitants. Separating into small predatory bands, and alwayg mounted, they overrun the country, devastating farms, destroying crops, driving off whole herds of onUle, and occasionally murdering the inhabitant* or onrrying them into captivity. The great roads leading into the country are infested with them, whereby travelling is rendejed extremely dangerous, and immigration is almost entirely arrested. The Mexican frontier, which, by the eleventh article of the treaty of Guadalupe ilidalgo, we are hound to protect against the Indians within our liorder, is exposed to these incursions equally with our own. The military force stationed in that country (although forming a large proportion of the army) is represented as entirely inadequate to our own protection and the fulfilment of our treaty stipulations with Mexico The principal deficiency is in cavalry, and I recommend that Congress should, at as early a period as practicable, provide for the raising of one or more regiments of mounted men For further suggestions on this subject, and others connected with our domestic interests end the defence of our frontier, I refer you to the report of the Secretary of the Interior and of the Secretary of W ar. I commend also to your favorable consideration the suggestion contained in the last-mentioned report, and in the letter of the (Jeneral-in-ehief, relative to the establishment of an asylum for the relief of disabled and destitute soldiers. This subject appeals so strongly to your sympathies, that it would he superttuous in me to say anything more than Imrely to express my cordial ap-, probation of flip proposed ahjgcc, * The navy continues to give protection to our commerce and other national interests in the diflerewi quatverw 01 the globe, and "wafti Die exception of a single steamer on the Northern lakes, the vessels in commission arc distributed in six different squadrons. The report of the head of that Department will exhibit the services of these squadrons, and of the several vessels employed in oaoh, during the past year. It is a source of gratification, that while they have been constantly prepared for any hostile emergency, they have everywhere met with tut: mpoct uuu counwy uuv hh wuii io me tii^nuy as to the peaceful dispositions nnd just purposes of the notion. The two brigantines aoocpted by the Government from a generous citizen of New York, and placed under the command of an officer of the navy, to proceed to the Arctic sens in quest of the British commander, Sir John Franklin, and his companions, in compliance with the act of Congress approved in May Inst, had, when last heard from, penetrated into a high northern latitude; but the success of this noble and humane enterprise is yet uncertain. I invite your attention to the view of our present naval establishment and resources presented in the report of the Secretary of the Navy, and the suggestions therein made for its improvement, together with the naval policy recommended for the security of our Pacific Coast, nnd the protection and extension of our commerce with F.astern Asia. Our facilities for :i larger participation in the trade of the Fast, by means of our recent (set tlernents on the shores of the Pacific, are too obvious to be overlooked or disregarded. The questions in relation to rank in the army and navy, nnd relative rank between officers of me iw*. nrnnenes 01 ine service, presenieu 10 ine Kxecutive by certain resolution** of the House of Representatives, a< the liuit setwiou of Congress, have l)ecn submitted to a hoard of othccrs in each liranch of the service, and their report inay he cxpee ted at un early day. I also earnestly reoommend the enactment of n law authorising ollicers of the army and navy to he retired from the scrvioo, when incompetent for its vigorous and active duties, taking care to make suitable provision for those who have faithfully served their country, and awarding distinctions, !>y retaining in appropriate commands thoso who have been particularly conspicuous for gnllnutry and good conduct. While the obligation of the country to maintain and honor thoac who, to the exclusion of other pursuits, have devoted themselves to its arduous service, this obligation should not he permitted to interfere with thecllicicncy of the service itself. I am gratified in being able to state, that the estimates of expenditure for the navy in the ensuing year are less, by more than one million of dollars, than those of tho present, excepting the appropriation which may become necessary for the construction of 'u dock on the coast of the pacific, projK)?itions for which are now being considered, and on which a special report may be expected early in your present session. There is an evident justness in tho suggestion of the same report, that appropriations tor the naval service proper should be separated from those for tiied and permanent objects, such as building docks and navy yards, and the fix turns attached; and from the extraordinary objects, under the care of the I tepartuient, which, however important, arc not essentially naval. A revision of the code for the government of thp navy seems to require tho imme^liate consid .......... ?. i . ... v.. ... punishments had undergone no change for half a century, until the last notion, though its defects hare heen often and ably pointed out; and the abolition of a particular species of corporal punishment, which then took place, without providing any substitute, has left the service in a state of defectiveness, which calls for prompt correction I therefore recommend that the whole subject he revised without delay and such a system established for the enforcement of discipline, its shall be at once humane and (trectual The accompanying report of the Postmaster General presents a satisfactory view of the operations and condition of that Department At the olose of the last fiscal year, the length of the inland mail routes in the United Stutcs (not embracing the service iu Oregon and California) was one hundred and seventy-eight thousand six hundred and seventy-two miles; the anuual transportation thereon, forty-six million five hundred nnl forty-one thousand four hundred and twenty-three tniles ; and the annual cost of such tmnsportation two million seven hundred and twenty-four thousand four hundred and twontytii dollars The increase of the annual transportation over that of the proceeding year was three million nine hundred and ninet v-scvcn thousand three liandivd and fifty-four utiles, and the increase in sost was three hundred and forty-two thousand four hundred and forty dollars. The number of poatofhees in the United .States, on the first day of July last, w is eighteen thousand four hundred and seventeen?lxdng an increase of sixteen hundred and seventy during the preceding year, , The gross revenues of the Department for the iscal year ending June 'K), is;?0, amounted to five ! nillion five huudrcd and fifty-two thousand nine i tundred and seventy-one dollars and forty-sight j a nts, including the annual appropriation of two | tundred thousand dollars for the franked matter tf the Departments, and excluding the foreign i Mutagen collected fur and payable to the British Jovernment. The expenditure* for the anrae period were fire nil lion two hundred and twelve thousand nine tundred and fifty-three dollar* and forty three enta?leaving a balance of revenue over i xpendiurea of three hundred and forty thousand and ightecn dollar* and five cent*. I aih happy to find that the fiaci.l condition of he Department ia auch aa to justify the Poatnaeter General in rooommending the reduction < >f our iuland letter pontage to three cent* the ingle letter when prepaid, and five cent* when lot prepaid, ilealao recommend* that the pre>aid rate ahall lie reduced to two centa whenever ho revenue* of the Department, after the reducion, ahall exceed ita expenditure# by more than ive per cent, for two oonaeoutive year# ; that the Mintage upon California and other letter* sent by mr ocean ateamcra ahall be much reduced , and hat the rmtea of pontage on newepaper*, pnuipheta, perlodloala, and other printed matter, ahall >e modified, and aomo redaction thereon made. It cannot be doubted that the propooed reducion* will, for the preeent, diminiah the revenue* < if tho Department. It 1* believed that the deiciency, after the anrplua already accumulated hall he exhauated, mity be alinoat wholly met lUbor by aboliablng the exiating privilege# of 50. sending free matter through the mails, or by paying out of the Treasury to the Poet Office Pe- j partment a sum equivalent to the postage of which it is deprived by such privilege*. The last is supposed to be the preferable mode, and will, if not entirely, so nearly supply that deficiency as to make any further appropriation that may be fouml necessary so inconsiderable as to form no olmtacle to the proposed reductions. I entertain no doubt of the authority of Congress to make appropriations for leading objects in that claw of public works comprising what are usually called works of internal improvement This authority I supposed to be derived chiefly from the power of regulating commerce with foreign nation, and among the States, and the power of laying and collecting imposts. Where commerce is to be carried on. and imposts collected, there must he ports and harbors, as well as wharves and custom-houses If ships, laden with valuable cargoes, approach the shore, or sail along the coast, lighthouses are necessary at suitable points for the protection of life and property. Other facilities and securities for commerce and navigation are hardly less important; and those clauses of the Constitution, therefore, to which I have referred, have received from the origin of the Government u liberal and beneficial construction. Not only have lighthouses, huoys, and beacons, been established, and floating lights maintained, hut harbors have been cleared and improved, piers constructed, and even breakwaters for the safety of shipping, and sea walls to proI tect harbors from being tiHcd up and rendered ! useless by the action of the ocean, have been I erected at very great expense. And this oon! struction of the Constitution appears the more reasonable from the consideration, that if these works, of such evident importance and utility are not to ho A/wtmnliMhrd hv PoncrroxH thov r arm of j be accomplished at all By the adoption of the Constitution the several States voluntarily parted with the power of collecting duties of impost in their own ports , anil it is not to he expected that they should raise money, by internal taxation, direct or indirect, for the benefit of that commerce, the revenues derived from which do not, j cither in whole or in part, go into their own | treasuries. Nor do I perceive any difference bej twoen the power of Congress to make appropriations for objects of this kind on the ocean and the power to make appropriations for similar objects on lakes and rivers, wherever they nre large enough to hear on their watcrsan extensive traffic. The magnificent Mississippi and its tributaries, aud the vast lakes of the North and the NorthI west, appear to me to fall within the exercise of I the power, as justly ami as clearly as the Ocean j and the Gulf of Mexico. It is a mistake to regard expenditures judiciously ruade for these objects its expenditures for local purposes. The position or site of the work is necessarily local, but its,utility is general A ship canal around the falls of St. Mary of lesa than a mile in length, though local in its construction, would yet he national in its purpose and its benefits, as it wonld remove the only obstruction to a navigation of more than -<f. thousand tnftes, affecting several States, as well ss our commercial relations with Canada., So. too, the Breakwater at the mouth j ot Yvt...ware is erected not Tor the exclusive j benefit of the States bordering on the bay and | river of that name, but for that of the whole coastwise navigation of the United States, and, t<> a consiaeruMc extent also, or foreign commerce it a ship be lost on the bar at the entrance of a Southern port for want of sufficient depth of water, it is very likely to be a Northern ship , and j if a steamboat be sunk in any part of the MissigI sippi, on account of its channel not having been ! properly cleared of obstructions, it may lie a l>oat belonging to either of eight or ten States. 1 may add, as somewhat remarkable, that amon^all the , thirty-one States, there is none that is not, to a greater or less extent, bounded on the ocean, or the Gulf of iMcxico, or one of the great lakes, or | some navigable river. In fulhling our constitutional duties, fellowI citiiens, on this subject, as in carrying into effect all other powers conferred by the Constitution, we should consider ourselves as deliberating and acting for one and the aame country, and bear constantly in iniud, that our regard and our duty are due, not to a particular part only, but to the | whole. I therefore reeoinmend that appropriations be made for completing such works as have been already begun, and fur commencing such others as may seem to the wisdom of Congress to be of public and general importance. The difficulties and delays, incident to the settlement of private claims by Congress amount in many cases to a denial of justioe. There is reason'to appieheud that many unfortunate creditors of the Government have thereby been unavoidably rained. Congress ha* mi much business of s public character, that it is impossible it should give much attention to mere private claim*, and their accumulation is now so great that many claimants must despair of ever being able to obtain a hearing. It may well tie doubted whether Congress, from the nature of its organization, is properly constituted to decide upon such cases. It is impossible that each member should examine the merits of every claim on which he is compelled to vote | and it is preposterous to ask a judge to decide a case which ho has never heard. Such decisions may, and frequently must, do injustice either to the claimant or the Government, and I perceive no better remedy far this growing evil than the establishment of some tribunal to adjudicate upon such claims. I beg leave, there iw.v, ,u iiwuiuwii.1 win.. provision be made by law for the appointment of a commission to net tie all private claims against the United .States ; and, as an ex yirt> hearing must in all contested cases be very unsatisfactory, I also recommend the appointment of a Solicitor, whose duty it shall he to represent tho Government liofore such commission, and protect it against all illegal, fraudulent, or unjust claims, which may he presented for their adjudication. This Itistrict, which has neither voice nor vote in your deliberations, looks to you for protection and aid, and I commend all its wants to your favorable consideration, with a full confidence that you will meet tbein not only with justice, but with liberality, it should he. in inind that in this city, laid out by Washington, and consecrated by his name, is located the Capitol of our nation, the emblem of our Union, and the symbol of our greatness. 11 ere also are situated all the public buildings necessary for the use of the Government and all these are exempt from taxation. If should be the pride of Americans to render this place attractive to tho people of the wholo Republic, and convenient and safe for the transaction of the public business and the preservation of the public records. The Government should therefore bear a lils-ial proportion of the burdens of all necessary and useful improvements. And, as nothing could contribute more to the health, comfort, and safety of the city, and the security of the public buildings and records, than an abundant supply of pure water, I respectfully recommend thai you make such provisions for ob . u ....... lUUiliiR wwirw ... ""V u.vi.i proper. ^ The net passed nt your l ist session,making o<* tain propositions to Texas for settling the disputed Iwundary between that .Stale and ilie 'territory of New Mexico, was, immediately on its passage, transmitted by express to tho Governor of Texas, to bo laid by him before t he General Assembly for its agreement thereto. Its receipt was duly acknowledged, but no official information has yet been received of the action of the (ieneral Assembly thereon ; it may, however, be very soon , expected, as, by tho terms of the proposition submitted, they were to have been acted upon on or before the first day of the present month. It was hardly to have been expected that the series of measures passed at your last session, with the view of healing the sectional differences which had sprung from the slavery and Territorial questions, should at once have realized their beneficent purpose All mutual concession In the nature of a compromise must necessarily be unwelcome to men of extreme opinions. And though without such concessions our Constitution could not have been formed, and cannot be permanently sustained, yet wc have seen thein made the subject of bitter controversy In both sections of the Itepublic. It required mnny months of discussion and deliberation to secure tho concur- | renco of a majority of Congress in their favor. It would be strange if they had been received with immediate approbation by people and Statos, prejudiced and heated by tho exciting controversies of their representatives. I believe those measures to have been required l?y the circumstances arid condition of the country. I believe they were uecsoary to allay asperities and animosities that were rapidly alienating one section of the , country from nnother, and destroying those fraternal sentiments which are the strongest supports of the Constitution. They were adopted in the spirit of conciliation, and for the pur[s>se of conciliation. I tadieve that a great majority of our fellow-citizens yrrpithizs in that spirit and that pur|<ose, and in the main approve, and are prepared in all reapeuta to suotaio, these enact. ruenU. I oannot doubt that the American people, bound together by kindred blood and common traditions, still cherish a paramount regard for tlii* fTni/itt t\f thftir fgfKi?rit nntl that thaw mm* ready to rebuke any attempt to violate ita integrity, (o diaturb the compromiaea on which it ia baaed, or to reaiat the lawa which have been enacted under iU authority. The aeriea of meaaurea to which I have alluded use regarded by me an a aettlement, in principle and imbalance?a final aettlement of the dangerdun and exciting aubjeota i^hioh they embraced. Moat of theae aubjeota, indeed, are beyond your reach, aa the legialatien which diapoaed of them waa, in ita character, final and irrevocable. It utay be preaumed, front the oppoeition which they i L 1 195 nil encountered, that none of those measures was free from imperfections, hut in their mutual dependence and connection they formed a system of compromise, the moot conciliatory, and beet for the entire country, that could be obtained from conflicting sectional interests and opinions. For this reason I recommend your adherence to the adjustment established by those measures, until time and experience shall demonstrate the necessity of further legislation to guard against evasion or abuse. Ity that adjustment we have been rescued from the wide and boundless agitation that surrounded us. and have a firm, distinct, and legal ground to rest upon And the occasion, I trust, will justify n>e in exhorting iny countrymen to rally upon and maintain that ground as the best, it not the only, means of restoring peace and quiet to the ' country, and maintaining inviolate the integrity of the Union And now. fellow-citixens, I cannot bring this communication to a close without invoking you to join me in humble fttid devout thnnkn to tbe Great Ruler of nations for the multiplied blessinas which ! he has graciously bestowed upon us. Ilia hand no often visible in our preservation, has stayed i the pestilence, saved us from foreign wars and s domestic disturbances, and scattered plenty | throughout the land. Our liberties, religious and civil, have been maintained ; the fountains of knowledge have all been kept open, and means of happiness widely i spread and generally enjoyed, greater than have fallen to the lot of any other nation. And, while deeply penetrated with gratitude for the past, let us hope that His all-wise Providence will so guide | our counsels as that they shall result in giving satisfaction to our constituents, securing the peace | of thecouutry, am) adding new strength to the ' united Government under which we live. MILLARD K1LLM0HE Washino i<w, lbcwber 2, 18.r>0. OAK HALL, BOSTON. Is in const ml |>tiblie favor. Simmon* i? Jn?t the man f. r hi* lni*in?A?. We a.lvi.v our reader* wh" contemplate visiting that city to call at hia establishment an<l make their pun-base* from tho l-eel *cla?tw] stock to he fouml,at prices which cannot fail to auit. [TT" fVHVLERS 4" WELLS, /'fircnoLttfisI* ami Put i(,.icr.,,<;iint<?n Hall, I.Jt Nassau street, New York. OWce of the Wiitrr Our* and Phrenological Journals. I.ITTKI.L** I.I VINO AO E. CtONTKNTS Ob' No. 313. ? Price, twelve and half ' eente. 1. Water: lain.lnn Water ? Qmtr/er/y Rerirrr. 2. i^<nr?M ?l the Science*? lilt? e l\ fhtluioj<h"itl Jour nnl. It. My Nreel ; Ilo<>k Blarlnrootl's Mugtitint. I. New* of the week ending Jbth October.?Spttluloi, Kraminri, 4'<* Correapondetice.' New llook*. TOKTRV. The Titoe i? Short. t- > s.o 0 '',10 a* * * SHORT ARTrrt.RS. I American ttoean Steam Navigation. Hrother Jonathan I Mit.l Si U?f^w I.'* ?. The the ><-?a. IhVV >AU.u v.?nio. t iateway of the <Wana. WaaiimnTow.IJerewtfrer 27,184#. Of all the Periodical Journal* d.ivnted to literature and acienee, which abound in Kurope and in thia country,thio ha* appeared to me to be the moat uaeful. It contain* indeed the exponition only of the current literature of tha Kngliah language; bat tbia, by Ita Immenie extant and ooiuprrbenaion,include*# portraiture of the human mind in the ut innate xpanaiuiivf the present age. J.Q. ADAMS. Published weekly,at six dollara a rear, by K. LITTK1.I. A CO., Corner of Treraont and ifroflifleldetreets,Boston. try^ rnr ?ui? ny jii-ir.rn nnii^inwnin, comer or ffour-and-a-half*treet and i'etinsylygtiia mtunt, Washington. PROSPECTUS OF TilK NATIONAL KRA. VOLUME V.?ISM. Wanihwitoji, District <ir Coi.tmbia. O. HAII.KY, KIIITOH ANI) PROPRIETOR ; JOHN U. WHITTIKK, CORRK8PONDINH EDITOR. r|A|iK NATIONAI. KRA In an Anti-Slavery, Political,and -?- Literary Newspaper. A brief summary of the principles and measures we ara prepared at all proper times to maintain, will serre to show the character and course of the Era. W? holdThat Slavery Is repugnant to Natural Right, the Law of Christianity, the Spirit of the Age, and the essential nature of our Republican Institutions; That Emancipation, without compntsory expatriation, is a high duty, demanded alike by Justice ami Expediency: That there is hut one safe and effectual mode of abolishing Slavery ; and that ts by law, to l>e enacted by the States in wliinh It exists: That Slavery can have no lawful being in Territory under the exclusive jurisdiction ol the United States : That Congress ts hound to exclude it from all Territory now belonging or that may hereafter belong to the United Slates; That the American Union, as the bond of I'eace, the organ of one Language and one Civilisation, the medium of i res Trade,among the nume rous States and Territories stretch iug from the Atlantic to I lie Taeitic shores of this Continent, as the Refuge of suffering millions from the OIJ World, and a Safeguard against its Ambition and Intrigue, is of priceless value to the Cause of Human Progress ; anil that there is enough intelligence and virtue in its member* to extinguish Slavery, the single cause that disturbs its harmonies, impairs its energies, alloys its benefits, and threatens its* lability t j nil inr rc<ivr*i ? >tm?imitmn outfit Hi ne *? Kiuoiiuru ma lo |ilwt tin elcdlim of Pre* dint In the hamla of the Peopie, directly, and to limit )jiM term of office to four year*, making Iiim thereafter ii?>li|(il>l?; ami to bo atill further amended *o a* to give to the People of the aeveral Slate* tii* election of their United State* Senator*, changing the term of office from elx to lour year* . That the I'oet Office Department ought to be aeparatetl from tho t hief I'.xecutive, the Poatmaatcr tioneral and all the local Poatmaetera tieing electlre by the People, and the power of removal for juat ami aultteient cauae lodged in the hatida of the Peat inaater Ueileral' That poatage on all newapapera, of a certain *lxe,forall diatancea, ahoubl be one cent; on all Icttera, under half an ounce, for all dtataiioM, two cent* prepaid ; that the frank lug privilegeakould be at>oliahed , ami negotiation* lie I intituled for the pnrpoaeof a ecu ring free exchange* within reaaoiiable limit*, between tbe newapapera of Km rope and the United Statea, and a reduction to the loweat point poaalble in the poatajfe on letlera paa-dng between foreign countriea and our own: That the public landa ahoubl be bebl aa a truat for the benellt of the People of the United Statea, to be granted in limited <|uautillea to actual aettiera who are landleaa: That the homoKtaad ought to be exempt from aale or exenutlon for debt : That reatrietlon* on commerce among the several State*, ami between al! nationa, ought to tic removed: That t'ongreaa ought to make due appropriation for iui proveoienta demanded by the Interest* of commerce with foreign nation*, or among tbe Slate*, provided they lie not purely loeal In their benefit*, and tie not proper ?ubjeet* for Stat M nr inili vi<Iij341 enterprlcc. In maintaining our view*, we chall fearlrcely u*? the righlc, while we the cnurteeiec, of Pre* I'iceuccton, conceding to those who may <11 ft*-r from ui, what we elwiiu for ourcelvec, the credit of honest motive*. Such report* of the proceeding* of lomgroa* will l>e given a* will convey a correct idea not only of it* action, but of lie spirit and policy. The Pork ion P'orrrspiinohnch of the Era it at leaet cpial in value and Intereat to that of any Journal in the country. The I.itkuaiiv Mi?< ri.i.anv of the />? la amply proviiled for. John tl. Wiiittikm, ttie I'oet, will continue Corresponding Kdttor. I'.y an arrangement with that popular writer, (J a a en (la kin wood, her eervlcea have been centred for tlie Km nrlunrrhj, beginning on the tlret of January neat. Mr*. Kmma It. K. N. Noutiiwortii, the American Novel let, who lirat became known to the public through the column* of our paper, ha* engaged to furnish a story for our new volume. Among other contributor* we may name J>r. Witt.u* Ki.dkr, the lion, Hknuv H. Stanton, Martha Khaari.i., Mauv Irvino, Amur and I'ihrbb I.'ahiv, and Mr*. II. H Stow a?name* familiar and attractive. Having thtia made ample arrangement* for thetJenerif Itepartmeiit* of the Pa|>er, we shall devote ourselves mora particularly to Anti-Slavery and Political Discussions, tak lug care to keep our reader* ad viced of all Important reform movement* and current event*. Term* ? two dollar* per aunum, ulwilyt payable In ud hvery anbeertbor renewing hi* aabaeiiptlon, and tending hi two NKW ?>ib*<>ribere,*hall hart th? three ooplea for Ave dollar*. L'lube live noplea for eight dollar* , tan eoptea foi fifteen dollar*. All oomimmlaatintia, on buatnaea of the Era or for publication, ibould he nddreeead to OAMAUKL HAILKY. I'. N, The volume alwaya begin* on the flrat of January Waiuim?toh P. 0., Nmtmbtr 2H, INflfl, IIONTON "NATIONAL KHA" AOKNCY, No. 3 Com/nil. rpHK National Era Oome* from Waahington to thl* eflle# A by Kxpraa*, and la delivered by earrler* In auy part of the olty proper, at $i75 a year,/r?? y/ymtfug*; alngla nopiaa, all and a quarter eauta. N ow la tha tlma to aaaura t b la national advooat# of the Lib arty Movaaaent, daring the flrat ?#**lon of! ungoo** undar tha now AduitnUtratloii, when'|ua*tlon* of lb* moat thrilling import a nee nuat be decided Kubooriptlou* and reuawale reapoetfa ly tollelted by N#f.? UKO. W. IJOHT, 3 tornblll. MAMMA. MKN. KMII.y H. iTOL'KTON, No. Ifll Cho.tnttt atroa* between f ourth and Hftbatrc* to,Philadelphia. (Jwi.H?tf LAW urntC. (HiLPMNUA, O. WILLIAM H. JA*?PI, Jan., AUornty and CormiolUr a/Aa?,??h."b'>* ?>blo OAeoln Plait* now buildIII SuU tfMt, o|?poiH? attiitb door of HtiU Huium.