Newspaper Page Text
NEW NATIONAL ERA.
FREDERICK DOUGLASS. Editor. Commnnicatioua fur th? editorial drpirtnent should br adJraaaed ' Editor New National Era. Lock Box SI." Buaineaa latter* from aubecribera and advertisers should baoddreaaad to Pradarkk Dongtaa*. Jr., Lock Box 31. Thia paper ll not responsible lor the views expressed by Correspondents. EVSnbacribort changing thair rwid?nrN, and dealrlng to hare tha Kxw National Exa forwarded to them, should ba particular in writing oa to atate fully the new address, unbracing town, conntjr, and State, aa well m the town, W'tiotT, and State from which the change te to be made. Attention to thi? wtll **e* much trouble. THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 1871. European Complication*. When it became evident that the golden age of monarchists was over in Europe, and King* and Emperor* found that the people would no i longer submit to absolute rule, no longer reoog niae a power above the law, constitutional monarchy was the expedient resorted to as the means of reconciling the claims of hereditary royalty with those of the people. It was a compromise, a half measure, and an attempt to unite two principles incompatible in their ry nature, and therefore doomed to be s failure! All European States, with the ex ception of the Russian Empire, Switzerland, i and the so-called French Itepublic, are nowa days constitutional monarchies, most of them a sufficiently long time to show die beneficial re suits of the system to their full extent. A glance on them reveals to us, however, a large part in a state of constant fermentation, as it it were a kind of chronic inflammation, others are shaken every few years by great revolutions, from which they wilt emerge with some advantages gained, part of which they may preserve, while others will slip from their hands again, to be regained only by frosh exertions and fresh sacrifices. It would be a mistake, however, to lay the fault of this state of affairs entirely at the doors of those in power; or the contrary, it has to be admitted that the majority of the people are yet far below the mark in their conceptions of popular sove reignty and republican liberty* It is true, there are many earnest and uncompromising republicans, and their number is daily in creating, bnt the great masses, the unthinking multitude thus far believe stilFin the excel lence and efficiency of their system of consti tntional representation and monarchical power. The evils and abuses growing from it do no: enlighten them, for they will lay the responsibility on individual men, and shut their eyes to the truth that the institutions which place such power for mischief in the hands of the few must necessarily be the real cause of the vil. Once in a while some particularly un scrupulous monarch will meet with his deserts by being sent into exile, and just at this moment the circle of fallen rulers, pretender* and of their descendauta is probabiy as large as at any previous time?most promiqent among I them?Mr. and Mrs. Napoleon and son, the ehildren and grandchildren of Louis Philipps, the Count of Chambord, Mrs. Isabella ol Spain with a hopeful fhmily, King Otto ol ^ Greece and lady, and some half dozen of Italian Princes ; yet, instead of improving the opportunity and securing their independence, ithe people have invariably only substituted one ruler for another, exchanged King Log for King Stork, to swing ouce more round the circle of misrule, abuses, and disappointed hopss. During the last few weeks the complications arising from party struggles in Spain and Austria have attracted general attention. In Spain the Progressists Ministry of Zorilla has been overthrown by the combined opposition of the radicals and reactionists, and the King % either blind or wilfully shutting his eyes to the fact that radicalism is growing fast, and will rule in Spain before long, has thrown himself io the arms of the Conservatives, who, under the party name of the ''Liberal Union," were the shief instruments of the odious des potism which became the immediate eauss of th* revolution of lSltfl and the downfall of the Bourbon dynasty. Of course, such a Cabinet has no elements of vitality ; it will fall and deserve to fall, and we may conse qaently look for new dissensions, conflicts, and perhaps even revolutionary outbreaks in the nazt future. There is one subject, however, upon which rffl parties, Conservatives, Progreasistas, and even Radicals seem to be onited ; that is the prosecution of the criminal and cruel war they are waging in Cuba. For several years it has been a drain on the blood aa well as on the treasure of Spain, instead of famishing an iocorne as in former times; be sides, cne would think that by this time most every tolerably intelligent and enlightened man ought to see that the whole system oi holding colonies is in itself wrong and unjust, a remnant of old barbarous times, doomed to die out sooner or later, and that consequently? even if the present insurrection could be snppreesed?Cuba is bound to be independent in the necessary and inevitable course of events. Probably some of the Radicals are conscious of thie truth, yet do not venture to ntter it, for fear of encountering the odium of the xnasseo, who imagine the honor of the nation involved in the preservation of Cuba under Spanish rnle. In Austria it is the old feud between the Czechs and the Germans, anjl the attitude assumed by the Emperor towards the contending races, that lead to the anticipation of serious troubles. The Czechs insist that Bohemia, under the imperial scepter, be made entirely independent of German dictation, and the Poles demand the same for Galicia. They claim the same rights with the Hungarians, wuv vuwucu iuo.i nar?uuui> BUiue 11 111e olfO. The eases are howerer widely different, for the Magyars are a united and homogeneous people, and since their demand was granted there have been friendly relations and mutual goojl feeling between them and the rest of the Empire. In the Sclavonian regions, on the contrary, there is a large German minority of about two fifths of the whole population, who protest energetic cally against being delivered into the hands of a race that, besides entertaining an inveterate national hatred against them, is moch inferior to them in intellect, culture, and enlightenment. It neeu not be told that the Germans in all % provinces of the Empire warmly sympathize with their conntrymen, and insist on the strict observance of the Constitution. On the other | side, it might appear strange that the Emperor? himself a German, should take sides with the Sclavonics wwre it not lor the incorrigible reactionary disposition of the Hapsborg tribe, ; which leads him to sympathise with reaction- i iete?-no matter or what race?rather than with ' liberal, progressive men. The Ccecha, illiterate, behind tba civilization of the age, super stitions, bigoted, and fanatical in their devotion to the Catholic Charob nod iu prieethood, are, by far, move desirable adbjects in hie ejes shea the Germans with their troublesome notions of progress, political and religious liberty. Toe Hohenwart Ministry was the fair repres i.tatire of the Emperor** tendency toward toe Cseche, but it had to give way before the Indication and dissatisfaction of the people, and Count Holigstba*, who was charged with the formation of a new Cabinet, failed en -? - - ' " - . ? - J tirely in bis task. It seems neither probable that the present Kellersperg Ministry will be iacceseTnl in solving the growing difficulties of the situation. All complications and troubles, j however, have greatly increased by the sudden resignation of Baron Beust, the liberal and enlightened Chancellor of the Empire, who, of all others, enjoys the confidence and affection of the Germans, and their indignation is the greater because it is asserted that he did not withdraw voluntarily, but only at an intimation from the Emperor. It is added that the ' Emperor did not so much act out of his own impulse, as he was prompted by his wife and mother, the reactionary, wily, and bigoted Archduchess Sophia, who osed a trifling occur rence as a pretext for exerting all their in- j fluence to eradicate from the government ali those hated liberal tendencies which found their representative in Baron Becst. The incident of whioh such capital has boen mads, was, although significant in its bearings, by no means of such a character as to famish an excusefcr the consequences which were given to it. A few weeks ago, at the installation of the Rector Mianificuu of the University of Vienna, the students received the Ciech Minister of Public Instruction, with hisses and shouts of perent, while they greeted Baron Bbust with enthusiastic vivats. This affair was made a cause of bitter denunciations, but since the Kmperor had permitted the Hohenwart Ministry to resign, in deference to the urgent demand of the German party, it was confidently hoped that he wonld sustain the Chancellor. If, as is now apprehended, he is weak enongh to yield to the reactionary influences which are made to bear on him, and to throw himself entirely in the arms of the Csech party, the experiment may prove highly disastrous to him, and even force the wronged Germans of Bohemia to renounce him entirely in order to become a part of the powerful German empire. Biding Tbelr Time! It is the polioy of that class of Republicans who, from personal disappointments, have dis oovered that the Republican party has fulfilled its mission, and that it should now give place to another and more 44 conservative" organisation, with new leaders at its head, to convince the Northern people that all is harmony and ?ood will at the South, and that further to withhold from rebels our entire, generous, unqualified confidence is gross injustice to ilia m sn.1 <lunwnvAiia a ilia TU,... VUVUI auu uaiigvivuo tUC VUlUUi A LI*?Y proclaim from every " tump," and through all their papers, that the people of the re!>el States have accepted in good faith all the reeonstraction measures of Congress, and are even reconciled to negro suffrage, und, therefore, clamorously demand that the few rebel leaders, like Davis, Stephens, Breckinridge, Ae, to whom the right to hold office?not the right to vote?is still denied, shall have that disability removed, and that the chair of the White House, the halls of Congress, the Supreme Court, and foreign missioos should be placed again within their reach. But the assurance of the selfish Republican demagogues who are laboring to break down the Republican party and build ooe upon its ruins, in which they will play a more prominent and profitable part than they can now, that the South is reconciled to the situation, is a dishonest attempt to deceive the people. It is the farthest thing possible from the truth that even a respectable minority of the old rebel element of the slaveholding States, or any considerable number of their leaders, have resolved to acoept the result of the war as a definite and permanent disposal of the doctrines of secession and the question of Southern rights. They lose no opportunity to declare that they are but biding their time and patiently awaiting and preparing tor the day to coine which will justify them in striking another blow for "the lost cause." The avowal of Jeff. Davis, as j their great, trusted leader, and the admiration ; in which he is held among "his people," would I of itself justify us in m iking this assertion. i There is, however, abundance of other proof all over the Sooth, in the declaration of their press and their orators, to the same point. Only a few days ago General Bradlkt T. Johnso* and the carpet bag apostate Governor of Virginia took advantage of the non-political gathering at the State fair to utter sentiments as treasonable as those by Davis in Georgia. Iu the speech which Johnson obtruded upon the people he boldly declared, and repeated with j bitter emphasis, that "so sure as the sun shines s and the buds blossom, so surely will they in the j fuUness of time retrieve everything now lost.'1 I And again: "From Runnymededown their loss" j (the race from which the "chivalry" sprang) ! "has been temporary, their gains permanent. In their spirit we look to the future, and you, our sons, will retrieve everything that has been lost." The renegade Wai.kkr, who went to Virginia a mere adventurer since the war, and was elected Governor on the ground that he was a better Republican than General Wem.s, the Republican candidate, made a speech on the same <?ccaeiou, in which he boasted of his readiness, as Commander-in-Chief, to lead the J troops of the State when another attempt to regain tbeir "independence" shall be made. In j the same spirit, and part of the same conspira cy, is the fallowing from the Norfolk Virgin ian : "The West, the Northwest, and ths Sosstb, >rhicb are one in interest, will combine and re I peal the tariff, the act of emancipation, if ne- j cessary, and the new amendments to the Con-! btitution, which are frauds on that instraraent. As a question of dollars and cents, of simple addition and subtraction, not to say of justice and commoa honesty, the new allies of the South will find it to their interest to assume their share of the present debt of the rebel government, and to pay by a general tax on i all property the war debt of the South." 'The Richmond State Journal notices, in connection with it* report of the Voir at which Johnson and Walksr made these treasonable speeches, the equally significant indication that the "flag of the United States" was entirely ignored, and that the letters " U. S." were torn from ths cartridge-boxes, the members of the Virginia Guards declaring that they would not parade at all if oompelled to do so with the hated letters on the boxes! Tljp State Journal draws most gloomy fore- 1 bodings for the future from such ominous sigos of the times as these and the result of the reoent election in Virginia. In commenting j upon the significance of the election, it says : ( ' Personally, we have few objections to urge against the representatives of the Democratic party elected to position yesterday.. It is the > priociple involved that excites our* apprehen- < sioua. It is but the - rattling fire of the skirin ishers we heard yesterday, presaging the stern national contest of 1672. It is again becoming * a aectionul issue and question. As StAte after ( Suite in the South wheels into battle-line under 1 Democratic oolors, State after State North eon- , fronts them with the national banner. Vir- 1 ginia goo* Democratic, New York Republican. 1 f he latter takes a new departure and marches 1 proudly and grandly on to a higher degree of ] influence and prosperity; the former recedes j fcud retrogrades, clutching still the tireless , skeleton of sectiooelism. As each Southern State rolls up its Democratic hundreds, a shud- 1 Jer of alarm thrills the lojal heart of the great ' West and orth, and thousands answer thoutends in tows of allegiance to the Christian i principles of the Bepublioan part jr. *' Democrats in lbs North may be wedded to 1 certain principles, bat they breathe ne stnti- ' tnent of hate, of disloyalty, to the Union and a # THE K~E the Government. They, too, distrust such De- ? m< cracy as exhibits iteelf in the whipping-post# t of Virginia and the Ku K!ux Klans of the far- j ther Southern State#. Looking to the futons, and consulting alone th? interests ef Virginia, 1 the spectacle presented gives us the deepest i pain. We do not disguise it?we feel it but too ' deeply. , .'Shall the exclamation of the patriot# be heard, ringing out the certain doom materially and financially of the Sooth,4 Ephraim is joined i to his idols ; let him alone ?' '* In view of these and the thousand other evidence* of a wide-spread determination at the Sooth to keep alive the spirit of disloyalty tL. n a. L?-? - J to iuc uuvrriimcni wnicu piungeu wicm mvv the rebellion, and to prepare for another straggle against the Union, we can come to no other j conclusion than the one which an intelligent observer of Southern sentiment expresses through the New York Times, that politically, socially, and financially tbe people there were reinstated in the rights they forfeited by their treason too soon for their own good or the good , of the nation. Iu other wordr, they received i kindness rather than justice, and, with rare exceptions, have aocepted that kindness as if it had been prompted by a spirit of persecution. It is not only profitable to recall, at this late day, their condition at the close of the war, to compare it with the present, but it is instructive as teaching us the ingratitude of met) who have been educated to believe themselves to be masters of the world. They were, at the close of the war, abjeot and submissive to a pitiable degree. They expected disfranchisement, confiscation, and redistribution of property, expatriation, punishment for treason, and oegro domination throughout the length and breadth of the Confederacy. We know how these expectations hare been agreeably disappointed, aud knowing it, naturally expect expressions of contentment, if not gratitude. Instead of such, however, we hear only the most bitter complaints. coupled with nroi?hecie9 and hones ? ' ? as r that the "Yankees will one day get their just deserts.'' Ti nilee King to the f?overnor. In our District column will be found a letter, writteu by Mr. Charles Kino to Governor Henry D. Cookk, correcting the misapprehension of power over the moneys for the use of colored schools acted upon by certain officers of the new government. We know that the law quoted by the officers above referred to as a warrant for their demand that the Treasurer of the Board of Trustees for Colored Schools give a boud was not intended to apply to any but the Board of Trustees for white schools. To a question asking what effect certain propositions in a bill making appropriations for schools would have on the oolored schools, the reply from the gentleman having charge of the bill in the Council was, in substance, that the government of the District of Colombia had no control of the management of colored schools in the cities of Washington and Georgetown. This reply was made to the member from the First Couucil District by the member from the Ninth District, called out by the proposition in i the bill above alluded to to appropriate a sum ; of money for the purchase of medals for the ! use of white schools, the member from the First District having asked an appropriation for colored schools for the same purpose. We hope our colored schools are not again to be subjected to the malicious opposition of the negro hating element in this community, made potent through the control friends of that element may have over the money belonging to t^e colored schools established by the laws of Congress. The correctness of the position of the majority of the Board of Trustees for Colored Schools is ably set forth in Mr. Kino's letter, and we are constrained to believe that the opposition comes from no regard for the welfare of colored people; and the attempt of that opposition to saddle the responsibility of their hostility upon Governor Cookr is useless, as no man in the community can be made to believe that the Governor would do anything having the least tendency to impede the progress of colored youth in edncation. The great need of our race is education, and whoever does anything in any way calculated to disturb our facilities for acquiring knowledge is an enemy, notwithstanding his professions to the contrary. The True Interest* of Workingmen. Tbe Republican policy of protection to Amor ican industry has done more to promote tbe true interests of tbe workingmon of this country in the last eight years than all tbe trades' unions, eight hour leagues, and other co^thinations to force up their wages and force down the hours of labor that will be organised till the end of time cm ever accomplish. These men might ns well attempt to tarn back the . sun in its course as to annihilate the great law of trade, which c*utrols the price of labor as everything else. No one but a mad man or an 1 idiot would encourage a combination designed 1 to increase and keep up the price of agricultu- 1 ral products, regardless of the demand there ' inny be for them?when, for instance, Europe 1 has grown more thau enough to feed the na- 1 tion, and when, by the general prostration of ( our manufacturing industry, a home market ' ha* been destroyed. A union of every farmer 1 in the United States, pledged to increase the ' price of wheat and corn beyond its market ( value, regulated, of course, by the abundance c of the crops and the foreign and domestic de- * inana tor mem, couiu not lurce tne price be- " yond that established by the law of supply and demand for a single month. They might assassiuate all who dared to sell below the arbitrary price they had established, as labor uuions do, or threaten to do, when other means tail. In the end, they must sell their wheat and corn for what it will bring. It is just as true of labor, as it is of wheat and corn, that those who own it roust sell it for the price which the same law of supply and demand has established, or they roust go hunzrv It has been the nolicv of the Re " ? ? T ' ?- ? J publican party from the day it assumed the ^ government of the nation, to increase the price of labor and thns best improve the oon- * dition of the workingmao, by creating a greater demand for it. This they have done to an ^ extent that has wrought a wonderful improvement in their ooudition, and made them the ^ most prosperous, self reliant, and independent class of American citizens, by protection to hoine manufactures and other branobes of A(n|fican industry. This policy has brought into existence manufacturing establishments of a rarious kinds in every part of the country, p And these have not only oreated a market, f< >ften at their very doors of the prodncte of y >ur farmers, but have made a demand for the a abor of many hundred thousand of working- * nen, at remunerative prices, most of whom i ivould otherwise have been out of employment, tl ind the rest driven to farm labor at starvation a jricos. The supply of labor wonld them have a! >een vastly beyond the demand, and price* a vouki have gone down as certainly as wheat el vould when there it more produced than ie is equired to feed the people. tl No layering man ie eo dull, when left to the p tzeroise ef bis own judgment, who ouunot 01 inderatand the! if oar muoafacturing industry el vers crushed, as it woeld be by adopting the el mti-American doetrines of free tredera, and a iiiiiirfaittiiiM ,rr , -,v hmt W NATIOKj* nilli.io of men now employed in them thrown out )f work, the intetests of the workingraen would ?e crashed with it, and that no combination of trades' aniens could keep up wages,however numerous their members or proecriptire their laws, rhe Republican party b^encouragingAmerican industry in preferenoe to foreign, hare averted this great calamity to the labor of the nation, and we hare a right, therefore, to claim that that party has done more to promote the true interests of the workingmen of onr country in the last eight years than trades' unions ean ac complish through an eternity of time. BP!-*?-"HSHBHSAn Incredulous Legislature. The Georgia Legislature has recently passed a joint resolution denying in most indignant terms that there is, or ever has been, any such an organisation as the Ku Klux Klan, and that any outrage baa ever been committed by each a combination at the South. They utterly ignore the overwhelming amount of testimony taken by the Congressional Com mittee, the convictions of a large number of the ontlawa in North Carolina upon the test! mony of members who turned State's evidence, the voluntary surrender and confession of several hundred of them io South Carolina, and the flight of a large number from the State. But the unbelieving members of the Georgia Legislature might as well deny the existence of the rebellion, or assert that the Southern people were from the beginning the only true friends and defenders of the Union, and that they were always opposed to the institution of slavery. / It may be that the Copperhead Democracy of the North can use such official assurances as this to deceive the inore ignorant of their followers iu regard to the existence of this band of rebel assassins. But the people of the South, even the "poor white trash," who .... .... .L. i i .r .u. i. t.. L.._ ...II ?ic pv uroi iu? i?d?ct ui iuo uruice, ftuuw outu organisations extend throughout theSouth. The Congressional Committee have not yet entered upon the work of bringing to light the secret bands of cut-throats in Qeorgia ; but they are there nevertheless, and probably constitute a large portion of the rebel majority of the very Legislature which has stultified itself by passing such a resolution as we have noticed. Wherever the committee have prosecuted their work, as in North and South Carolina, they have found that the half had not be >n told by the public press. This is especially true of South Carolina; and every day furnishes new proof of the necessity of the measures adopted by CongresB for unearthing the ruffians, and by the President for looking up and dispersing the Klan. Senator Soott, whose labors as the chairman of the Senate Ku-Klux Committee cannot be too highly appreciated by the friends of law aDd order everywhere, received, a few days since, a letter from Yorkville, in that State, assuring him that some of the most influential and infamous of the conspirators in that section?among them Avert, Toxltnson, and Bratton, together with twenty-five or thirty less notorious ruffians?had taken alarm and ignominionsly fled from justice. About one hundred and sixty of the Klan have voluntarily surrendered and made a clean breast of it. The evidence of the existence and criminal aots and designs of the Kiau are rapidlj uccn initiating, and it is a fearful confirmation of all the facts that have been stated in regard to parties concerned in a large nninber of whippings and other outrages, and in hanging Mr. Williams, the murder of Mr. Brown, Mr. Lbst, Mr. Rguxdtkrr, and five other Republicans, which had not hitherto been made public. Thirty of the Klan concerned in various murders, according to ttteir own confessions, committed by authority of Avtar, the grand chief of the order, are ia Yorkville jail. Yet the rebels of the Georgia Legislature send forth to the wurld the solemn declaration that there is no such a combination as Ku Klux, and that the Southern people are all peaceable, law abiding, and resolved to accept the situation in good faith ! The Record Made trp The last of the series of elections for the year 1871 has been held, and the judgment of the people upon the comparative merits and cluims of the Republicau and Democratic parties is before the country. Except ia two States, where the people were overawed by rebel violence, every one of them which ever gave a loyal vote recorded their verdict of approval in favor of the administration of President Grant and the measures and policy of the Republican party. They have pronounced at the polls their uentence or "well done good and faithful serTauti, as you have been true to us and your pledges thus far, ws have resolved still longer to retain you in power." The people of Connecticut wore the first to declare their faith in President Grant's administration and Republican integrity and wisdom, in April last. Maine and Vermont followed in September with an equally emphatic indorse merit. In October California, Ohio', Pennsylrania, Nebraska, Iowa, and Rhode Island re;orded their judgment on the same side; and ast week Massachusetts, New Jersey, (electing i Republican Legislature,) Wisconsin, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, and, last and best of all, the rid Empire State took up the shout of " well lone," and gave their voices for Republican mnestyand in favor of a continued Republican ule. If the October elections did not settle the text Presidential question, even in the minds >f the most inoredulous and hopeful of the Denocracy, those of November certainly have lone so. At any rate they settle the fact that he next President of the United States will >o a Republican, and that the policy which has von such popular approval for General Grant's administration must be continued for four 'ears from the end of his present term. That s now as certain as any future event ver was. Pence men, sore-heads, new party lemagognes, and all olasses who are "waiting or something to turn op," may as well pre are for that event. The time of "Conserveive Republicans" and new departure Demorats, or any other half fish and half flesh ime-servers, has not come yet. The people rant well-tried, bold, honest, positive men, and hey will have none others. Trades' Union Tyranny. In Anna Dickinson'? lecture on "Demagogues i ,nd Workingmen," she dwelt with espeoial em- < basis on that tyrannical and very mischievous i mature of Trade*' Unions which denie* to j oung men the right to learn any trade, and to i ny extent, they may chooae. Seeretary Bout- i r*LL, in his recent lecture on " Questions < Meeting the Publie Prosperity," criticised 1 tis oppression and outrage quite as severely < Miss Dickinson did, and he asserted the j beolute right of young men to learn any trade i na Miter any pursuit their interest or their in- < lination may dietate, without interference from i ibor oombinatioos or anybody efse. Yet a mm Trades' Unions do dietate to a master \ rinter, mason, carpenter, cooper, and ail 1 ther employers bow many apprentices they t tall take as weU as what journeymen they a tall employ. i These are questions that dssply concern the s nai&it. .linn ? fiyahii . .. ..... .rf.- . . % 4 lL era: . whole pnbtie, and upon which the great body of the people will decide, as Mr. Boctwsu., Miss Pickurson, and all lovers of fair play aud equal rights do. The coarse of the Trades' Unions io this respect is a gr ?ss wrong, and in plain violation of the rights and liberties of the citisen as well as of the spirit of the Declaration of Independence. No reasonable man will deny the position of one of oar exchanges, " that oue of the dearest and most practical of all our liberties is the right to a choice of occupation, the right to learn and work at any trade one fancies?in brief, the right to be honest, industrious, and independent, and to earn a living in one's own way. This liberty, the dearest and most practical a poor man has, the Trades' Unions deny. > Does a poor man desire to have his son learn a trade, the unions interfere with their rules, and say, 'No, we will only allow one appren tioe to each dosen or twenty journeymen ; so there is no room for your son. He shall not j learn the trade yon desire for him ; he shall i not work in the shop whose master is willing to reeeive and instruct him.' He needs no argument, beyond the mere argument to show how wrong and oppressive this is.'' 4 Homo Market. In their war upon protection to American manufactures, the champions of tree trade, an is their uniform practice, utterly ignore or treat with contempt the idea of. a home market for our agricultural products. The very corner stone of their free trade system is that we should abandon ail efforts to compete with England in the manufacture of cotton, woollen, irou, and other fabric^ constituting the necessaries of life, and confine ourselves mainly to agricultural pursuits, relying solely on a foreign market for the disposal of our surplus agricultural products. Yet it is a fact, according to Commissioner Wki.i.s himself, in his last official report, that the three branches of manufactures we have named?iron, uolton, and wool?consumed in the year 1869 three hundred and twenty-one millions of dollars' worth of the agricultural products?an amount which exceeds our total exports of every kind, including gold, to , foreign countries during that same year. Still so blindly bent on destroying our tminufactorirtrf and jllutainini* Kl. l-~ '? ' ~ ? .....aiuiiig uio MOV II il'JC lilCUI lt'9 IB Mr. Wblls, that in this very report he xealoosly labors to demonstrate the trivial importance to the farmer of the market made by our manufactures, and to show the superior advantage of a foreign market. In plaiu English, the advocates of free trade are in favor of a policy which requires our oottou to be sent to England to be made into cloth, and then to be sent back for the use af oar people, the consumer here having to pay not only the expense of shipping both ways, but the cost ?f manufacturing it abroad. And all this money goes into the pockets of foreign capitalists and foreign laborers, when it ought and might be kept at home to enrich our own laborers. It does not require a very profound mind to decide whether it is better for the farmers of Virginia to send their products to Richmond, Lynchburg, or Alexandria, or those of Georgia to Atlunta, Savannah, or Augusta, where a * ready market has been made by four or five cotton or woolen mills, or blast furnaces, forges, and rolling mills, and manufacture their owd raw material, or look to England for a market ' for one and to manufacture the other. The one system will build up American industries, | provide a demand for American labor, and , create a market at our own doors for what we ( raise; the other encourages and sustains foreign | capitalists, foreign labor, and foreign interests , of every kind. Which will you choose ? Tlie Improvement Lonii. I Before another issne of the Nkw National Era , appears the people of the District of Columbia will have taken their stand either for or against the measure for improving and beautifying the District occupied as the capital of one of the greatest nations on earth. Those who feel tU*t we have lived long enough after the manner and style of the age of oppression and slavery ; those who desire to have the old lankmarks? footprints of tyranny?blotted oat, the emblem , of a time when skilled and educated labor was intolerable, and when the best energies of the o-called best people here were bent to the work of riveting closer the fetters of slavery and ignorance, not ouly npon the black race, but upon all poor men, white or black, and all such as would see the property of the District appreciate in value, and enterprise take the place of slothfulneas, wiil vote for the fonr million loan on the 22d of this month. The , opposition to the loan has emanated mainly , from a class who belong to the olden time, who were content to live in darkness, and who imagine that the dowufall of slavery and the j incoming of freedom is the doom of the world, j to whom the entemrise and snirit nf tKu? t I ?-- -?- I liberty has drawn to the I>tscrict of Columbia ' is bewilderiog and past all understanding?an enterprise akin to that which has covered the ' vast prairies of Illinois and the West with 1 beautiful towns, cities, and villages, to the ' awful astonishment and wonder of the con- ' tented and non-enterprising savages who occu pied the land. s We trust that every colored voter in the 1 District of Columbia will show an appreciation 1 of the new order ot things by voting the means 1 of eradicating the stains and blotches left to 1 remind us of the old and detested days of * slavery and a geueral lack of enterprise. t " t Verdict Agniimt the Tamuiany c Thieve*. e TU- ->-..1* v' *?? - I ' a uu iLoun vi uiu ciuvtiuu 1(1 X UI'K Cliy on Tuesday week, is the most extraordinary, as well as the most gratifying, expression of the people against official corruption and knavery to be found in the history of politics. Such a rebuke of thieves and scoundrels was never before administered, and it should prove a warning not only to New York robbers, but to that race of public enemies everywhere, and for all times. Last year the Tammany Democracy oarried the city by a majority of forty-five thousand. This year Gen. Sioxl, the Republican candidate for Register, baa been elected by twenty five thousand majority, and Judge Barsit, the Democratic reform candidate in oppofition to Tammany for Judge of the Sapreme d Jonrt, was elected by over forty thousand t majority. Thie shows a change in a single tl pear of more than eighty thousand votes. The t reformers have also elected four out of five e Senators in the city and sixteen of the twenty- it me members of Assembly, all the judges for ii .be various city courts, and made a elean sweep h >f both branshes of the city Legislature. Every ti Alderman of the fifteen is anti-Tammany and L ill bat four Assistant Aldermen. Every branch ? >f the city government has therefore passed o nto the hands of the Reformers. Twrkd him- si lelf is eleoted to the Senate by the most stu- ci >endoas fraud, and is with another thief named pi Tibld, both of whom are onder arrest for rob- ec pry, the solitary monument left of the Tarn- n< any plunderers, and he is more likely to he m on i to Sing Sing penitentiary than to gel a pi tat in the Senate. That the whole infamous hi 4 m 9 ? gang bare brcn squelched out utterly and forever, and only to be remembered hereafter for their ehatuelesa^and enormous crimes. Cost of Collecting the Revenue. For the fiscal year ending June 30,1870, the expeuse of collecting flGfi^Tfi,*-^ of internal ' revenue waa $2,321,51)1. The amount of internal revenue collected for the fiscal year end- ' ing June 30, 1871, waa $190,864,141, which cost for collecting $2,132,462. The amount collected in 1871 was about $38,000,000 leas 1 than in 1870, owing to the repeal of the income ' tax on alt Mow $2,000, and other reduction of 1 taxes. But the total expense of collecting was $it>y,WU less, besides a reduction io the ex pense of the Internal Revenue ltureau hereof I ?155,000, making a total saving to the Government, in this one item for the past fiscal 1 year, of $344.<XM). The amount of taxes as- 1 9essed for 1870 was $189,272,182, and for 1S71 1 only $140,045,633, or $49,000,000 less than in ' 1S70. In the former year the amount collected 1 was $21,000,000 less than the amount assessed, ' and this year the collection was only ?10,000,- 1 O00 less. But a large portion of these amounts will lie collected. The statement only means that they were not collected diying the year for which they were ali ased. It will be "seen from these figures that the entire expense of collecting the internal revenue for the year c 1871, including the expense of administering ' the luternal Revenue bureau of this city, was : ' less than two and a half cents on a dollar. This is * much cheaper than the revenues of any State or 1 city government are collected, and exhibits the ' economy and honesty of the Administration in * mnat atrikinu liurht n l Orermuch /raloux. | t Paring the existence of the great Chicago * fire, one General Qrosvemok was shot by a a guard placed by General Sukridan to protect c certain property. Governor Palmer thera- r upon issued and had published, even before it ii reached the officer to whom it was directed, a <% letter to the Attoruey General of the State, ; J requiring liitn to procure an indictment by tho d grand jury of Cook (*nunty of General Sher i idan and everybody else connected with the ' c atfair, for the murder of Grosvkxor. The letter is a very extraordinary as well as a very long one. making not the slightest reference to the fire, or to the terribls responsibility i< thrown suddenly upon General SuCrtda*, and d seems only anxious that he should be indicted j c for murder. And what is as extraordinary as ' G the spirit and temper of the letter, is the fact ai that it should have been made public at all? h much more so that the first intimation the J Attorney General had of its existence was ^ when he saw it in the city papers. This can lead to no other conclusion than that Governor ni Palmer was playing the demugogue rather ft than performing the part of a faithful and im- lu partial executive, and that he was more anx- p ions to gratify gome personal feeliug towards n General S. than to protect the public interest. ci I'tie Judge before whom the case would come T very sharply rebukes the Governor for his ol remarkable course, especially for bis indelicate and improper attempt to influence the graod jury in the matter, and make political capital 01 for official teal. Hut it will injure him more j8 than General Ssiicaidam. s Governor Bullock'n Rextlgiiafion. ei Last week we published the reasons given by Governor Bullocx, of Georgia, for his resignation of the office of Governor. But neither that letter nor anything we have seen in the public press in regard to the matter geeui to ^ us to constitute a sufficient cause For the-act. \ ^ Yet it was a step he had a perfect right to take, either with or without cause. The first impression made on the public inind, notwith standing he gives as his reason an alleged conspiracy to impeach him without evidence, was that be had been tampering with the public fuuds of the State. But now, after the ex- 0 piration of nearly two weeks, no charge of c fraud or dishonesty is preferred against him, ^ and A. II. Stephcn's paper, the Atlanta.Sun, \ >' admits that no official delinquency had been P discovered on his part up to that time. Per- ? hnna nrn nnuhl n.il Ia IaaI. l-:- " r .V ivun inuiuli uia own statement for his motives, which are what we l' have s'ated, and that he has withstood the 81 bitter assaults of his opponents as long as the t public interests require, or is consistent with his own interests and inclinations. We trust it will turn out that he has no other motives, for our sympathies have all been with hiui in ^ his struggles against his rebel and 7nasi lie- " publican enemies for the last three years. Few * men at the South have had to encounter a more ' relentless and unceasing opposition than Gov- d srnor Bui.nocr. a .. a . - . d llew Free Trade Doctor* DiflVr. t Gbohok H. Pendliton, the free trade expouuder of Democracy in Ohio, and for a while an aspirant for the Presidency, asserted during the recent canvass in his State that the entire I ^ jarnings of the country yearly are "supposed" i to be $1,600,000,000, and that our tax is equal a to twenty-five per eeut. of that amount, or *' 000,000 yearly. Ex-Commissioner David \. Wat. 1.a, who is accepted as authority on the ^ mbject of free trade, and whose speeches and 'eports are used as text bouks by the free trade * >ress of the country, states, on the other hand, i hat our yearly earnings amount to $5,000,- '' 100,000, or more than three times as much as ^ tia Ohio co-laborer " supposes" them to be. j O So far, therefore, from the people being ^ axed twenty-fire per cent, or one-fourth of all j H heir earnings for the support of the Govern ol nent and to meet our national obligations, they ire taxed only eight per cent., or less than one- j welfth part of their earnings. f And that tax, > ,s Mr. Pknm.kton very well knows, is not as ! essed prorata upon the industrial classes of j *'t he country. It is paid almost exclusively by u he P.ftnmimPrt nf wViiaU^r. e 1 ? - ? .. ? , wu?ttu, lureigu ; uiuries, the sixty thousand men who have a *' lear income of two thousand dollars beyond j^1 ,11 drawbacks, and other large capitalists. jl: .'he wbrkingmen of the country do not pay a | as loll^r of it, only to the extent that they use 8t whiskey, tobacco, and foreign in preferenee to ^ American manufactures. 5C Making Assurance Ooubly Sure. s i The people at large of New York, feeling th oubtful whether New York city would be able th o shake off the gang of thieves who had had heir telonietts fingers so deep and so long in be city treasury, and having no faith that Oovrnor HorrxAN would co-operate in good faith J ?? IP J i the reform measures, resolved to leave noth- taj ig to aoch a contingency. They therefore Us tade olear work of it by electing not only a Jec vo-:hirds bat a thregfourtha majority of the j3^ .egislature. They have thus taken from the jjt ;pperbead, Tammany-sympathising Governor f the State the power of defeating by his veto forts to legislate the remaining New York on ty thieves oat of offloe, create a non-partisan UP oliee, give the city a new charter, and enact ish other reforms as are demanded. It does "if Dt matter now what oourse bis Excellency ha lay take,the Repeblieans have the power to ^ iss all reform meastres over his head, as we its ao doubt they will. ^ ii 1111 ^ ,-J*S iMSwsvfa -. "Wb 11 - ' Oup In Srren Thousand. There are not far from teventy thousand officers of the General Government of all grades, twenty eight thousand of whom are postmas ters. Of these seventy thousand officers perhaps ten have proved defaulters during President Ghaut's " - .'" uipirmiton, the Government losing by them not more than half a million of dollars of the one thousand million of dollars of revenae that hare passed through their hands in that time. In other words, at the rate of one officer in seven thousand hae, each year during two years and a half of his administration, turned knave, and one dollar in tw ?thousand si.deu. But every on^of the defaulters have been promptly removed and ' prosecuted by the Government. An yet, in view of these remarkable facts, proving that there are not a fifth pan as many rogues in office as in civil life, excluding the more degraded classes, the m<?n who have for years upheld and help perpetrate the iu.?at outrageous frauds, as d New York, and arraign the Republican officeholders of the Government, almost without liscrisiination, as peculators and plunderers. The Democratic Parly, Dr. Since the close of the Democratic rebelliou he Government of the United States has paid >ne hundred and fifty millions of dollars in lensionsto the widows and orphans and maimed oldiers made by this wicked Domocratie war J men ' vtMuiu.-nc, and i.- now paying J ham Ht the rate of thirty millions of dollars a . ear on the s*me account. And yet this same temocratir party has the sh.imeless effrontery o assail preaeut Administration with the aaliguitv of " lost spirits" for imposing MU'h ieavy Uw? on ttn people! Bat for their reason the entire expense* of the tJovermuent rould not exceed ninety millions of dollars, nd that would be raised on im^airta of artiles of luxury. There would be no internal avenue tax. no public debt, and, therefore, no aterest on a public debt; uo pension list ex ept for soldiers in previous wars, and uo bur ens of any kind upon the people. Kvery ollar of tax now raised is the reault of )emocratic treason to the I'uion, and must be harged to them. In spite of the repeated and very emphatic eclaratiou of Vice President Colfax, that he i not and will not he a candidate for Presi eat, but on the contrary that he is most deidediy in favor of the renominatiou of Lien. Ieant, the marplots of the Republican party, ? well as some of the more desperate and opeless Democratic leaders, persist in their isingenuous efforts to create doubt as to his ood faith by using his name to give weight nd respectability to tlWM- disorganizing movelont. But they may as well abandon their audulent scheme. Mr. Colfax ia one of" the ist men to lend his nuine to the enemies of lieublicanlsin, whether outside the party or in it. ie is ton sound headed to oomiuit political suide, and t?>o honest and patriotic to turn traitor. 'hat business he will leave to "Conservatives r the Soni*R7. school. It is reported that Ceo. W. Cuetis, Chair- J au of the Civil Service Reform Commission, ? booo 10 suoceed Mr. Fisu as Secretary of tate. Our opinion is that however inexpert- j iced Mr. Curtis may be in the art and sei- ' ice of statecraft, the best test of his fitness t the position is a few weeks' experience iu s duties. But Mr. C. don't think so, and he innot consistently accept the rumored appointent until he shall submit to that rigid "com . clitive exam.nation'' which he declares to h?# R leolutely necessary to renovate and purify the - ivii Service. We trust, therefore, that he ^11 prove his sincerity by subjecting himself i the same test that he would apply to aspimts for mere clerkships. David A. Wri.ls, the most remarkable speimen of a free trade political economist any ountry has produced, has made the basis of is crusade against protection to American ' idustry the assertain that the people are J oorer now than they were in I860. But some ] ne, who prefers fact to assertion, upsets his ne-spun argument bv showing that. . .DBuin-n ouu pupils -Hiinscribe now Tor the 'hool f)utival?they all need it. It coats only I cents a year, io advunee, or 15 cents for a iigle raruber. The publishers were very heavy losers by e great fire, but tbey don t propose to allow eir subscribers to lose anything. Send, by mail, to Alfred L. Seweil St Co., iblislters, Chicago, Illinois. _? ^ ? Thk Xrw National Era, published at Washjton, D. C., is ably conducted and has atued a large circulation. We find in every ue brief and pointed articles upon the sub- j >t of Protection to Homo Industry, which J list have the most wholesome infliwma Iinnu ! readers in the Southern States ?In hutrta tlletm, Johnstown, Fa. ? ^ ^ w ?Four ladies of Galesburg, 111., who were t collecting for the Chicago relief fund, came on a venerable copperhead who said their lole story was an abolition lie, but Anally narked that he had a patch of potatoes, and !" they were a inind to dig them, they could veall they wanted." Not at all daunted, the lias got soma shovels, dug twenty bushels at afternoon, and same bvk next day and ishad the patch, to tha old man's intense igust. w ? o " *ovtr } ie people's deposits in the New England avings batiks have increased from $140,000,000 1 > >422,000,000 in 1870! j Wk understand that Miss Fanny M. Jacii>N, the accomplished Principal of the Institute >r Colored Youth in Philadelphia, has a stand lg offer of one of two Professorships in Howrd University at a suliry of $2,1)00. We trust be will accept this offer. We know she is oing a noble work where she is ; but still we re selfish enough to believe that the work to he one here is no less important. Let Howard >uiversity procure so valuable an acquisition > its present force, if salaiy is au object. Kevekdy Johnson, of Baltimore, has been stained to defend the Ku Klui assassins of oath Carolina. The Baltimore American, in nouncing it, states the singular fact that his >n, l.o?i8 Johnson, is the Republican United tates Marshal of South Carolina, and the very tan whom his father charged with arresting ;u Klux "without warrant" in ? recent sj?eech. \vr see by the Philadelphia Pre** of the 10th istant, that oar correspondent. Mr. R. T. recnsh, has oeen appointed to succeed Prof. . V. Catto in the Principalsbip of the Male 'apartment of the samj school, an 1 Iter. W*. L Josrphl's succeeds Mr. Okrcmek as teacher r History, Rhetoric, and Kn^lish Literature. After tbe Fire. Tutt- schtwit. Festival.?Quarterly Magane, dev..ted to original matter, for Day School ul Sunday H ho ?l K*h?liitton?, and Public eeaaiotia. The Ui tober i.utnber of this popular Magane (which was destroyed by the greut Chicago re. when all ready to mail) has h sen reprinted, id has just reached us. As its subscription st was burned, the publisheis request us to k their subscribers to send their addresses, ating what numbers were yet due them, and remit their subscription f?r next year. Let