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NO 26 POINT PLEASANT, MASON Y, FEBRUARY 21, 1906. The A B C. Road Making. Ia sections of the United State* where there ia less than twenty-five inohea of rainfall there ia no road problem worthy of very eeriou* consideration. Road making in thoae sections mena reducing the grades, constructing bridge* over streams, and drainage where roada cross sloughs which carry an abnormal enpply of water for that section. In heavy olay eoila ancb as southern Iowa and northern Miaaouri, and in deep, rich, heavy soils suoh aa oentral and northern Iowa and oentral Ulinoia and In diana, where the rainfall varies from [thirty to forty inohea, and over, there will always be, until the road problem ia eolved in a prao tioai way, mnd and misery at oer tain seasons of the year; and, for tunately, under theae oonditione mnd and misery mean also money. ' In ahort, deep, rich BonBT^Weafher prairie or alluvial, with .?? rainfall of twenty-five inohea, alwaya bring to their poaaeseora a very aerioua road problem. The common oauae of bad roads in the prairie oountry with a nor mal rainfall ia water uncontrolled, Hence the firat oonaideraticn is drainage, either aide drainage or under drainage, aa oiroumatanoes may require. When natnre with holds rainfall, aa in periodo of pro longed drouth, we have no bad roada perpetually roofed would be alwaya gocd, barring perhapa dust. Hence no matter what kind of road you propose to mnke in humid fer tile auctions, the first oc-nsideration ia drainage. Ordinarily side drain age is sufficient, the drpth of tbe drains an the aides b ng deter mined by the fall nvaiiabie and by the amount of water that naturally fiowa in from the rolling lands ad joining. In Iowa and Missouri and some parts if Illinois tfce water that givea tbe most trouble ia that which seeps out cn the hillsides. This seepage ia caused by tbe existenoe of a bed of olay through whiob tbe water cannot readily pass and henoe must push out laterally; and if thia occurs in tbe road we have a road problem. The remedy for thia ia tile drains laid far enough above the aeepy places to carry off tbe water that seeps in tnd tnrn it into the ditoh. Fortunately, the dirt removed frcm the side ditch, if properly handled, elevates the road bed. There are caseB where tile under tbe road bed may be praotioal, but they are rare. When they are used it ia not for the pur poae of draining the surface if tbe road, but to remove the water under the road bed to the depth of three feet in order to prevent the movement of water upwards by capilliary action, and tbe breaking up of tbe road in time of frost. Proper drainage and grading are absolutely essential, no matter what kind of eurfaoe covering is to be used. There are sections in Illinois and Iowa where aurfaoe covering ia so cheap and so well adapted to tbe purpose that hard roads are practicable. They are not praotioable in large sections of Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Iowa, for tbe reason that neither gravel nor rook are availible Bui no matter how available or how oheap thia eurftcing material maj be, it is absolutely useless to un dertake to apply it until tbe water haa been taken CBre of and tht road graded up. Farmers in tbeee sections arr therefore oompehed to make tb? very best use they can of tbe com mon olay or dirt of tbe roadaide. We say "olay or dirt," not "soil,'' because aoil?agricultural soil, soil in whiob you can grow great oropi of corn?ia not only of no use bu< an absolute damage to any road bed ever made Fortunately, mop' of the roads in tbe territory men tioned have been laid out and tr* veled for thirty, forty, fifty, Bnc aixty years. Thia travel has ex haosted tbe humus and left a roac bed of the clay peculiar to th> oountry. The heavier the olay anc the less the amount cf vegetable matter the more easy it is to mak< a good road bed by the method whiob we will hereafter desoribe The beat method yet devised foi keeping roads of thia oharaoter ii good condition, better condition than farmers ever dreamed of, it tbe road drag By the drag we di not mean a harrow, but what bar oome to be known as the road drag, whioh oan be made very eaeily and in variona waya. Tbe be8t form of whioh we have any knowledge ia made from white oedar or tama rack fenoe poets eight inohea thick and abont aeven feet long. When thia ia not available, any kind of ?oft wood will anawer?box elder or oottonwood, or, where thiB 1b not available, ordinary two-inoh pine planka or any other light wood. Where a post or telephone pole or log is need, it should be split in two, bo as to make two halves the length of the poet. These should be placed on edge thirty inches apart, held together with iron rods or pinned together ae oarely with soma hard wcxd. Five feet of the front pieoe, at the right hand side looking toward the team, should be faced with a pieoe of iron or steel, which should not project more than one-eighth or one- quarter inoh at most below the edge. Attaoh a log obain, and hitoh a team of heavy, slow-moving horses to this in Buoh a way as to give the drag an angle of forty five degrees, put on a couple of boards on the oroas pieoes, and get on on yourself You are then ready [^Begfainfront of your own Go to your neighbor's gate in the direotion of town. Do this when the roads are muddy Pass along one rut on going one way. and oome baok along the other. Then do it again, and quit for that day. What have yon done? You have filled up the ruts, smoothed down the rough places, allowed the water to run off into the ditch, in wbiob, as stated above, tbere must be sufficient fall to carry it on. You have allowed tbe sun to shine cn this tmoolh road and the winds to blow over it, with the result that it will dry iff 'weuty-four boors before a pieoe of similar road not treated. Teams passing over it will compict it, rongbing it np some of oooree. Wait till tbe next rain, and wben tbe road begins to dry, go over it again; and so on after every rain during the summer season, and especially dur ing the fall and during the sprirg wben tbe surface of the road has been frozen and thaws off to b depth of half an inoh. ThiB is all there is to the read drag. No man will believe how effec tive it is until be tries it, nor will he fully appreciate its efficiency until he tries it year after year. There are some things however, whioh it will not do. It will not make a good road out of sand, for tbe reason tbat sand does not make stiff mud; neither will it make a good road where the soil ia peaty and does not have olay enough to pack it together. It will net work among stones or stumps, nor will it work effectively where tbe roads are covered with grass. It will, however, prevent grass from grow ing in tbe road bed. We speak in this not from theory but from a good deal of observa tion and experience. A little over a year Bgo we beoame thoroughly oonvinoed of the effioienoy of this drag, whioh, by the way, is not a thing newly discovered. It was nsed in certain oounties in New York state in 1837. It was tried in northwestern Iowa twenty years ago, but failed beoauae the roadB bad net been graded up nor the grass removed. We persuaded the North-weBtern Railroad Company in Iowa, whioh has lines through tbe very muddiest portions of tbe state, to etsrt a speoial train, visit aome fifteen oounties, make a drag on the spot, and give a demonstra tion of its effioienoy. So thorough ly converted were its superinten ients and other officials, bb well bb the supervisors of the various ooun ties, that tbere are now thousands if farmers using tuis drag Where ver it has been used acoording to lireotions tbe result has been bet ?er roads th> n the most enthusias 'io farmers ever dreamed to be within human possibility. Tbe philosophy of it is exceed ingly simple, and in harmony with tbe theories oj all good road build ers, no matter what the material ?sed. All road engineers agree hat tbe first thing is drainage, the second grading. They further ttree that the road bed should tave the minimum of vegetable natter, and be in its oharaoter as lifferent as possible from the culti vated field. Tbe cultivated field equires humus in large quantities u order to keep the soil in the rest possible physical condition or growing crops. The highway -equires the minimum of humus naterial in order that it may be in he best possible pbysioal oondi ion for travel. All good road inilders agree that the material plaoed upon the road should be as uniform as possible in oharaoter, ind furthermore, that it should be out on in layers and a little at a ime. On a road traveled for thirty or forty years the humua is practically exhausted. You oould not grow oorn on it if yoa tried to do so. I The drag will fill up rata Bnd amooth it ao aa to let the watei ran j off, the ean to ehine on it. and the wiada to blow over it, and oaries a a mall aaiount of dirt thoroughly mixed together and puddled into the middle of the road, thna main taining and inoreaaing the grade. If thia ia kept up from year to year the covering of paddled dirt will become so thick that the winter rains and anowa will penetrat3 it, bat two or three inohes, and hence there will be no froat to oome 3ut, no "breaking up" of the road in the npring. There will be no oold atomge of water under the road bed, and hence there oan be no up heaval of the roads, for thia up heaval, or what iaoalledthe "going oat of the froat," ia aimply the re salt of oold etorage of water during the winter season. We have gone to some trouble to ascertain"*!!? coat of * mafafam-1 ing by the use of the road drag roada that have been previously drained, graded, and traveled. The I annual ooat of making the road I we have, except asphalt, during eight and or nine months of the year is from three to five dollars J per mile, provided the dragging is done by farmers along their o wn I farma, allowing them from thirty I to fifty oenta per hoar for the time actually engaged. ThiB ia a niire fraotion of the ooat of gravel or maoadem road, and ia even !-sss than the cost of maintaining th ?ee roads after yon have aeoared th?-m I The ooat, bb Bhown by g- vernm'-nt investigations, of maintaining ihel maoadem roada in the easti rn at at bb ia from '1*11 dollars a n lie 1 upwards. The coat of maint-nn; og Irish roads ia from thirty to cnel hundred and five dollars per m.ie. I This waB a great surprise, bat the data furnished is from the contracts actually made by the county uu-1 thoritiea for the maintaining of I these roade on a five-year oontrect. I The more a oonntry is subject ti prolonged drouths the greater isl the difficulty of maintaining maohd. amized roads, for the reason that I long continued dry weather during I the summer season shrinks thai binding from the rook, the wiad I blows out the finer portions, and I the result is what ia oalled by our government engineers a "ravelled" road, that is, a road covered with I loose stones, whioh must be re-1 moved before it can be made fit J for travel. Therefore, exoept per haps in the vioinity of large oities, where there ia a heavy hauling and I where it is possible to keep thel macadamized road made as above I described is not only the oheapeat road possible but the best. There are many things about the I use of the drag whioh cannot be I taught by tongue or pen; they I mnat be learned by praotioal ex-1 perience. In this, however, it I does not differ from anything else worth having. Even the preoeptel of religion are entirely uaeless to I any man unless he puts them into I praotioe. The same may be SBid of an agricultural education. Thel same may also be said of the hrt of farming or any other profeBaion I known among men. No man can I possibly realize the benefits of I this method nntil he actually makeB bis drag and then uses it. and uses it from year to ycxr. Wherever this method ia adopted provision should be made by law I that the farmer who does the work on the roads shall reoeive compen sation. The artiole in this issue entitl-d "The A. B. O , of Rcmd Making.'' was suggested by our friend ft r. E. Bartow Jones. It ia taken frcm Wallaces Farmer, probably the best farm paper in Amerioa. It is a praotioal idea?farmtrs read it. Road overseers read it. We would oall the special atten tion of the County Oourt to it. This is no experiment?it hna been tried and has given gcod te suits?it is inexpensive a feature whioh especially reoominends it Every farmer in this county should have Wallaces Farmer and the Register in his home. A Chioago woman has solvod the problem of loafing husbanos. Her old man could not be begged, ooaxed or driven to work, so she bought a graphophone with a sin gle reoord whioh played all day "Everybody works but father, he sits 'round all day." In a few days it "got to bis nerves" and he struok out and got a permanent job Seems to be entirely oured. Every young girl should, if prac ticable have no allowanoe. At first it shonld be very small, jnst sufficient to oover her little expen ses. As she grows older it should be annually increased. I HEROES. Composed by Mm. E. C. Winger, Point Pleasant, W. Va. When they say the heroe's coming, Then yoa look for beating drams. And for flags and banners flying; As on mounted steed he oomtf, Just one moment on the impulse. When the call for volunteers , Cause a rash dash into da -gar, Without counting cost or fears, These sometimes are made by cheer ing. Made in one brief moment great. In the crowd stand ragged women, Daily stragglers for their bread; On their backs they've carried bar dens That their children might be fed. They, too. come to see the hero, Leading children bv their side; To their breasts they clasp the ba bies,? Nation's wealth and mothers'pride. These neglected ones are heroes Hade In Ufe'rlon^^^to^^^^^ Uany faithful, toiltdg men, Have through weary years of con flict. Gained the victory in the end. No one shouts when they are passing; No one cheers when duty's done. No one knows but God how hard 'tis, And how dearly victory's won. No one knows that they are heroes; No one knows that they are great. Women too Lenient "We want the women of this country to set a higher standard of respectability for men," declared Judge William M. MoEwen in an address before the Ohioago Wo man's olub the other day. "At present the woman are too lenient toward and too forgiving of bad oonduot" Judge McGwen was disoueeing the possibilities of redooing orime in the United States, nnd bis sug gestion that the men be held to a stricter code of morals was greet ed with applause by the olub wo men. "The orime we have most to fear," said the speaker, "oome from morbid conditions in men and boys who have been depraved by drink, vice and drags. We mnst try to oheok them by working among the younger generation. Every father should make a com panion and a confident of bis boy in order that the information about the functions and duties of life whioh he aoqnired shall not oome from polluted souroes " We saw in a newspaper the other day that the etiffening necessary for everyday life is not wishbone, bnt backbone. accepts s little aid. She doe* not want a whipping up for that U inev itably follow ( JSor a tonic and ai Veratlve prop erly com ' pounded will tSfaJFEaSS ind reducing waste of vital hf an alcoholic Hlmulant? ble tonic. Meeting these lltions Dr. Pierce's Golden very has be?n in successful ty years and has aecumu of cures unequaled In the dlclne. It is composed of glvcerio extracts of Golden en s root. Stone root. Black Blood root and Mandrake their medicinal properties preserved without the use of alcohol aa to render U a ?aft and cffectivt remedy for use In the family without consulting a doctor. Young or old can take it freely as necdod, and now that its composition Is pub lished, there Is no ground for prejudice against It m a patent medicine or secret medicine. It is neither. CltiMM Dr- Pierce's Pleasant Pellet* constipation. Con.tlpa IkaUete tlon is Um cause of many als . eases. Cure the cause and you pure the disease. One ^Pellet" is a ecntle laxative, and Iwo a mild cathartic. Drug gists sell them, and nettling is "Just as rood.' Dr. Pleroe's great thousand-page illus trated Common Sense Medical Adviser will be sent free, pa per-bound, for 21 one cent stamps, or cloth-bound for 31 stamps. who k<yps his body and its functions In the best work ing trim. Tfcer? ?r? ? ij la response to call of Connty Superintendent, tbe Msson,County Book Board consisting of J. L. Thorn, Chairman, C. A. Green, Secretary and H. T. Fry, Henry Gwinn, Walter MoComb, J. O Knopp, Eddie BifHle, C. D. Ball and J. P Jones met February 12, and re-adopted the following books: Mitchell's Geographies. Mont gomery's Histories, Myer's General History, Lewis History and Gov ernment of West Virginia, Lippin cott's Mental Arithmetic, Bryant and Stratton's Book-keeping Tbe board adopted Nation and State Civil Government in place of Facts in Civil Government. Also Blaie dell's physiologies in plaoe of Cat ter's. Praotioally no changes were made. There! The ink bottle has been tipped over, right on the table cloth I Don't get excited abont it. Mix a little jemon jaioe with com mon salt, rnb it well on the ink spot and wash it oat. Then pat the cloth oat in the sanshine for awhile and wet the plaoe with the liquid till tbe spot goeB away. A Scene at the Enterprise Marine Dock Co.' - Landing, intftrc~RirH?wha]??er at Point Flcasat two years ago, when the towboat Convoy was liaving a new hull built, and the towboat Geo. Gardner and packet boat Carrie Brown were being rebuilt. Mr. Geo. P. Gardner is the General Manager of this company. A splendid view of the Enterprise Dock Co.'s large Saw and Planing Mill at the boat yard on the bank, near the company's docks, Point Pleasant, W. Va, A professional cistern oleaner telle that at leaBt onoe a year each housewife should pnt a cupful of common baking soda into the cis tern. It not only kills all insect life that may be within the water, bnt renders it softer and better for ill purposes, even for drinking. It will make oleaning unnecessary unless trash hsB been dropped into the oistern. Some people go ahead and do things; others sit back idly and oritioise the doing. Which class, is of greater benefit to the world? You've heard people eay that they bad "worked like a dog all day." An exohange has figured that if this were literally true, the twenty-four hoars wo aid be spent thus. One hoar digging oat a rat, two hours gnawing a bone, one hour waiting for a oat to oome down from a tree, half an honr beg ging to get into the house and the balanoe of the time sleeping on a mat in the oold doorway. Good words ooot no more than bad. $33 TO THE PACIFC COAST Prom Chicago, every day from February 15 to April 7, inclusive. Only $33, Chicago to San Fran cisco, Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle,Tacoma and many other points on the Pacific coast. $30.50 to Spokane, $30 to Ogden, Salt Lake City, Butte, Helena and Great Falls, Montana. Low rates to hundreds of other points. Choice of routes if you select the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. Tickets good in tourist sleeping cars. Bate for double berth, Chicago to Pacific coast points, only $7. Through tourist cars to California leave Union Station, Chicago,at 10:25 p.m. daily. PERSON ALLY CONDUCTEDexcursionsat 10:25 p.m.,Tuesdays and Thursdays. Buy your ticket from your local agent, but insist that it reads via the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. For complete information, free, about rates, routes, tickets and reservations write today to F. A. MILLER General Passenger Agent Chicago Let Him Fight Now. One of Mr. Roosevelt's enthu siastic admirers says that while Mr. Kooeetelt does not desire to beoome a oandidate for another term "if duty demanded" he won Id "ooniinue this fight." 1* other words, this admirer says that if it ie necessary fur Mr. Roosevelt to be a oandidate for a third term in order to wage war against special interests, he will not shrink from the task. That is all very interesting, to be ante. Bnt Mr. Boosevelt is already in office. He has mora than three yeara yet to serve. He ?? now possessed of all the power he weald have after an eleotion to a third term. Let him justify the oonfidenoe the people have ahown in him by proceeding to exercise thbt power. .. It will be time enongh for Mr. Roosevelt's friends to talk about a third term when he shall have en gaged in Something more than a sham battle. We do not mean to cay that every battle waged by Mr. Roosevelt has been on the sham order. Bat it oannot be denied that in mauy respects he has been a serious disappointment to those whobave believed in him. The people are Buffering from real evils and these moat be met by real re forms At least they must be met by serious and determined efforts at real reform. Investigations of beef trusts resulting, as Oommis stoner Garfie.d's investigation did, not only io the oonoluaion that there is no beef trust, but also in praotioally the surrender of the government's strong points in the proseoution, will neither provide the people with relief nor inspire them with oonfldeooe?Bryan's Commoner. Free School Books. The Kingwood Argus is in favor of free text books for the ohildren of the state, and for the same set of books all over tLe state. In a reoent issue it says: "We hope the next legislature of this state will pass a free text book bill and make provision for fur nishing sohool books free to the pupils of the oommon sohools of the state, the books oonld be pur chased mnoh cheaper, and batter books could be had. Of course the people would have to pay for them after all, and in a way that would be muob easier and more equally adjusted. In other words, tbe rioh man would have to help educate the poor man's ohildren and there will be no more oom-' plaint of the books changing so often and the extra cost, every time a ohange is made and the new books that have to be bought when people move from rns oounty to another, as under the present sys tem of oounty adoptions. The book publishing oompsny oan naturally furnish tbe books mnoh oheaper when they oan get a oon traot for the whole state at one time, and from one board, whereas now they have to send representa tives to every cjunty and oity in tho state see about nine members in eaoh county." Where's The Difference A oompany of men are seated around a table. In front of eaoh man is a small staok of poker chips. They represent a oertain value. Tbe men are manipulating a set of cards 52 in number, in suoh a way that eaoh is doing bis best to win the oolleotion of chips. The inter est is deep and tbe oards are watoh ed olosely as they are played. This is gambling. A company of ladies and gentle men are seated around a table or several tables perheps. Befo.e the mind of eioh person is a prize or may be two uf them. They rep. resent s oertain value. They are manipulating a set of cards 62 in number, in suoh a way that each is doing her best to win the prize. The interest is deep and the cards are wtt?bed o'oiely as they are pUyed. This is sooiety. For whom are you keeping your pretty china and silver and table oloths ? For people to quarrel over after yon are gone? Why not use them and have a pretty and attrac tive looking table?pleasant place to come to and remember? The family will be more careful not to drop food on a olean white oloth than they would on an oilcloth; and it will be pleasanter work to wash pretty china than heavy stone ware. and pretty dishes oan be oheaply bought nowadays. The only wsy to enjoy things is as yon go along; bnt with many people it has become seoond nature to save and keep the best for some other time.