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Middletown transcript. [volume] (Middletown, Del.) 1868-current, January 04, 1868, Image 2

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026820/1868-01-04/ed-1/seq-2/

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JftîdltWottm ^ranncrijjt.
MIDI! .KTOW», BEL.
SATURDAY MORNING, JANUARY 4, 1868.
-
salutatory.
" Once mon upon the waters,
Yet once more;
Aud the wares bound beneath as
Like the home beneath Ids rider.'
Ouce more wo launch our bark upon the
soa of public jorrnalism, aud if the expe
rience of years tould give skill to the pilot
he ought to be i.ble to bear right onward
in the channel of duty and publie utility,
avoiding the rotks and shoals upon either
hand The experienced voyageur, howev
er, will not expect to sail over smooth and
unruffled seas a)l tho while ; he will make
his calculations
for adverse winds and cur
rents, and for occasional storms and tem
pests. But he
has only to keep his craft
well trimmed, and a firm and steady hand
upon the helm,
Simile aside :
to weather them all.
Iu presenting the Tran
aders, we resume for the
third time a profession to which more than
thirty years of
been devoted.
script to its ri
the life of tho senior has
It will be expected that in
obedience to cijstom we should
map out
the course wo intend to pursue, and state
hich will find advocacy in
This will be done briefly,
lest we might promise too much and
form too little.
the principles w
its columns.
per
The Transcript will aim to take a
broad, liberal md comprehensive view of
public affairs,
|S the bond of union between the States,
and steadily maintaining the principles
of a sound Democratic Conservatism. Its
columns will be qpen to a proper discus
sion of all topics of general interest, its
editors holding the sentiment, with Mr.
Jefferson, that
ipholdiug tho Constitution
"error of opiuion may
safely be tolerated whbre reason is left free
to combat it."
Special attention will be givon to the
local want« and
necessities of this contmu
Middletown is situated in the midst
i populous region of
of a wealthy an
try, and is the centre of an active and
steadily increasing trade. The aid of a
local press is n
ther its abunda
douh
ceded to develop still fur
at resources, and to bring
more fully into view the Agricultural,
Horticultural and Pomological advantages
of New Castle
part« of Delaw
County, and the adjacent
ire and Maryland. It will
be our aim to idvance these great leading
interests, and tlso to
turcs and the maahanic arts.
The newspaaer has beoome the
necessity of the age.
without
encourage manufac
great
A man may do
tilings which taste or habit
many
have made im
portant to his comfort, but
ke must have. R, is indis
is, if his mind has attained
his newspaper
pensable ; that
» sufficient decree of intelligence to
its regular supply of intellectual pabulum.
It keep* him posted up in relation to eve
rything transiting in the worfd around
him, whether at home or abroad, It«
crave
ears
it* eyes are in every plac
positions, incidents and
individuals and nations,
s columns as in a mirror_
are ever open
The thoughts,
movement« of
presented in it
the reflex of the opinions and progress of
the' world. He who reads carefully a well
' conducted nevrspaper, is in no danger of
fclliug behind the age. It keeps him alive
to all that is new in trade, commerce, pol
iteraturo and art, and t-nu
itics, morals,
bles him to ke
ap pace with th^iiitclligecee
and progress of tho times,
him, if he be a shrewd man of business, to
open new eha
secure for hin «elf
It enables
nnel» of trade, and thus to
new sources o, profit,
of Middletown, and of the
wealthy region of which it is
The people
populous and
the business (entre, are not slow to
ccivc and to
per
pprcciate whatever tends to
material interests. In this
promote their
belief we confidently commend the Tran
favor and patronage of its
intelligent and public-spirited citizens, and
trust we
script to the
shal, have their hearty co-opera
tion in our efforts to present them'wi'h a
journal alike
useful and creditublc to the
which it is published.
community in
*sTRead the advertisements; they in
dicate not only the business enterprise of
the place in which they are published, but
the euterprist
of the advertiser also. If
. you want good bargains always patronize
those who avail themselves of the advan
tage afforded through the advertising col
umns of jkoir home paper. Indeed, the
public^re iu
the habit of doing so ; and
„ h# advertise, whether
be b* a mjplmpi, "mechanic, or a pro
fessional iiizti, -nee* TTot he stiipised to
find himself (tiling behind] his advertising
.neighbour"**, basin«**. ,/There is nothing
like keeping jnc's name and busineÊ
stantly before tho public eye ; and if all
the business :nen of a plane should adver
tise, the resu t wpnld be that the aggre
gate business of the place would he great
ly augmented. Because they would draw
an increased amount of business not only
from thotr *
als» fiomd
several exatt
the man who
dpys
mounding neighborhood, but
(tiurt plftces. We know of
lps, which ni'ght be cited in
proof of the bouefits conferred hy a liberal
course of advertising.
Mrs. Nancy I
at Alexandria
llSycars, died
□rsday last..
:r,
Thî lmiiwhmeBt Ftnsco.
The historic page will afford no enviable
place to tlie authors of the scheme to im
peach President Johnson. Posterity will
view tj|c attempt with abhorrence, when
reviewing the flimsy and futile evidence
on which It was based. For months this
nefarious project hung, like a dark cloud
of evil portent spoil the political h orison,
filling the country with alarm, creating
uneasiness and distrust, and arousing fears
of anarchy and civil vr*r. Hut all at once
it evanished like the mists of the morning.
In a House that had uniformly cast over a
two-thirds vote against.tho President, only
fifty-seven affirmative responses could 1*
heard when the question was brought to a
vote. Mirabile dicta / What was the
cause of this ? Was it the sunlight of re
turning reason, dispelling the mists of er
ror, passion aud prejudice Î Or was it the
wholesome influence of the late democratic
and conservative victories, aohieved at the
late fall elections 1 We leave the reader
to unswer. In accounting for this most
salutaky result, perhaps we ought not to
overlook the stern note of warning con
tained in the President's annual message,
a warning which he was all too tardy iu
giving utterance, but which doubtless had
its effect iu determining the result. We
quote from the message :
"How fur the duty of the Présidait <l io pre
serve, protect and defend the Constitution" re
quires him to go in opposing
act of Congress, is a very serious and important
question, ou which I huve deliberated much, and
felt extremely anxious to reach a proper conclu
sion. Where an act hus been passed according
to the forms of the Constitutiou by the supreme
legislative authority, and is regularly enrolled
among the public statutes of the country, execu
tive resistauce to it, especially in times of high
Party
lent collision between the respective adherents ot
the tw o branches of the government. This would
be simply civil war; and
sorted to only os the last
evils. . Whatever might tend to provoke it should
be most carefully avoided. A faithful aud
scientious magistrate will concede very much to
honest error, and something even to per
malice, before he w ill endanger the public peace;
and ho will not adopt forcible measures, or such
as might lead to force, as long as those which are
peaceable remain open to him or his constituents.
It is true that cases may occur in which the Ex
ecutive would be compelled to stand on its rights
and maintain them, regardless of all consequen
ces.
•onslitiition.il
■itcmiMit, would be likety to produce vio
civil
emedy for tho worst of
ar must be ro
" If Congress should pass an net whioh is not
only in palpable conflict with the Constitution,
•tftinly, if carried out, product*
but will
diate and irreparable injury to the organic struc
ture of the government, and if there be neither
judicial remedy for the wrongs if inflicts, nor
power in the people to protect themselvos without
the official aid of their elected defender ; if, for
instance, the legislative départaient should pass
an act, even through all the forms of law to abol
ish a co-ordinate department of the government—
in such a case the President must take the high
responsibilities of his office, and saVe the life of
the nation at all hazards."
Lct us hope, now that the erisis is
past, that the spirit of faction will subside
and pass away altogether. That Congress
will Address itself to a course of proper le
gislation, admonished by tho late popular
rebuke it has received, and that it will no
moro imperil the life of tho nation.
To Correspond BETS- —Wo solicit. cor
respondence from all quarters of this and
the adjoining Statès. While giving spe
cial attention to the affairs of our own
town and neighborhood, we desire to
make the Transcript a medium of com
munication between the different points of
this peninsula especially, as well as be
tween the more important points of the
adjacent States, whose citizens are engaged
in an active commerce with onr own.
tciT No attention will be paid to anony
mous communications. If the writers of
such cannot trust their names with the
publishers, neither can they admit their
lucubrations to their columns. We have
received two anonymous communications
this week, which are at the disposal of
their writers.
Wc solicit onr friends to send us ac
counts of all accidents, deaths, marriages,
removals, sales of land, aoeouuts of crops,,
buildings or other improvements; in short,
everything that is of local or general inte
rest.
Our Nkwsfai'ER Head.— The cut which
adorns the head of the Transcript repre
sents tho Farmer and the Mechanic, witli
the implement« of their calling, while the
locomotivo and train in the distance, rep
resent commerce, and tho business activi
ty of the community in which it is pub
lished. Altogether, we think the letter
and devieo both neat and appropriate.
The beautiful light Scotch face type on
which the Transcript is printed, is front
the Foundry of Henry A. Lucas, Esq.
Baltimore.
We shall commence, in our next issue,
the publication of a well-written original
story, by a young lady of Middletown.
As every one will want to read it, ah who
have not entered their
names upon our
subscription list should do so at once.
On one of our Western railroads, tho
other day, a sudden jerking of the train
threw a little girl, two years old, out of
side door of the car, which had been left
open. The horror-stricken parents imme
diately had the train stopped, aud walked
back ex paiting to pick up the mauglud
mains of the child. The little one met them
half way, however, unharmed, and evident
ly thiaking the whole affair a good joke.
the time the child fell off, the train was
a down grade, aud running twenty miles
an hour.
The employes of the different manufac
tories of Norristown, Pa.,
fortunate, as it is said to be t
in the Bnion in jrliich
torn
appear .to
the only place
Jhctones are
Tbs Soldiers of ISIS.
We see by the Philadelphia papers that
the soldiers of 1812, are to meet on the
8th of January at Independence Hall, to
oelebratn the anniversary of the Battle of
New Orleans, as has been their custom
for yean. Congress seems to have for
gotten the services of these old veterans—
that they fought aud conquered the British
upon the sea and upon the lakes; that they
whipped the proud armies of Wellington
at Port George. Lundy's Lane, Bridgewa
ter, Plattsburg, Port Erie, Stoning ton,
Baltimore, Caulk's Field, and divers other
places, and'finally annihilated them before
New Orleans, under the leadership of gal
lant Old Hickory,
Congress has forgotten that it was these
same old veterans, their sons and grand
sons, who paid off the Revolutionary war
debt, and the debt of the war of 1812,
aud who have brought the country up to
its present position of strength aud power,
when it may defy the world in arms.
There are but few of these old veterans
left, we understand, in Delaware—Capt.
Maxwell, of Delaware City; R. Lockwood,
John Jones, and John Thomas, of New
Castle county, and one other in Sussex.
We learn that Maj. Jones intends to join
his associates in Philadelphia on the occa
sion.
ed
a
no
of
too
the
and
the
the
the
24,
was
' '
"
"
"
at
ure
to
are
per
the
Oorreycnilmcs qf tlw Mehlktown Transcript.
Blackbird, Del. Jan. I,*1808.
Messrs. Editors —Thinking that
thing from this part of the county would
help to fill up the first issue of the Mid
dletown Transcript, I take the liberty of
sending you a few lineB. Tho new
year
opens cold and stormy, whioh is not sur
prising, wlion we consider the appearance
of the last day of 1887, which was very
cold, and closed with a brisk fall of snow.
The people of this hundred are waking up
to the importance of improving their land,
and I think they have commenced in the
right way, viz. by draining.
Ferguson and others petitioned the Supe
rior Court of the county, at the November
term, for a commission to lay out a public
ditch up Blackbird branch, and notwith
standing the cold of yesterday, the indus
trious and public-spirited gentlemen
lected as commissioners, viz. Nathaniel
Williams, II. P. Reading and Wm. S.
Deakyne, accompanied by Joseph Robert«,
their surveyor, met and coimnenocd ope
rations. I wish them much success, for
the ditch, when completed, will prove a
groat benefit. More anon.
Yonrs, &c.
The Messrs.
B0
cy
is
of
as
a
ArPOQUINlJIINK.
Tlw Presidential Election.
The New York limes (Republican) in
commenting 4»on the probable result of
the next Pi^Mential election, uses the
following significant languago :
As things stand to-day, with universal
negro suffrage to be forced upon the
Southern States by military poivcr as the
condition of their restoration to the Union,
and in the uncertain tone and temper of the
Republican party on tho financial questions
before the country, the "prospect" of a
Republican defeat is not only " reasonable"
but it may be called brilliant. What Con
gress may do to change it remains to be
seen; but if the National Convention takes
up the party just Whore it stands now—if
it adopts * Radical platform aud nominates
a Radical candidate—we venture the
pre
diction that it will be beaten more disas
trously than the Whigs were in 1852, or
than the Democrats were in 1860. Maine
Massachusetts, Vermont and Michigan may
vote for a Radical President on a Radical
platform; it would be rash to place reliance
upon any other Northen or Western States.
Kent County Railroad.—W e under
stand that at the last meeting of the Direc
tors ot the Kent County Railroad Company
they fixed the western terminus of the
road at Dee
whore is to
and where a very short wharf will only be
necessary, thus lessening the expense. A
wharf on the bay shore was estimated to
cost at least $35,000. The board took
steps to procure an immediate survey of the
remaining part of the route, aud to adver
tise for proposals to build the road. It now
remains with the landowners through which
it is proposed to pass to have a roatl or not.
If their demands are exorbitant, there will
not be money sufficient to eonstruet the
road.
p Landing, oil Swan Creek
be found the boldest waters
General Grant is now fairly in the org
anization of capitalists, headed by A. T
Stewart, the great New York, merchant,
was efi'eeted in New York, this week, for
the purpose^ of pushing General Grant on
the Presidential course, upon his military
reputation alone. In response, it is repor
ted, General Grant has written a long let
ter accepting tho proposition, and
therefore fairly in the field, irrespective of
party nomination. Iu his reply to Stewart
& Go., General. Grant has not a word to
say about politics.
0 IS
Mouut Vesuvius is now in a state of
grand eruption. Not only is the old vol
cano in violent action and flames issuing
from the old crater, but new openings
have been formed. A perfect river of
molten lava is seen to flow from the moun
tain running in a westerly direction and
threatening to destroy the town of Cercala.
A perfect panic exists among tho inhabi
tants of all the villages situated at the foot
of the mountains.
a
Exaggerated accounts by telegraph from
Richmond, relative to the expected rising
of the negroes of the South-side counties
of the State, have no better foundation
than the fact that a few days since a squad
of soldiers were sent to Halifax, because a
disturbance at Christmas was feared. The
negro population throughout the State is
as quiet, as far as an armed insurrection
is concerned, as they have been since
emancipation.
ha
Thep talk of establishing a vigilance com
mittee in Harrisourg to protect unoffending
citizens grows louder and louder every
1 day.
TU« Scarcity of Currency.
No practical mau, who is largely engag
ed in business transaction*, can intelli
gently maintaiu that there is, at present,
a sufficiency of ourrency in any part of this
country. In our own city It hus been at
no time abundant during the past two
years, while at times its searcity has been
most annoying. Even in New York, the
great commercial centre, the point in fact
of issue and redemption, it is by no means
too plentiful, while in many {sirtions of
the iutorior, particularly in the Northwest,
and especially in the South., its almost
total absence is extremely prejudicial to
the interests of the community, and of the
Government itself. Its scarcity hampers
trade, hinders cultivation and prevents
the development of private wealth and the
increase of taxable property. We read
constantly in the papers of forced sales,
made in the South where most ruinous
sacrifices are constantly submitted to. In
the Tribune under date of December
24, we read of a fine residence and ten
acres of land which sold in Georgia for
$60 and of 450 acres of prime land which
fetched only $160. These are stated to
have been baiia fuie sales. The corres
pondent giving the information says "It
was Court day "and a large concourse of
' ' people were present. The most of
" them were large property owners, but
" really had not $5 in their pockets and
" in consequence would not bid, as the
"sales were for cash." Paper money
may not actually be a value but it is cer
tainly a medium, of exchange, and the
United States legal tender note is the
reucy in which the exchanges of the
country are at present made. A man may
barter his horse or his ox or his gold
watch or his diamond pin all of which
have value ; but he cannot buy with them
at public sales, where property is sold fur
cash payable in the established representa
tive of value. If it is an arbitrary
ure on the part of a Government to make
paper the currency of a country, it is a
much more arbitrary act to make forced
sales payable in this currency and yet not
to provide a sufficiency of it to enable the
community to effect purchases or to nego
tiate its ordinary transactions.
Rut the want of currency, which is so
evident to most people, and the unfortu
nate business experiences of the past year
are not only the proofs of a deficiency of cir
culation. The truth is that we have not
to-day in this country as much currency
per capita as there is in England or in
People are too much misled by
the loose statements which are constantly
being made of the volume of currency in
circulation in this oountry before the
Yet, a fair comparison made between it
and the circulation to whioh it is now
ah'
cur
meas
pro
posed to restrict tho country,will show cet
eris paribus a decided doerease of ourren
cy in tho last dooade.
The currency of to-day consists of U.S.
notes $357,000,000, and National Rank
notes $298,0001000.
count of the small note circulation, ai that
is about equal to the average currency
cash balance retained by the Treasury
Department, nor of tho legal tender
pound interest notes, as they are being
rapidly withdrawn from circulation,
are to have, therefore, a total circulation
of $850,000,000. If we deduct from this
tho amount held by the banks as a reserve
fund, which was in October, 1800, $205,
770,640, and which we will ostimate at
$200,000,000, we will have $450,000,000
as the total proposed available active cir
culation.
The bank circulation for the years 1858,
1859, 1800 averaged over $200,000,600.
The specie in bank averaged over $92,
000,000. It was estimated that the a
tnount of specie afloat was about equal to
the bank note circulation. If we place it,
however, only at $150,000,000, wc still
have a total circulation of $442,000,000.
Deducting from these the reserve of specie
held by the banks of $92,000,000, and
have left an active actual circulation of
$350,000,000 on a specie basis, which, at
a premium of 36 per cent, is equal to
$472,500,000 iu paper currency. So that
without taking into calculation the grow
ing population of this country, its increas
ing business, and, what is really more
important, the increased requirements for
currency rendered necessary by the abo
lition of the credit system, we find that
the circulation to which it is proposed to
restrict us is actually Icsb, calculated
gold basis, than i twas before the
In 1858, estimating the population at
30,000,000 the per capita circulation
specie $11.88, equal at present prices
of gold to $15.75. The proposed per
capita circulation after the withdrawal of
the compound interest notes, estimating
tho population ot 85,000,000, will bo
$12.88, considerably loss ceteris paribus
than that of ton yoars ago. Does not this
show plainly that tho volume of currency
in the country is not sufficient for the
tual wants of the community 1
Mr. Moran, in his work on money, page
200, gives us the received estimate a cir
culation of $28 per head,
however, a medium of $25, at which rat«,
to supply a population of 32,000,000, wo
would require a circulation of $800,000,
000 on coin basis, as against a paper circu
lation of 650,000,000, which is the pres
ent note circulation of the country, a con
siderable portion of which is locked up as
a reserve fund in the Banks. We must
reflect, too, that the estimate of coin circu
lation iu Great Britain was made some
years ago, and that it has doubtless been
greatly increased since then by the im
mense amount of gold which has flowed
there from California and Australia. Wc
must remember that now that the credit
system has been abolished, currency is not
only as necessary here os in England, but
even more so, and that a much greater a
mount is required. England is a small
country in which currency circulates much
more rapidly than here. The immense
distance which currency ha* to travel here
in order to move crops, and for other-pur
pose.x, locks up a large amount of it. The
comfurtuHe condition of our laboring clas
ses and the higher prices of wnges ii* this
country calls for a much larger voltilpe of
currency here to supply the wants of that
class of the popnlation, and finely, the con
venience of the paper money necessarily
leads to the carrying about on the person
much larger sums than would be carried if
the lumney worein coin. An immense
We take no ac
eom
We
on a
war.
We will take
amount of currency is uselessly locked up
in this way, far more than people would
generally imagine. There can be no doubt
lhat to-day, where a much larger volume
of currency is required, the per capita a
mount is actually far less than it is in Eng
land, where the principal circulating me
dium is coin.
ah' In Franco the metollio circulation, ac
cording to Moran, is $20 per capita .—
The EmyclopanUa Britannica placed it
some years ago at $140,000,000. Levas
seur and others estimated it at $100,000,
000, which it has uudoubtedly reached by
this time. This would give for a popula
tion, of 87,000,000 a per capita of over
$ 20 .
the Bank of France was more thnn 11225.
Last month the note circulation of
c Bank of France was more thnn $225,
000,000, which gives a note circulation of
more th'an $6 per capita. So that tho to
tal circulation of France is more than $20
for each individual rather in excess of that
in England.
We call these facts to the very serious
attention of the publie, and we ask what
sense and what reason there is in the fur
ther dimiuutiou of a currency which is ab
solutely now too contracted for the wants
of tho community Ï —Baltimore Gazette.
Why
Many Spinster« Y
Some of the English periodicals aro re
viving a discussion which, three years ago,
for several weeks, was a leading topic for
the London journals and langsames. The
North British Review thinks that, accord
ing to the census returns, there ought to
be but 400,000 unmarried women between
the ages of twenty aud forty, whereas
tlioro are 1,230,0U0, aud as the working
classes and peasants nearly all marry auU
marry young, workingmen finding no dif
ficulty m getting husbands for their daugh
ters, the surplus spinsters arc among the
higor classes, and Uiousands of young men
who refuse to marry are those having in
comes of £300 to £800 a year, who pre
fer their " liberty" and the support this
sum gives them to the risk of sharing their
income with u wife. But this is not all;
there is the old story of the terrible extrav
agance of the women ; the modest maiden
suddenly blooms into the most magnificent
of matrons; unbounded iu expenditure,
they flirt more industriously, waltz more
violently, and dress more outrageously.
Even the Spectator, which makes a mild
defense of the young women of England
against the charges of the writers in the
North British Review and Frazer, is com
pelled to admit that there is an alarmingly
large oloss of such women, aud that there
is among men glowing contempt, not only
for matrimony, but for women tbumselves.
Among the few remedies suggested are op
portunities for freer social intercourse ; the
advantage of seeing women elsewhere
than at the hull and'opera, so that a man
can loam something of the actual habita
and disposition of the persons whose hand
•he might be disposed to seek, and thus be
able to see the difference between the real
woman und the woman of tho ball-room.
As it is, it is a lottery in which many fear
to venture.
as
a
of
if
Value of A<lvt-rti«ing*
Notoriety or publicity is an indispensa
ble element ot' success in the merchant,
mechanic or manufacturer, who would give
a speedy and wide distribution to the com
modities and productions which he seeks to
exchange for money. He may have capi
tal, skill, convenient position, punctuality,
industry and honesty—every possible fit
ness for his business—and ull is nothing
if he have not sufficient notoriety. This
notoriety, let it cost more or less, he must
purchase or provide for as carefully as he
purchases or manufactures his stock'ef
goods. And it must in extent bear a cer
tain relation to the business he would do.
It must bo both positive and comparative.
People must not only know him änd his
business, because otherwise they will not
find him, but they must know him, because
otherwise they will find and trade with
those who are better known. Customers,
like sheep, are gregarious, and flock where
they see others flocking. If nobody else
were engaged in tho same business, it
would be important for our dealers to ad
vertise in the newspapers, because people
arc tempted to buy what they read of. It
is like having a salesman with several
thousands of voices, speaking politely of
your wares to tons of thousands of peo
ple, perhaps at tho same rfioiuent, never
offending, never obtrusive, never tired—
such a salesman might be worth one, two,
three or five thousand dollars a year to
you, according to the number of his voices.
But if others are engaged in the same
business, even if they do not advertise, it
becomes the more important for our deal*
ers to do so, and if they do advertise, it is
doubly important. It is, in fact, ruin not
to be known as extensively as onr rivals.
It is the flood-tide of fortune to be the
most extensively known.
a
Some time ago it was publicly an
nounced that a disagreement had occurred
between Senator Sumner and liis wife, but
a portion of the press at once contradicted
the story. Last week the Home Journal
settled the matter in this wise :
We have good authority for stating that
the differences bctwoc Mr. aud Mrs.
Charles Sumner, which have causod so
much unpleasant gossip and scandal, have
finally settled hy a permanent
ation, with the mutual consent and desire
of both parties and their best friends.
The direct cause of this separation is simply
the oertainty—discovered only too late—
that there exist between the parties an in
compatibility of temperament and opinion
upon certain sociul qiftstinns, which pre
cludes the possibility of their living hap
pily together as man and wife.
been
separ
The Maryland Legislature met at An
napolis on Wednesday last. Barnes Comp
ton, of Charles county, was elected Presi
dentof the Senate, and Augustus Gagaway
Secretary. Win. H. Stewart, of Baltimore,
was elected Speaker of the House, and Mil
ton Y. Kidd, of Ceeil county, Chief Clerk.
No huisineaa beyond completing the work
of organization has yet been transacted.
A call is in circulation in New Jersey,
and is receiving thousands of signatures
for th(jj*B*embling of a convention at Tren
ton, on tho 22d of January, to organize an
opposition party to the Camden and Am
boy Railroad monopoly, I
liuoltt and Turkey.
The leading diplomats of Russia recently
assembled at bt. Petersburg by comma id
of the Osar. It was a conference in re
lation to the présent aspect of the Eastern
question, aud the proper steps necessary
to be taken by Russia in order to carry
out hor long-clieriahed purposes in relatbu
to the effects of t|iu "sick man.
declares that the ultimate resnlt of that
meeting was a dotcrpiination on tho part
Russia to force Prance and tho other
Great Powers to assume some well-detin
policy with regard to the affairs of Turkdy.
The Öultan has taken tho alarm at this
movement, and has addressed an urgent
note to the French government, protesting
against the actio* or intentions of Rus
sia, and stating that Russian agents are
endeavoring to excite revolt among the
Christian subjects of the Porte. Accoi
panying this nota is a vigorous and earnest
protest on the part of Turkey against such
hostile aud unfriendly action, or the least
connivance therein, on the part of Rusb a.
No action has yet been taken on this
note by Napoleon. At least no notice
any has been made public. In the mean
time, affairs in Crete and Turkey ire
becoming more complicated. Un the 25th
and 20th of November a battle was fought
between the Christians und Turks, near
the village of Laki, in which tha lat er
were defeated with heavy loss. The posi
tion of the Sultan's Grand Visier in Ciiti
dia, in the midst of the clamor of arms
and tho cry for liberty, becomes daily
more critical. Tho Cretans caricature his
effort to solve the contest between theCross
and the Crescent, by his convoking a
packed assembly, composed chieffy
Turks and renegade Levantines. The
fever in the camp of the Christians lias
received a father impulse from the en
thusiasm evinced by the Cretan refugees
iu Greece, on the recent arrival' of King
Gorge and tho Ijiioeu Olga iu Athens.
The insurgents or revolutionists will list
to no compromise. They demand full and
entire separation and freedom from Turf
and the rule of the Sultan, anti an ineir
poration with Greece as a part of that
kingdom. In this demand.they are evi
dently strengthened by the advice of age its
of the Russian government, large numb ers
of whom arc known to be on the island
and iu daily communication with t
«urgent chiefs. Turkey has doubtles
reason to protest against the action of Rus
sia in relation to tin* affairs of Crete, put
whether that protest will be followed
any cessation of the acts complained of is
highly questionable. France cannot afford
to quarrel with Russia at this time, when
the Roman question is open and Prussia
is looming up in central Europe os a titst
class military power.
But, in addition to the vexed and dis
turbing questions arising out of the affairs
of Crete, home matters, arc troubling the
Sultan, and calling for definite action on
his part. A reform party haS sprung up
spuing tho Turks, headed by Mustapha
Pasha, who demand a thorough change in
many of the departments of the kingdom,
aud advancement in unison with the spirit
of the age. The old Turkish party are ip
posed to any change or innovation on ln
cicnt customs, and had they the power
would speedily annihilate steamers, riil
ways, and telegraphs, with all other in wo
of the "Infidel dogs." Young T
key, on the contrary, is in favor of intro
ducing all the modern European improve
ments into that country, and thus fitting!
the people to play their part iu the growl
drama which must shortly commence iu
the Old World. Tho Suita» hi endeav
ing to tread a middle patlp He is strength
ening his arnyrand navy, but in the e vil
gôveruinenfbo changes are made. Hence
the discontent meut ut home, which, added
to the war iu Crete is threatening the v
existence of the Turkish Empire in Eu
oi
cd
n
of
ot
ar
1:
°y
n
iii
<><i
by
t i<
or
ry
rope.
Russia holds the winning canis iu Iter
ainst Turkey, and must be sueci ss
e end. France will not interfere
game agi
fui in th
in the Cretan difficulty, and should the
obstinate struggle so long curried on by
the Christians in Crete end in theirobü in
ing advantageous terms, the influeuc
their example might be very - nsehiov|ius
in other provinces where the Christian
nient predominates. The Servians, Bul
garians and Montenegrins of the Slavonic
race and Greek faith arc greatly favored
by Russia. They aro all watching eager
ly the progress of the Cretan affair, and
the influence of Russia iu thht direction is
as plainly apparent as iu the island of
Candia. Turkey may protest, but she is
in the fowler's net, aud will he baggel at
last.
of
•le
Dull Times.— There is a very gc*pral
complaint of dull times, a falling elf in
trade, a scarify of money, <ic. Sorno per
sons are desponding, and predicting ptill
further prostration. We think
feeling will prevail after the first of I the
year. Every one should make it a point
to pay the amount of his indehtness, as by
so doing a healthy impetus will be given
to trade. There is no good reason why
our country should not be highly prosper
ous, as every product commands a good
price, and the laborer receives high wages.
The money market will certainly bccpuic
easier in a very short time. The amount
of gold which the Government will shortly
put in circulation will exert a very salutary
influence. The Bunks will discount more
freely, and the rates demanded for loans
must materially decline. So says the Del
aware Republican.
The steamship "Francis," Captain Har
rington, which left Baltimore for Wil
mington, N. C. , on Saturday last,
ashore on Tuesday morning, some e ght
miles north of New Inlet. All hands on
board were saved. The vessel is reported
as laying broadside on the beach, with the
sea sweeping over her, and she will pri
bly become a total wreck, although it was
supposed a portion^of her cargo may be
savod.
General Howard, It is said, prépose i to
distribute the surplus funds iu the Frecd
uien's Bureau amoriffths destitute people
of the South during the winter. The
amount remaining in the Bureau treasury
is said to be over $8,000,000.
A petition ag
any of the West Wtdia Islands has reoe ved
uumereus siguatircs in Boston.
ent
bu
I
t the annexation of
<k
1
Taxe« «I
«'•«ariea.
We hope aud e
when every dollirl
to »apport our gij^ment will bo levied
on superfluities, «d-wlieu articles of ne
eessary oonsmBpiotf 1 will bo free. That
this idea is not afchjpierieal one is abun
dantly testified iy ' the success already
achieved in this liréction by other
tries, aud uotabliMJingland. Less than
a century since etfryurticlc imported into
the United KinpUmt, and many of those
exported were burdened with high duties.
Every useful commodity, and every article
of comfort and luxury, had to pay a heavy
Stute before it Reached
rxpect to sec the day
of the revenue needed
COUll
contribution to tlw
the consumer, aid the tariff exhibited a
formidable load of unjust and oppressive
burdens. Under the spread of more liberal
ideas the taxes 1 vied by the custom laws
upon almost every article largely oonsunted
were gradually reduced or got rid of.—
Through the urdntjus and intelligent la
bors ot Cobden, Bright aud other leaders
of the Anti-corn iaw League, the princi
ple of protection which had long rillen
the British people, as it still docs our own,
was formally abandoned and disowned.
The taxes on brudstutfs were repealed,
and n great diminution was made.
Two hundred y ara ago the number of
articles charged n th taxes in Great Bri
In 1787 they were
reduced to 1,425 articles; in 182(1 to 1,
280; in 1841 to 1,062; in 1840 to 516,
and in 1858 to 4'i6.
tain numbered 1,0ii0.
tl
In the latter year
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Glad
stone, thus stated the principles that gov
ern the tax levy :
" First, to abolish altogether the duties
which are unproductive ; aud in the next
place to abolish, as far as considerations of
revenue will permit, duties
manufacture, except such as are in the
last stages as finished articles. In these
cases we have endeavored to lix tho duties
in such n way that, as a general rule,
they should not stand, as to any oluss of
goods (except silks,) higher thuu leu per
cent, on their value.
"Next; we have been desirous to lower
the duties that press on foreign articles of
food, which enter largely, if not into the
necessaries of life, at any rate into what
may be called the luxuries and eifmforti of
the mass of the people."
Still greater reductions in the number
of articles taxed have taken place ; aud
since 18(il), the British tariff retains only
nineteen article* subject to import duties.
Our own complicated and. burdensome
tariff presents a painful contrast to tbis
simplicity, with its 3,500 articles subject
to duty—or about double the number that
were ever taxed in Great Britain, oven in
her darkest days of national exclusiveness
and oppression. Y'et England raises as
great a revenue every year from customs
as docs the United States, and collects it '
far more cheaply and surely. Five great
items produced twcuty million pounds,
$ 100,000,000, moro than our whole rev
enue from customs (all source*) iu 1805,
and nearly as much af the total average
receipts of the curreut fiscal year from im
ports. These great staples are sugar, tea,
tobacco, wine and spirits—all, aavo eno or
two, articles of meru luxury or superfluity.
G reut Britain ha« a.j»qtubitiofi qbudt equal
to our own. Ns*'Ration stands mortify»
to ed of a largo revenue, since ner national f
debt is greatelby one-third than ours.— /
What is the Secret of her snpccsa'f Low /
taxes nin 1 ebéaj, prices for all the ifficcss*»/$
ncs of life. t"* — t* .
It should never li forgotten that hea
vy taxod articles expensively consumed by
the people, enhuuee the oust of those arti
cles, first, to the citent of the duty itself;
second, to the extint of forty per
premium on that duty, (as all .such taxes
are payable in gold,) third, to the extent
of the expense, delay and inconvenience
suffered by the di aler iu tho payment of
the duty ; and lastly, ou accouut of tho
discouraging efljtct of such duties upon the
importation of tho article. How many
times have we (been told, iu the tost three
years, as a reason why the merchants no
lodger keep certain articles on hand—" we •
can't afford toimport that article any more,
the duty is sqbigh." And how often aro
we reminded, when hesitating over the
frightfully ds'ar prices asked for imported
goods that the article has paid forty
fifty per cent, gold duty and cannot possi
bly be afforded any less V This enhance
ment of tho cost limits the
of articles which are of
cossity to the welfare of the
so far it is :i great injury,
den duty of the State to interfere so as to
diminish materially the comforts of the
community.. Yet we find our Govern'
ment, through the unwise aud nnstakeu
counsels of men who appear not to. com
prehend the first principle of political
omy, standing in the unparcutal relation
of an obstructionist to the commerce of the
people. By a system of inordinately high
duties, never paralleled before in this
country, we arc eut off'from using our own
resources to the best advantage, while the
Government, instead of reaping tho advan
tage which the people lose, is actually
cheating itself out of millions by pursuing
a moro reasonable system of taxation, iu
the articles subjected to customs' duties.
It appears from the last report of tin,
Commissioner of the Internal Revenue,,
that the present average tax laid by the
custom laws upon imported goods, is for
ty-eight per cent, on tfie dutiable value of
the goods. This is, every dollar of it,
paid 1/ goldThe highest average duty
•everjivied in this country before was for
ty-oi,o per cent,, and that only for a brieSf
spaci of three years. The actual duty;^«
paid for a series of years prior to 1801,
avenged only twenty and one-half per
cent on the dutiable value of the goods
imported. Is it wise to keep up, so long after
the necessities of the war aro over, this
moastrous advance of taxation, amounting,
as ore have seen, to more than one hunl
d ed per cent?— Cincinnati Commercial .
articles of
or
consumption
primary ne
îe jpeoplc, and
It. is the boun
econ
Goneral Canby, a oommander in South
Carolina, has issued an order suspending
executions end staying proceedings in all
oases arising during the war ; suspending,
sale« under foreclosure of mortgages
providing for homestead exemption.
ant
The Judiciary CnnuurHee hove reported
in favor of tho admission of Senator Thomas
to his seat. The Poaatc has pot yet aetsd
on the report.
/

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