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AS NO. 16. MIDDLETOWN, NEW CASTLE COUNTY, DELAWARE, SATURDAY MORNING, APRIL 16, 1870. YOL. 3. NEW STOVE, TIN, AND HOUSE-FURNISHING STORE. THOMAS II. BOTHWELL'S NEW BUILDING-, North Side of Main Street, 4 Building« West of Town Hall, Middletown, Delaware. Where he haa constantly on lut ml, and is pre pared to manufacture ALL KINDS OF TIN WARE, At Short Notice. Particular attention paid to ROOFING AND SrOUTING. Orders respectfully solicited and promptly atten ded to. COOK STOVES. STAR, COTTAGE, NATIONAL, CHARM, PRIZE, & VICTOR COOK. PARLOR STOVES. BOQUET BASE, GAS, BURNING BASE, DIAL, VIOLET, REVERE, UNION AIR TIGHT. Stoves suitable for stores, offices, hotels, and school houses. Orders will he received and promptly any kind of Stove that may he ordered. filled for GALVANIZED, RUSSIA, AND SHEET IRON, ZINC, , COAL HODS, SEIVES, POKERS, SHOVELS, TEA KETTLES, BAKE PANS, WAFFLE IRONS SAD IRONS, BRASS k ENAMELLED PRESERVING KETTLES, ENAMELLED SAUCE PANS. TEA BELLS, JAPANNED CHAMBER BUCKETS, SPITTOONS, WAITERS, LANTERNS, FLOUR AND PEPPER BOXES, SAND CUPS, MATCH SAFES (Cast Iron,) MOLASSES CUPS, PEACH CAN 8, ( Soldered nnd Self-Scaling ) PATENT CLOTHES FRAMES, 4c. 4c. 4c. Prompt nttention to business, moderate prices, competent workmen, nnd a determination to please, may at all times he expected by those who may favor him with their custom. THE VAPOR COOKING STOVE. No Wood, no Coal , no Stove 9 Pipe, no Ashes, no Dirt, no Wood Boxes, vo Coal Scuttle, no Kindling Wood , But a Friction Match, And the fire in full blast in half a minute, oven hot in two minute?, steak broiled in seven min utes, bread baked in thirty minutes, the lire en tinguished i Please call and examine it in operation at Thomas H. Rothwell's Stove Store, MIDDLETOWN, DEL. Sole owner of the stove for the State. Feb. 19— y moment. BAIJGH'S JR AW BONK Super Phosphate of Lime. MARK trad e 1870. SPRING FARMERS, INCREASE YOUtt CROP OF Corn, Oats, Potatoes, Wheat & Grass, At well as add to the fertility of y judicious and economical inode of MANURING. soil, by a Get the value of your outlay the first season. Obtain better filled eats and heavier grain. Make your laud permanently fertile. Over sixteen years of constant , on all crops, bos proven that Baugh's Raw Bone Phosphate may b« depended upon by Farmers. ^»'Highly Improved and Standard Warranted. For sale by agricultural dealers generally. BAUGH & SONS, MANUFACTURERS, No. DO Konti« Delaware Avenue, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 0fflee> march 12—6m ELAWARE RAIL ROAD BONDS, DELAWARE STATE BONDS, NEW CASTLE CO, BONDS, For Sale by GEO. INGRAM 4 CO. D oct. 23—tf W Citizens' STOCK. Highest market rates paid by Oct. 2»-tf GEO. W. INGRAM 4 CO. NATIONAL BANK W ILMINGTON 4 READING R. R. BONDS For sale by GEO. W. INGRAM 4 CO. Oct. 23—tf Brokers. F IRST Class Real Estate Bonds for sale by GEO. W. INGRAM 4 CO Get 23—tf AP1TALISTS are invited to call and exam ine our list of Securities before investing. Geo W. Ingram a Co. C Oct. 23—tf IDES AND TALLOW WANTED! H Bull Hides 0 cents. Sheep Pelts 75 ctl. Steer Hidee 8 cents. CeJfSkin 14 cents. Tallow 10 cents. id at above price# will be pai Not. JO-tf INGRA The M 4 GIBSON'S. MlddlUown, Del 500,000 OSAGE ORANGE PLANTS, FOR SALE, FOR HEDGING, VEKY LAUGE AND FINE. 200,000 Small FRUIT PLANTS & VINES OF THE BEST VARIETIES OF STIÏA WBERRY, RASPBERRY, BLACKBERRY, GOOSEBERRY, & GRAPE. J ASPARAGUS ROOTS, EARLY ROSE 4 CTHER SEED POTATOES For Information and Prices, apply to HENRY CLAYTON, Woodside Small Fruit Nursery, MT. PLEASANT, DEL. Feb. 5—3m Cecil Democrat, Kent News end Transcript, Delawnrcan, Del. Gazette, Republican, copy 3 months und send bill to advertiser. HOUES SUPER PHOSPHATE R THE STANDARD MANURE. MANUFACTURED BY POTTS & KLETT, Camden. Hew Jersey. The attention of Farmers is especially called to Rhodes Super Phosphate, nnd reliable manure for ;tl! .;8 for othc attested l»y au experience of fifteen years.. This long established mid standard manure is prepared expressly for DRILLING, nnd particu lar care is taken to maintain the high reputation it has obtained. is the most valuable wheat d grass, ORCHILLA GUANO. -A. -A*. A TRUE BIRD GUANO. RICH IN PH0SHPATE8 .J- ALKALINE SALTS. Substitute for Ground Raw Bones. .$30 per ton, of 2000 ihs. Price. For sale by dealers and by" YARNALL & TRIMBLE, Wholesale Agents Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delawure. murch 5—3m ODESSA NURSERIES. IHIIB Proprietors offer for Sale, for Fall plant JL ing of I8G9 or Spring of 1870, 70,000 Beach Trees of the lending Market and Family Varieties. 200,000 SMALL FRUIT PLANTS consisting of the following varieties : STRAWBERRIES, RASPBERRIES, BLACKBERRIES, GOOSEBERRIES, CURRANTS, AND GRAPE VINES. ASPARAGUS ROOTS. 300,000 OSAGE ORANGE QUICKS. One and Two Years Old. ALSO EAKLY ROSE. POTATOES, And several other leading varieiies, for seed. Apply to Oct. 16, 1869. POLK & HYATT, Or to WM. B. CROFT. Odessa, Pel. REMOVAL. T HE undersigned having removed to Main street, opposite the National Hotel, Middle town, Del. intends to devote his whole uticulion to the * GRAIN AND LIME BUSINESS. Will pay on order of Messrs. William Lea A Sons, Brandywine Mills, or Elihu Jefferson. New Castle, Del. the highest cash price fui grain, delivered at Del. R. R. or on Delaware waters. Also will fill orders for Rambo'8, White's & Kenneday's Lime In store and for Bale MORO PHILIPS' BA UGIPS RA W BO NE $ RHODES' SUPERPHOSPHATES. CLOVER AND TIMOTHY SEEDS, FLOUR, FEED, AND CORN MEAL, ^tÄ-Don't forget—opposite the National Ho tel. Middletown, Del. January 22—1870 A. T. BRADLEY. $ 10,000 Oct, 23~ Wanted on Bond and Mort gage, liberal—apply Qeo. W. Ingram * Co. I F ARM IN KENT COUNTY, MD. OF 250 ACRES, UPON NAVIGATION, For Sale upon very reasonable terms. Apply oct. JA-tf GEO. W. INGRAM 4CO. to S EASONED OAK nnd PINE WOOD, sawed and Split, delivered in town, in quantit)## to E. T- EVANS, suit, at $7 per cord, by Feb 19-lf £clftt joctrg. THE DISENTHRALLED. BY JOHN O. WHITTIER. He had bowed down to drunkeness ; An abject worshiper ; The pulse of manhood's pride had gone, Too faint and cold to stir; And he had given his spirit up To the humblest thrall ; And, bowing to the poisoned cup, He gloried in his fall. There came a change—the cloud rolled off, And light fell on his brain— And, like the passing of a dream That cometli not again, The shadow of his spirit fled, He saw the gulf before— He shuddered at the waste behind, And was a He shook the serpent's fold away, That gathered round his heart, As shakes the sturdy forest oak Its poison vine apart ; He stood erect—returning pride Grew terribly within, And conscience sat in judgment on llis most familiar sin. The light of intellect again Along his pathway shone, And reason, like a monarch, stood Upon its golden throne; The honored and the w* Within his presence came— And lingered oft on lovely lips llis once forbidden name, There may he glory in the might That treadeth nations down— Wreaths for the crimson warrior, Pride for the kingly crown ; But glorious is that triumph hour The disenthralled shall find, When evil passion boweth down Unto the God-like mind. once more. Written for the Middletown Transcript, THE ASTOR FAMILY. From the records of some of "The old merchants of New York city" we glean the following : John Jacob Astor at one period of his life peddled cakes for old German Deiter ich, and at one time he kept a store in Pearl street, just above Franklin square. The idea that Mr Astor canto to New York, from Germany, with property, is not true. in a ship commanded by old Captain Stone, who has not been dead many years. As late as January 10th, 1781), we find one of his advertisements : He came a steerage passenger J. JACOB ASTOR, At No. 81 Queen street. Next doer but one to tho FrienJs' Meet ing-house, has for sale an assortment of Pianofortes of the Newest Construction, made by the best makers in London, which he will sell on reasonable terms. He gives cash for all kinds of furs, and has for sale a quantity of Canada Beaver and Beaver Coating, Racoon Skins, and Racoon Blan kets, Muskrat Skins, &c. &c. Ho commenced advertising early. Tt was long after this date beforo he became the great merchant, and sent his ships to India. What a row he kicked up in New York in 1-808. It was at a time when the embargo of Mr. Jefferson was in full blast. Not an oyster boat was allowed to go out side of Sandy Ilook. Faney the astonish ment of the ship owners of this city, who had ships lying in the docks rotting and idlo, when they took up the Commercial Advertiser, of August 13th, 1808, and read,: "Yesterday the ship Beaver, Capt. Galloway, sailed for China." There was trouble among the merchants and ship-owners, when it became known that the ship of Mr. Astor had actually gone to sea on a loug India voyage. Why should he be favored, and no oue else? Finally it was ascertained that the sharp John Jacob had obtained a special jtermis from the President of the United sion States for his ship Beaver, navigated by 30 seamen, to proceed on a voyage to Can ton, for the ostensible object of carrying home to China a great Mandarin of China. John Jacob Astor had picked up a Chi naman in the park, got up the story, ob tained the Presidential permit, and sent his ship to sea before other merchants were aware of the mse. A rival house then wrote a letter to the President, and informed him that the great Chinese personage was no Mandarin—that ho was not even a Hong merchant, or a licensed security merchant—but only a common Chinese dock loafer, that had been smuggled out of China. It was stated that his departure from China was contrary to the laws of that country ; that when he arrived in China he would be put ashore privately from the Beaver, and very likely that his obscurity nnd low condition of life might afford him his only chanoe of avoiding a summary death. It was a dodge of Mr. Astor to make a Chinese voyage at a time when all other merchants were restrained by the embargo. Then the old Commercial- Advertiser came out and pitched into Mr. Astor. It said editorially, in reference to the strange permission of President Jefferson : " The time of granting this permit for the Beaver to aail ia remarkable. It is when a general embargo Is imposed on all onmmerce with our nearest neighbors ; when the exohsnge of dnmestio produce with Canada, New Brnnawick and the Floridas in interdicted by an armed foroe ; when the intercourse of our citizens in our own bays, rivers, and harbors, in small boats inoapable of 4 sea voyage, la subject to the most vigorous control of the Custom Rouse; nay more—tbU permission has gone into effect, when on »«count of some new, or' unnknown political necessity, all other permission which have not been car ried into effect, are rescinded. The ship Beaver is one of the most valuable, the number of men«cxposcd to peril the great est in any merchant's service, and the voy age not to the West Indies, but to the an tipodes. Let us observe the progress of this af fair ; if the trade is safe, and can be pros ecuted consistently with the public inter cuts, let ajl who aro willing engage in it, otherwise let all be restrained. Let there be an embargo or no embargo ; but let us not countenance partial dispensation from the operations of general laws.'* Next day old John Jacob Astor got aroused up, and addressed the following letter: it to or ite of To the Editor of the Commercial Ad vertiser : I observed in your paper of the 13th inst. on article inviting public atten tion to a transaction (as you state it, of a most extraordinary character) relative to the ship Beaver, and the Mandarin. If whoever wrote that article will give me his name, and if he is not prejudiced a gainst any act of the administration, nor influenced from envy arising from jealousy, he shall receive a statement of facts rela be in tive to the transaction in question, which will relieve him from the anxiety under which he appears to labor for the honor of the Government? and the reputution of all concerned. He shall be convinced that the Government has not been surprised by misrepresentations in granting permission, and that the reputation of those concerned cannot be in the slightest degree affected. By giving the above a place in your pa per, you will oblige, sir, Your humble servant, John Jacob Astob. New York, Aug 15th, 1808. Twenty years had elapsed since tho old German sold fancy goods, and even rose to the dignity of pianos, in Pearl street, near Oak. lie could now control a vast amount of trade. He never made any explanation, and the journals of the day did not spare him ; but he was realizing gold, and he knew it. lie could afford to laugh. Mis friends called upon him that night at his house, No. 220 Broadway, about the middle of tho block, where the Astor House now stands, and congratulat ed him upon his uole. The Beaver then left this port in Au gust, 1808, and made a great voyage. She returned to New York with two hundred thousand dollars more than sho left with. Sho made a Canton trip iu 1809, and again in 1810. Seme one once asked John Jacob about the largest sum of mon ey he ever made at any one time in his life. He said in reply that the largest sum of money he ever missed making was in reference to the purchase of Louisiana, in connection with De Witt Cliuton, Gov. Morris, and others. They intended to purchnse all of that province of the Empe ror Napoleon, and then to sell it to Presi dent Jefferson at the same price .charging 2| per cent, commission on the purchase. It fell through, for some trifling cause or other. Had they succeeded, Mr. Astor csiimntcd that lie should have made about 000 , 000 , 000 . His son, William B. Astor, to whom John Jacob bequeathed most of his proper ty, never made a dollar in his life, lie always stood by his father, and is prompt, untiring, and liberal to tenants, although systematic. He still keeps up certain charities that his father sustained. Old Jacob had a country-seat out of town, at Hurlgate, 80th street now, to avoid the heavy water tux. The Astor family now own six hundred acres of land iu New York City, most of it covered with costly buildings. Wm B. Astor is still hale and hearty, being about 78 or 79 years of age, and may be seen daily, walking arm-in-arm with one of his sons towards his office, in Prince street. His office is fitted up liko a banking house, and filled with clerks. When A. T. Stewart, the great mer chant first commenced in business, and be gan to operate in real estate, ho had the pecuniary assistance and advice, of his triend Wm. B. Astor. The sons of Wm. B. are John Jacob, and William ; the former about 48 to 50 years of age, resembling, it is said, his grandfather John Jacob, in build and com plexion ; with a strong, light, GermaD cast of countenance, being 0 feet high, broad shouldered, and weighing 200 lbs. He is the Astor of this generation. Wil liam, aged 40, the younger, resembles his mother, bciug of dark complexion, with black hair, he, also, is a dutiful son and as equally attentive to business as his brother. He is tall, of more agile propor tions, and weighs in the neighborhood of 160 pounds. B. S. T. Yew York, April, 1870. A firm in York, England, several years since, undertook to make a twenty-five inch telescope, something that astronomy had never accomplished. It is now nearly completed. The tube, including dew cap and eye end, is 32 feet, and its diameter at the nbject end 27 inches, and where largest, 34. The weight of tbo who'e in strument is nine tons. The object glass has an aperture of 25 inches nearly, and its vocal length is 29 feet. The full illu minating power of this telescope is nearly three times that of the telescopes at Har vard College Observatory and Pulkowa, St. Petersburg. A oitizen of Bnrnstable, Mr. Joseph Coddman, has named his first son Cape, so that his name and place of nativity may be both told at once. Scientific Department. NO INTERVAL SIOLTEV MAS*. The geologists are in trouble. They canuofc settle the foundation principles of their favorite science. After a long and hard struggle between the aqueous and igneous theories of the earth's formation, it was generally supposed that the igneous had won the day, at least so far as relates to the order of their worship. If anything was supposed to be settled in geology, it was that the centre of the earth has been, or is, in a molten state, and that the gran ite rocks are unstrutiûcd, and give evidence of being formed under great pressure and intense heat. Earthquakes and volcanoes were referred to as proofs of this great in ternal heat, and the protrusion of trap rock as a proof of the molten state. On this granite as a solid foundation, the stratified rocks were supposed to rest, though of necessity the order is generally disturbed by the long action of subterra nean forces. But the foundation seems at last falling through. The aqueous theory has wen a new triumph, and is driving its rival from the field. Granite is found to bo not of igneous, hut of aqueous formation. Some years ago a Mr. Evan Hopkins, of Eng land, broached a uew theory, and attemp ted to prove, on scientific principles, that g'ranito was formed not horizontally, but vertically, and not by heat and pressure, but by solution and magnetism, speculations at first attracted little atten tion, and excited indeed much derision, but they have gradually attained the as sent of many masters in the science. Prof. Thompson, by rigid mathemati cal reasoning from well-known physical laws, also proved that the existence of a liquid ocean in the interior of the earth was simply impossible. He declared it to be a physical necessity that "the iuterior must be eveu more rigid than the superfi cial parts. Leading geologists are frankly surren dering the old theory, and Prof. Ansted, in a paper read before the British Associ ation in 1869, says:—-"Geologists until recently, have spoken of granite as a pri mitive rock, as the nucleus of the earth, and as having been from time to time erupted, playing an important part in the general disturbances by which the general framework of the earth is supposed to have been constructed. The observations of Daubrce and Sorby show that all true granite has been elaborated with water, under great pressure, at a temperature be low melting heat : that it has neither been ejected nor has it formed a framework. There aro granites of all ages and of many kinds. Numerous observations show that granite alternate with and passes into strat ified rocks, and must iu such cases be stratified rock, and that its production does not necessarily involve destruction and obliteration of all tho stratified rocks with which it is associated. This view of the nature of granite will greatly affect the theories of geology." This is no longer a matter of theory, but of demonstration. Granite can not have an igneous origin. Chemists testify that the laws of chemical action disprove it. The presence of black lead in granite and gneiss is inconsistent with melting heat, for bluok lead is pure carbon, and would have beeu reduced to ashes by heat ; and iu turn would havo also reduced the mica and hornblende, as carbon always operates on silicates in blast furnaces. The chemists also testify that if the gran ites were once in a melted state, the mag netic iron ore in them would have united with tho silicates, forming a vitreous in stead of a crystaline rock. Attempts have been made to resolve granite by heat into what was regarded as its original state, but they failed utterly. It would not melt ; its crystals gradually decomposed, or turned into black glass, confirming tho opinions of the chemical critics. The laws of gravity also bear witness a gainst the igneous origin. As the Annual of Scientific Discovery says:—" If granite were once in a molten condition, then, as it cooled in the first place, quartz must havo crystalised out, and would have sunk down through tho still molten mass, while feldspar and mica must have crysta lised at a much later stage of cooling, as the necessary consequence of their differ ent degrees of fusibility. As a last and conclusive stage of proof that granite is of aqueous and not of ig neous origin, chemists have succeeded in producing feldspar, the base of granite, from solutions of kaolin and alkaline sili cates in heated water, and as it is generally conceded that mica and quartz, the other principal ingredients, are aqueous deposits, the demonstration may be regarded as complete. The science of geology, therefore, will need a thorough reconstruction. If the igneous origin of granite is given up, the idea of a molten mass at the earth's centre will also be abandoned. If this intense oentral heat be exploded the argument for a gradual cooling of the earth from fire mist will limp badly, and the Laplace the ory of physioal devcloperaent will lose all probability. And, still further, if the granites are not the most ancient forma tions, but are often of modern dates, in termingled with rock of the secondary or even tertiary period, it may be necessary to make long deductions from geological time-tables. On the whole, we may safely conclude that it is not wise for geologists to dis credit Moses, or to cavil at tho oredulity of Christians, till they have built some foundation for their science on which it can rest securely. IVe may add, also, His that faint-hearted theologians, who have lost their faith in inspiration, because of scientific difficulties, may take heart again, and believe that Moses is a more reliable teacher than Lycll or Huxley.— Hem. Lincoln. Tim Column of Mioxetic Ltairr.— Prof. J. D. Steele, writing about the newspaper-story of a terrific column of magnetio light, shooting out from the sun toward the earth, explains its origin thus : "It has been known fo» some time that, during a total eclipse, red flames were seen to play about the edge of the moon. Dur ing the eclipses of 1808 and I860 it was definitely settled that they aro entirely disconnected from the moon, and were vast tongues of fire, darting out from the sun's disk. By observations with the spectroscope, and also by means of the wonderful photographs of the sun taken by Do la Rue during the eclipse of 1860, it was discovered that those fire-mountains consisted mainly of burning hydrogen gas. This was precious information to secure in the midst of the excitement and novelty, and in brief duration of a total eclipse. It did not, however, satisfy scientific men. For two years Mr. Lockyer, aided by a grant from Parliament to construct a su perior instrument, had been experiment ing in order to detect these flames at oth er times than at the rare oocurrenoe of a total eclipse. On the 20th of October, 1868, he obtained a distinct image of one of the prominences, which he afterward traced entirely around the sun. Astron omers can, therefore, now study these flames at any time. The results of ob servation now being taken show that storms rage upon the sun with a violence of which we can form no conception. Hur ricanes sweep over its surface with terrific violence. Vast cyclones wrap its fires in to whirlpools, at the bottom of which out earth could lie, like a boulder in a volca no. Huge flames dart out to enormous distances, and fly over the sun with a speed greater than that of earth itself through space. At one time a cone of fire shot out 80,000 miles, and then died away, all in ten minutes time. Beside such awful convulsions, the mimic display of a terrestrial volcano or earthquake sinks into insignificance. There is nothing in these phenomena to alarm us. They have, in all probability, happened constantly for ages past. That we have now means of investigating their nature and measur ing their height and velocity furnishes no cause of anixety. Rumors of these discov eries have crept into tko papers, and, ex aggerated by repeated copying and sensa tioual additions, have given rise to these mysterious and uncalled-for predictions." Hay sprinkled with chloride of lime, and left for one hour in a closed room, will remove the smell of paint. "Ever of Thee." —A sad story is con nected with the name of the writer of the beautiful song, "Ever of Thee," which has been sung and admired by so many iu this conntry and in Europe, Foley Hall was a gentleman by birth and education. Wealthy in his own right, with a largo expectation, he led a heedless life—not chosing his associates, but allow ing himself to bo drawn into the society of the vicious. His property soon disap peared, and he was left without resources sufficient to buy his daily bread. His mu sical talents had been lightly cultivated, but, as ho never needed them, he scarcely knew to what degree they could be made available. In his distress, however, he wrote his charming song. "Ever of Thee." A London publisher gave him one hundred dollars for it; but that a mount, with such a spendthrift, would not last long. He wrote other songs, but tho money not coming as fast as he wished, in a weak moment he forged the name of his publisher, and although every effort was made—even by tho publisher—to save him, it was of no use, and poor Foley Hall went to Newgate, and died broken-hearted before bis trial came on. Lesions for Fever. —Says that walking cyclopedia of health knowledge, Dr. Hall: —When persons are feverish and thirsty beyond what is natural, iudicatcd in some cases by a metallic taste in the mouth, es pecially after drinkiug water, or by a whi tish appearence of the greater part of the surface of the tongue,- one of the best "coolers," internal or external, is to take a lemon, cut off the top, spriukle over it some leaf sugar, working it downward into the lemon with a spoon, and then suck it slowly, squeezing the lemon and adding moro sugar as the acidity increases from being brought up from a lower point. In valids with feverishness may take two or three lemons a day iu this manner with the most marked benefit, manifested by sense of coolness, comfort and invigora tion, time, nary "supper" of summer, would give many a comfortablo night's sleep and awakening, after rest and invigoration, with an appetite for breakfast, to which they are strangers who will have their cup of tea for supper, or "relish" and "cake," and berries, or peaches and cream. A lemon or two thus takcu at "tea as au entire substitute for the ordi The male citizens of Zanesville, Ohio, have petitioned that women may be inves ted with all the rights of citizenship, and also with all its duties, namely : that they be liable to milita'ry, jury and road duty and that if a woman refuse or neglect to provide for the suppqrt of her husband and family, a divorce shall be granted, award ing alimony to the .husband. Ürç farmer. lor the Middletown Transcript. WOOL» ASHES. Practical farmers assert that leached 1 ashes are preferable as a manure to un leached. Various reasons may be assign ed for this—quick lime is always mingled with the contents of the lcach-tub to pre pare the potash fur dissolving the fat, oth erwise more pcnrltt.-h or anla>i*atus would' result, and soap could not result from such ley. The remuant of caustic potash that cannot be leached economically, is more potcut in preparing plant food than the whole would have been if a mere salt of potash, mingled with the insoluble sili cates and phosphates which always abound in the ashes of hard wood. Some educa ted men know enough of chemistry to en able them to doubt the importance of lime in the above relation, although backed by the experience of all their grandmothera and the opinion of an expert—any expla nation of the above to such is superfluous, and to the uneducated such authority is sufficient. Again, many wiseacres suppose that a mere mixture of strasfurth or other salts of potash with phosphates, &c. will make an equivalent for wood ashes as a manure —and another popular error is fostered by scribblers in agriculture of late—that sea salt and quick lime liberate soda, when mingled—thus not only fostering a false notion about salts, whether of potash or soda, hut deceiving the iguoraut with tho apparent relation of soda as a manure, from its similarity to potash in producing soap and glass. Salts of soda may be substituted for potash with the same sort of result that attends the substitution of the jack ass for the horse, except upou asparagus and sea plants. Pound cake is not a mere mixture of eggs, butter, fleur, Ac. nor would the same effect result if each was swallowed separately; moreover the cook deserves some credit when an unusually wholesome cake results, even with the best materials. Unleached ashes like sharp tools, may not be safely used by children; nevertheless corn may be thus manured in the hill, and perhaps tarred and rolled therein, especially during a wet season, when the rain dilutes it so as to nourish the plant, but seed potatoes thus treated are inevitably destroyed, however valuable the trongest ashes when sprink led over the manure, especially if musty. One man rolled his seed potatoes in guano, and the result was an extraordinary crop* whereas, another using the 6amo guano in the same way and upon similar soil, failed to produce a single plant, bccauao in the latter case the potatoes were freshly cut when the guano was applied; whereas, in the former caso they were wilted for a week. An experienced orchardist direct ed my attention to one of my dwarf pears* the stem of which was covered with moss and rough bark, and advised a scrubbing with ashes and lime or strong ley. I cau endorse this prescription, as I used it with great success in rejuvenating many pear trees—slushing the concentrated mixture freely over the whole stem and its base, One of these, a fine Dutchess, had so far depreciated, that its fruit did not exoced much tho size of a hens' egg—ho actu ally pronounced it a Doyenne—but now it excels in producing large and highly ool ored fruit. David Stewart, M. D. Port Penn, April 5, 1870. DEEP V.. SHALLOW PLOWING. The Milford paper recommends shallow plowing for light land. Where there is much sand it is doubtless best, as deep plowing is best for heavier clay land. It says— "The experience of all good Dela ware farmers is, that shallow plowing on light soils will produce heavier crops of grain than deep plowing, and our north friends, generally, (who have settled iu lower Delaware,) would do well to be guided by their advice," But Deluwurc farmers arc not tho only ones whose experience has taught them that shallow plowing is best for light land. A Mr. Hart, of Litchfield county, Con necticut, recently made the following statement before tho Farmers' Club, which was quite a stunner t > the advocates of deep plowing. 11c said : " My brother plowed shallow on fine land and had 101 bushels and a peck of shelled corn to the acre; when he plowed over seven inches he did not get sixty bushels of cars. On other laud, by deep, culture, he got but twenty-five bushel*, per acre, where shallow plowing had giv him seventy-five. AVhen ho plowed four and a half inches deep he had a dou ble crop." The above statement would have boon more satisfactory if the person giving It had described the quality of tho land and the mode of culture. AVhat do we un derstand by "fine land," or "other land." AVe cannot tell whether it was clay, sand, or loam. AA'hatover it was, it must have been "fine" land to produce over one hun dred bushels per acre, and tho result was not due simply to shallow plowing. ein : "Ticket, sir!" said a railroad conduc tor, passing through one of th® trains tho other day, to a passenger. " My face ia my ticket," replied the other, a little vexed. "Indeed!" said tho conductor, rolling back his wristbands, "well, my orders are to puuoh all tiokets passing over this road."